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Qualitative Research In Health Care: London

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Question:

Describe about the Qualitative research in health care for London?
 
 

Answer:

Briefly describe the health issue of the study’s focus? 

The health issue of this research article is breast cancer. Researcher Beaver et al. (2009) have explored the views of breast cancer patients and breast care nursing experts on telephonic record after breast cancer treatment.

What is the significance of the study? 

Follow up meetings after breast cancer treatment are often short with limited opportunities to meet-up psycho-social requirements and information. Though, the UK national guidelines have suggested that women detected with breast cancer can access expert BCNs for support and suggests. From prior researches the researchers have identified that the required information are not adequately met during routine follow-up meetings for breast cancer. Patients feel reluctant to enquire about associated queries in clinics. Unmet instruction requirements can exist for various years after the breast cancer diagnosis, which is the time while instruction form care professional has decreased. Evidences are present on nurse-led follow-ups via telephone, which is an efficient approach to offer care in oncology. Till date very less research has been focused on the function of telephonic record for breast cancer affected women. Therefore, they have decided to design a random control trial study, where they can compare conventional clinical follow-up with telephonic follow-up by expert BCNs.

 

Overview of research design

What was the aim of the research?

The aim of the research is to compare conventional clinical follow-up with telephonic follow-up by expert BCNs, in order to evaluate the efficacy of the telephonic follow-up after breast cancer treatment.

The researches have used qualitative research design in order to interview 28patient participants and four BCNs. The researchers have used content analysis method to evaluate the interview information.

What research design did the researchers use? Was it appropriate? Why or why not? 

The main aim of this research is to explore and illustrate the patients’ comments and the views of BCNs on telephonic follow-up. Therefore, selection of qualitative design is very much important. The participants were interviewed and these interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed with the help of content analysis. Qualitative research method includes descriptions and not calculations (Creswell, 2003). Applying this method in the mentioned research study helped the researchers to enrich quantitative data, which had been gathered previously during primary trial to evaluate the information deeply, how the participants and expert nurses observed telephonic follow-up.  Qualitative information offers a detailed and rich picture about what the participants convey, why they act in certain manner and their point of views regarding a particular action. Few components of qualitative research are credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability (Cho, 2006). Credibility improves through long interaction with participants during collection of data. Transferability achieves through specified description of research process so that the readers can check whether data can be transmitted to different setting (Bassett, 2004).  Dependability is analyzed through reliability, such as: checking numbers. In case of confirmability, reliability categories are used, for example: raw data (data examination, reduction process, data synthesis, reconstruction, themes, structuring categories, process notes etc.  

 

Sampling

Who were the study participants?

There were 374study participants randomized to hospital and telephonic follow-up by the expert nurses. Out of them 191patients were randomized to telephonic follow-up and 173 received telephonic intervention with no deviations from research protocol. Patient identification numbers were selected randomly. After written consents were received from the participants, 39participants were sent participation letters and out of them 34agreed to take part in the study (Beaver, Williamson & Chalmers, 2010). Among them 6women discontinued and finally 28interviewes were carried out.  Four nursing experts were selected for this research study all were agreed to take part in this research study.

What are the inclusion and exclusion criteria of the sample? Why is it important to have these criteria identified before recruitment? 

It is important to select inclusion and exclusion criteria prior initiating the research study. This is because inclusion and exclusion criteria help researchers to precise their literature search in order to support their current study with evidences (Srinivasan, 2002). Not only that these criteria also help them to take decision on which particular topic they should focus on to carry out the current research study. Suppose, in this research study the articles which they have selected for evidences were limited from the year 1986 to 2008, English literatures and women participants, who were affected with breast cancer and under hospital follow-ups and also expert nurses dealing specifically with breast cancer. According to the researchers prior studies have already mentioned different aspects associated with breast cancer treatment and follow ups, but no proper randomized control study has been designed in order to evaluate the efficiency of telephonic hospital follow-ups compared to conventional clinical follow ups, after the treatment of breast cancer.

What sampling technique was employed in this study? Was the sampling technique appropriate for the research design? Why or why not? 

Random sampling technique was employed for this research study. An unsystematic sample of almost 20% of the participants who received phone follow up during the research study was selected with the help of computerized system. Thus applicable patient identification numbers were selected randomly. This is significant because random selection eliminates systematic bias (Dattalo, 2010).

How was the sample size determined? Was it appropriate and why? 

The sample size was randomized to telephonic or hospital follow-up. They have asked provide consent. Participants who were willing to take part in this research study have reverted with proper consent and finally 28partcicipants have participated along with four breast care nurses.  This approach was very much significant because signed consent letters provide the information that participants were not forced to take part in the research study.

 

Collection of data

How was the data collected?

Beaver and his colleges conducted a clinical study to check the effectiveness of telephonic follow-up which is done after the breast cancer management. Here, the researcher intended to discuss about the data collection process utilized in the given study. According to the information, among the 374 patient, along with telephonic and hospital follow up, 173 are going through intervention via telephonic media. In addition to this, a special predesigned computer programming is employed which supports the author to chose 20% of the entire sample and among them 39 are received letter of invitation. Further, 87% of selected 39 people that is 34 are agreed to involve in the study but because of some unexpected reason out of 34, finally 28 patients are participated. Here, the average of the participating subjects’ age is 61 (Paynter, 2010).

Was the data collection method appropriate for the study question and the research design? Why / why not?

The collection methodology progressed including two distinct group, these are patient and other is nurse associated with breast cancer care. The question which are to be asked  during the interview by the researcher is composed in a such way  that  it reflects the importance of telephonic follow-up after breast cancer surgery.  In order to make sure that the objectives of data collection are appropriately fulfilled and the method would also prominent. Questions are involves the participant’s opinion as per nurses engagement in the place of doctor, also their feeling about the telephonic intervention. The participants also asked advantages and disadvantages of telephonic intervention. Thought-provoking question are also organized for the nurses also like their opinion in this type of follow-up in place of direct facing to the patient. The duration of each intervention is half an hour to one hour for breast cancer patient where in case of nurse associated with breast cancer care is 90 minutes approximately (Goodman et al. 2013).

What measures were or were not taken to ensure rigor?

In order to go to the topic in depth and as per data collection view various significant elements are there like rigor and these are cultured or rather measured by various clinical variables as well as socio-demographical point of view.

 

Analysis of data

Identify and describe the data analysis? Was it appropriate?

In a clinical study analysis of data is one of the most significant parts. Depending upon the proper clarification of data researchers can get the optimum resultant and make the decision, based on the application of analysis method relating to content of manifest. Coded are expressed in the transcripts border and preparing of code book followed by data-analysis which is grouped by word version of Microsoft collaboration (Paynter, 2010). Summarization of collected and analyzed data is done by this method and for standardization of coding researchers is separately transcripted. Researchers who are associated with qualitative analysis suggest the various measurements in order to confirm the rigour of the trial obviously for bios free as well as appropriate analysis structure.

What were the findings?

Comprehensive finding after prominent analyzing of data is positive which is obtaining by telephonic intervention with patient and nurses associated with breast cancer care. However, some negative points are there after comparing both the intervention with specialists and patients who are suffering from breast cancer. Researchers are able to find out some significant factor which greatly influences the whole clinical study of this telephonic intervention. In case of patient these are satisfaction, consistency, standardizing, designing structure and incorporation of face in the telephonic intervention. There are some vital element also derived from the intervention of specialist nurses which are well-being of the patient, requirement of meeting, growing skill and above all the preference of the patient (Kamath, 2009). 

Can the study findings be used in other settings? Why / why not?

As the patient is fundamental basis of any type of health care system, so the satisfaction of patient is always be the key factor of this scientific study also. In this clinical trial this theory is also applicable (Hughes, 2012). Here for the consultation which continuing for 30,60 or even 90 min for participants in trial intervention is almost done in homely situation in spite of hospital or bounded laboratory environment, specially for this concern at much more applicable in modern day breast cancer therapy. Besides this when numerous women are employed, then by this telephonic   interview for management of breast cancer they can utilize more time in home by doing other activity simultaneously getting advised from specialized nurses.

Utilization of evidence in telephonic intervention

Would you implement the findings of this study in clinical practice? Why / why not?

Maintaining  of other regular daily activity  of patient suffering from breast cancer is a significant effectiveness in counseling and mental healing support which is believed to be the pillars of curing any disease, whatever the disease may complicated or comparatively much simple. There are several evidences through management strategy of breast cancer by the unique telephonic intervention between patient and nurses associated with breast cancer care. For such advanced intervention and to appropriate delivery of medicinal and some behavioral pattern for fight against this complex disease by well groomed add skilled nurse is only possible by a high conceptualization and implementation of a progress able nursing practice concerning this clinical base strategy (McGee, 2007).

A much developed peer preference as well as channels response in ongoing process is significantly essential for this advanced intervention.

 

References:

Bassett, C. (2004). Qualitative research in health care. London: Whurr.

Beaver, K., Williamson, S., & Chalmers, K. (2010). Telephone follow-up after treatment for breast cancer: views and experiences of patients and specialist breast care nurses. Journal Of Clinical Nursing, 19(19-20), 2916-2924. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2702.2010.03197.xCho, J. (2006). Validity in qualitative research revisited. Qualitative Research, 6(3), 319-340. doi:10.1177/1468794106065006

Contents. (2010). Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, 54(10), p.vi-vii.

Creswell, J. (2003). Research design. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications.

Dattalo, P. (2010). Strategies to approximate random sampling and assignment. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Gionis, A. (2013). Data Analysis. Data Science Journal, 12(0), pp.GRDI13-GRDI18.

Goodman, J. K., Cryder, C. E., & Cheema, A. (2013). Data collection in a flat world: The strengths and weaknesses of Mechanical Turk samples. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 26(3), 213-224.

Hughes, M. (2012). Assessing the Collection Through Use Data: An Automated Collection Assessment Tool. Collection Management, 37(2), pp.110-126.

Kamath, C. (2009). Application-Driven Data Analysis. Statistical Analysis Data Mining, 1(5), pp.285-285.

McGee, P. (2007). Ethical Issues in Data Collection. Research Ethics, 3(2), pp.53-53.

Paynter, R. (2010). Data Mashups as Collection Management Tools. Collection Management, 36(1), pp.68-72.

Srinivasan, R. (2002). Importance sampling. Berlin: Springer.

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