Discuss about the Public Administration for Budgeting and Human Resource.
Public administration is a field of study that primarily focuses on organizational management and executive action. It also entails the practical implementation of policies and statues in an executive and mandated order (Lane, 2005). For this reason, public administrators are expected to offer government requisite programs and tender that exhibit value and service to the public. Public administration is characterized by six key elements including ethics, statistics, policy analysis, organizational theory, budgeting, and human resource. As such, it is evident that public administration encompasses a broad array of aspects making it a multidisciplinary element of management.
Hierarchy of Southwest Airline
Overview of the Company
The Southwest Airline is a collective air transport organization that primarily deals in cargo and human transit within the United States with possible expansion being forecasted to other nations. The Southwest airline brags of being the largest low-cost carrier service provider in the world with an important market share in the flight sector. As a publicly traded company, Southwest Airline has a competent workforce. The Southwest airline deals with approximately 3,900 customers on a daily basis with peak travel days registering an even higher number. The franchise has fully tendered and traded in 98 destinations within the United States. It is worth noting that the Southwest airline has a wide operating base with an approximated fleet size of 713 aircraft.
Hierarchy of Southwest Airline
Hierarchy is defined as the structuring, arrangement and distribution of powers, responsibilities, and authority with the primary objective of enhancing efficient and coordinated flow of work in the organization (Robbins & Coulter, 2015). The organization assumes a vertical structure in conducting its operations. For instance, authority streams from the top management to middle management and lastly, to lower management. The organization top level management is responsible for the organizational well –being such as ensuring that employees are satisfied with their work and they are realizing the company strategic objectives. Despite the fact that the top management is responsible for making all decisions in the organization, they often seek approval from the junior staffs. The top management including the board of directors understands the importance of employee engagement in decisions that affects their employees. For this reason, they often seek their approval before implementing any decision to ensure that employees feel valued by the company. The figure below highlights the organization hierarchy.
Figure 1: Southwest Airline hierarchy.
Management System of Southwest Airline
Management system is described as the institutionalized framework that encompasses all policies, mandates, duties and tasks to ensure that the strategic objectives of the organization are realized (Griffin, 2010). Notably, the Southwest airline has since inception organized its management system to maintain its competitiveness in the airline industry. As such, it uses an ISO certified systems that are characterized by various aspects of quality management, social accountability and information security management systems (ISMS). Below is a summarized chart of the management system cycle of the company.
Figure 2: Southwest Airline Management System
Role of Management
It is important for organizations to appreciate and acknowledge the essential roles played by management on effective work process. Ideally, management forms the backlog of all organizational processes and hence there is a lot of essence accredited to it (Pfiffner & Presthus, 2009). Some of the fundamental role that organization management performs includes planning the organizational flow of processes, organizing activities of the organization, staffing objectives, and decision-making process. These functions are crucial in sustaining the competitiveness of the company in the airline industry.
Flow of Communication at Southwest Airline
The communication cycle and flow are vital elements within an organization because they depict the level of effectiveness of management. The communication cycle is categorized into five including downward communication, upward communication, lateral communication, diagonal communication, and external communication (Boateng & Nikoi, 2004). These communication strategies are used by various organizations to communicate with employees. Southwest Airline makes of upward communication style. According to Wilson (2010), upward communication is that which moves from lower levels to the highest level. As such, subordinates are actively involved in decision making and results in a loyal workforce. Southwest airline in its strategic plan cites the use of upward cycle to ensure that they have a loyal subordinate as well as ensure equitable relations.
In conclusion, management plays an essential role in enhancing the competitiveness of an organization. It is their duty to plan and coordinate all the functions of the organization to ensure that things are running smoothly. Besides, communication is essential in engaging employees in issues affecting the organization. The use of upward communication strategy by Southwest Airline makes employees feel valued and respected.
Boateng, K., & Nikoi, E. (2014). Collaborative Communication Processes and Decision Making in Organizations. Hershey, PA: IGI Global.
Griffin, Ricky W. Fundamentals of Management: Core Concepts and Applications. Boston, Mass: Houghton Mifflin, 2007. Print.
Lane, J. (2005). Public Administration & Public Management : The Principal-Agent Perspective. London: Routledge.
Pfiffner, J. M., & Presthus, R. V. (2009). Public administration. New York: Ronald Press.
Robbins, S. P., & Coulter, M. K. (2015). Management.Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Wilson, G. L., Goodall, H. L., &Waagen, C. L. (2010).Organizational communication. New York: Harper & Row.