Discuss about the Public Health System and Policy.
The entire governments of different nations of the world are battling with the growing public health issues. There are various kinds of dreadful diseases rapidly spreading among the public and cause to severe issues to the government as these increase the mortality rate among the public. The core reasons for the growing public health issues are mainly undisciplined life style of the people and bad food habit, which is the result of the urbanization and increasingly growing among the public with the growing urbanization (Murray & Battista, 2009).
Australia is also battling with the increasing public health issue like other developed nations of the world. In Australia obesity is emerging as the most alarming issue that catches the attention of the public health department of Australian government and increases the concern of the government. In Australia, there are almost 63.4% people are suffering from severe obesity problems, so that invites many other dreadful diseases such as various types cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, blood sugar, diabetes, cancer and much more ("Shocking Statistics That Illustrate Australia's Obesity Problem", 2016). From the current statistical report, it is perceived that not only the adult people but the children and adolescents are also in huge numbers suffering from obesity, which increasing the concern of the public health department.
The overweight refers to the body condition while a person's body weight is ten to twenty percent higher than the normal body weight of the people. Similarly, the obesity is a body condition where a person body weight is above twenty percent in comparison to the normal body weight (Miller, 2010). Moreover, the morbid obesity refers to the body condition where the people are suffering from excessive overweight, and the body weight of the person is more than 50% to 100%. In Australia, the cardiovascular diseases are emerging as the main killer, and the obesity is a prevalent cause of cardiovascular diseases ("Shocking Statistics That Illustrate Australia's Obesity Problem", 2016). For these reasons, the government has applied several different types of strategies to prevent the obesity. In this report, the light will be shed on the obesity issue of this country and the government policies and health system structure to control this major public health issue.
Describing Public Health and its History
The public health system can be determined as per the Australia Health system indicates the appropriate mitigation of the issues regarding the health system that is constructed for the purpose and the growth of the appropriate health contribution (Orlowski et al., 2013). It thereby also helps in considering the regular health care and the regular diagnostic testing which is carried out to create the enhancement in the healthcare process and thereby the appropriate treatment systems can be generated. As per the context regarding the clinical healthcare and the patients, there are two different components that seem to be involved in a broader context. Various legislative, regulatory and the funding arrangements are considered which is undertaken for the involvement of the multiple providers regarding the consideration of the healthcare system (Frieden, Dietz, & Collins, 2010). According to the WHO i.e. World Health Organization, the various involvement of the multiple providers of healthcare are considered whose primary purpose is to promote, restore and maintain the organization of healthcare with providing various facilities regarding the maintenance of health. The quality of the services provided depicts the enhancement of the health regarding the view of depicting a good health system and thereby all the health care issues must be depicted with depicting the needs of the people. The satisfaction of the people or the general public must be provided for the enhancement of the context represented as the common health varies from the mechanism and thereby the common elements are depicted with considering the views that are represented for the enhancement of the workforce as discussed. For the purpose of the medical safety and the maintenance of the public health, the trained workforce must be represented by the development and the enhancement of the facilities provided must be aligned appropriately with depicting all the communities of the general public (Dean, 2016). The considerations are undertaken as per the general health care system which helps in depicting all the required values for the enhancement of the medical practitioners and thereby the health professionals are depicted with the involvement of the nurses, other health and the aligned practitioners which are indicated regarding the context considered. This helps in delivering the quality services which includes the primary and the emergency health services that are depicted for the palliative care undertaken by the government of Australia. It thereby also depicts the clear history and the description of the public health services which must be provided to create the appropriate alignment provided by the government of Australia.
Identifying Key Issues in Current Public Health Policy and Practice
As port h structure regarding the history depicted, there are various issues or the challenges that are faced by the government of Australia which is depicted regarding the funding and the services provided regarding the healthcare. The important issues that are depicted in this context are described below vividly which are:-
- The changing and the variations I the pattern of the demography ad the diseases patters must be depicted regarding the consideration of the aged population and the burden regarding the chronic illness which seems to be growing widely in the country of Australia (French & Sherwood, 2011).
- The increment in the cost and the challenges regarding the expenses are depicted with depicting the advancement in the medical technology and science, and thereby it ensures the transparent, comprehensive and the appropriate accessing of the health strategies (Sargent, 2011).
- Problems that seems to be related to the health workforce supply and distribution that are depicted regarding the health and thereby the concerns are undertaken regarding the current health policies that are depicted in this context.
- Uncertainty regarding the public health is depicted which indicates the urban planning problems. This thereby indicates the issues regarding the children which seem to be belonging to the rural and the issues regarding the healthcare are depicted in a very large way (Connelly, Duaso, & Butler, 2007).
- The role regarding the urban planning depicts the indication of the challenges which are faced in the context of the medical healthcare. Furthermore, the issues regarding the bureaucratic policies are depicted with indicating the health designing of the health care system.
Apart from all the points mentioned in the above challenges, there are other various issues that are confronted by the government of Australia regarding the health care. The issues also indicate the d=funding and the delivery of the health care problems that are depicted for the growth of the health care facilities. The national leadership issue is also depicted with depicting the inappropriate healthcare and thereby the challenges regarding the indigenous communities are depicted regarding the facilities for which the establishment of the targeting population is depicted (Brennan, Kemner, Donaldson, &Brownson, 2015). It also helps in depicting the issues that are indicated with the creating an inappropriate response towards the challenges generated and thereby the most indigenous communities thrive of these facilities regarding the health care. Henceforth the issues that are also depicted help in generating the issues that are depicted in this context and thereby the considerations are undertaken accordingly regarding the health care issues.
State, National and International Health Systems Structure and Funding Models
Australia has the most comprehensive, accessible and affordable health care system in the world. The government has taken many steps to enhance the health care system in the country. The Commonwealth Department of ageing and health promotes good health as well as ensures all people have access to health services (Baghbanian, Hughes, &Khavarpour, 2011). The Commonwealth has built a broad policy of financing and leadership in the health care and focuses on the areas of national information, research, and public health management while the territories and states are responsible to deliver health services in public sector and regulation of health workers in the private and public sectors. The psychiatric hospital and acute public services are delivered by territories and states which include child and mental health, environmental programs, dental health and school health. The nongovernment sector, consumers, and all government levels play a significant role in funding and providing are to older people (Willis, Reynolds, &Keleher, 2012). The Commonwealth government finance and regulates the aged care and provided by the non government sector. The states and territories and commonwealth funds and administers community care such as home help, transport and delivering meals.
The local government also plays a crucial role in providing health care services such as improving the sanitation and monitoring water quality, hygiene and food safety. The health system of Australia is one of the best systems in terms of both efficiency and effectiveness (Lin, Smith, & Fawkes, 2007). The private and public health care services includes range of regulatory mechanisms:
- The government of Australia develops national rules and policies for the health care services sectors
- The local government and state and territory are responsible to manage and deliver quality health services as well as maintaining health relationship with the health care workers in the hospitals
- The private practitioner includes consultant physicians, general practitioners, and specialists.
The private health insurance rebate, pharmaceuticals scheme, and Medicare are the national subsidy schemes funded by the government. Medicare levy and taxes helps the government to develop their health care system and through private financing such as health insurance. The national healthcare system main aim is to provide quality health care services and access to the health care at no cost or an affordable cost (Healey, 2009). The NSW health includes local health districts, health organizations, and statutory health organizations.
Description and Comparison of the Issues
The obesity problem is increasingly emerging as the most alarming issue of Australia, where around 63.4% people of the total census are suffering from severe obesity problems. As per the current statistical reports published by the government, there is almost two out of three adult population are suffering from severe obesity issue. Furthermore, the obesity rate among the Australian public is alarmingly increasing over the years, which is perceived from the reports where it is observed that currently the rate of obesity within the country has been increased almost 10% higher in comparison to the 1995 census, which is even increasing more concern to the public health department (Blanck& Collins, 2015). Besides this, as per report, the children are also suffering from the obesity and related diseases like diabetes, blood sugar, cancer, etc. which increasing the concern of the public health. According to the current report, there is every one child among four in this nation suffering from obesity which is 25% of a total number of children. Not only the males but females are also suffering from obesity, however, as per the male are more obese than the women the statistic is 70.8% male adult are obese whereas, 56.3% women are obese. It is perceived that maximum males above 45 years old are suffering from morbid obesity, which is considered as a serious body condition and the possibility of cardiovascular diseases are increasing alarmingly in this condition. Besides this, it is observed that the people from the remote places or outer regions are more obese in comparison to the people who reside in the cities (Bhuyan et al., 2015). The statistic shows that the difference is 15%. And the key reason is increasingly growing urbanization, the urban unruly life style and dreadful food habits among the suburb people are the main cause of obesity among them. The obesity itself a dreadful disease, which invites a lot of other dangerous diseases like hypertension, blood sugar, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, etc. therefore, the obesity cause of increasing mortality rate of the nation and thus main concern of the public health department of the government. Moreover, in this context, the government is trying to develop efficient policies to prevent the obesity rate of the country.
Analyzing Health Policies
In order to control obesity, the Australian government has implemented many regulations, rules, and policies. The government has taken many steps and implemented policies to keep the country in track (Holtz, 2008). The steps that have been taken under eat well policy are as follows:
- Managing partnerships
- The development of nutrition policy
- The strategic implementation of EWA and NATSINSAP
- The appropriate allocation of resources
- Promoting changes in health care sector
- Influencing the social policies
- Addressing the barriers to the and healthy foods
Fruits and Vegetables
- The promotion of healthy fruit and vegetables
- Addressing the structural factors that influence the consumption of vegetables and fruit
Maternal and Child Health
- Improvement of the nutrition for the pregnant women
- Promoting breastfeeding and improving nutrition for infants
Research and Development
- Investment in the research for healthy nutrition
- Investment in innovation and private sector
Evaluation and Monitoring
- Evaluating EWA
- Monitoring food and national nutrition
There are many policies that are implemented by the government such as Food and Nutrition Policy and Health Star Rating system, Marketing in Australia of Infant Formulas, National Preventative Health Strategy, Food Regulation 2010 under food act 2003,S Healthy weight, Australian National Breastfeeding Strategy, Nutrition health and related claims standard, National Primary Health Care Strategic Framework, Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code, Food Regulation 2002 (Moodie, Daube, & Carnell, 2009). The government requires a hard policy to tackle public health threats which will help to enhance the life of the people. Some of the examples that helped in the promotion of healthy life are advertisement ban of tobacco, taxation, and smoke-free environment. The policies will help to prevent obesity, but it should not be directly aimed at the eating behaviors. The steps that have been taken by the government are as follows:
- Establishment of "Australian National Prevention Health Agency."
- Investing in "National Partnership Agreement on Prevention Health."
- Social campaigns to encourage people to adopt safe and healthier lifestyle
- The administration of clinical rules and guidance for health care providers
The government has made efforts and getting a good response with the development of healthcare infrastructure and providing quality health care services (Whitney &Rolfes, 2011).
The increasing obesity rate in Australia enhances the concern of the public health department of the country so that the government along with the public health department has taken several important steps as per the preventing strategies of the obesity of the government. Obesity is not only in Australia but the problem of almost the entire developed and developing country (Baghbanian, Hughes, &Khavarpour, 2011). Therefore, all the national and international bodies related to the public health are trying to develop efficient policies to minimize the obesity issue. And all the organizations have to work jointly to prevent the issues and alert people about the dreadful effect of the health hazards.
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