Discuss about the Rapid Implementation and Project Planning.
Current demand in animal products such as milk is continuously increasing with more focus drawn on ways to optimize production using limited resources as possible. This drives the ArchiFarm to look for modern technology that has the capability to monitor and assess various aspects of milk production system to ensure there are high efficiencies. The whole idea is the basis of the computerized automated system called PLM. Precision Livestock Management (PLM) is an enterprise system that has the capability to increase precision in the livestock production. The PLM software is able to connect the three main aspects of farm and these are stakeholders or drivers, business functions, and business processes. If well implemented, the whole system will monitor the production of each cow throughout the value chain. That implies that PLM monitor, health, and feeding of the animal that is transferred to milk each cow produced. This is again tracked down to the distribution to determine the overall performance of each farm site. The program also reconciles the distribution information with other farm processes. The main focus of this paper is to explore the different aspects of Precision Livestock Management within ArchiFarm.
Stakeholders play an important role in business process within an organization and this is similar to the case of the ArchiFarm enterprise system. There many stakeholders in the farm and some of these stakeholders are farm’s staffs, distributors, wholesalers, animal feed producers, maintenance contractors, and veterinarians. Firstly, farms staffs are both the management and the ordinary farmers who perform various tasked within the farm hence play an important role in the dairy production. At each site, there are various employees that are lead by the site manager. Secondly, milk distributors ship the milk using refrigerated to the processing plant. In addition, distributors also transport the processed milk to wholesalers to various locations. Thirdly, another group of stakeholders is animal feed producers that also supply feeds to various sites (Information Resources Management Association p. 1065). The feed is supplied on specific interval hence the feed that is given to each cow has minimal variation. Fourthly, wholesalers are stakeholders nearer to consumers in the value chain and are linked to processes by distributors. Fifthly, maintenance contractors take care of both farm structure and various machinery within the farm and this is to ensure that the farm remains operative. Another group of stakeholders is veterinarians who monitor the health of every animal though the farm intends to introduce new system aiming at monitoring animal. Clients are the stakeholders at the far end of the value chain are the end user or consumers of the milk that is produced from ArchiFarm (Berckmans 2004).
Drivers, on the other hand, include supply, distribution, maintenance, health assessments, and management. Firstly, supply and distribution are key drivers in the farm as feed is supply into the farm while milk produced on the farm is also distributed to processors and wholesalers. Secondly, management plays an important role is basic and vital drivers that determine the success of the company. The company is introducing management tool that is an automated system to manage especially production systems. Thirdly, farm maintenance is another driver as this focus in improving the efficiency of farm process. This is closely connected to another driver that is health assessment that mostly focuses on assessing the health of cows and this will be done using Precision Livestock Management (PLM) tool. Another driver that is key to the farm production is the Enterprise system itself. PLM is a driver that project high efficiencies that will ensure that most other drivers are monitors at single cow level (Zoran et al. 2007, p.145-146).
The three goals of the whole system are the economic, quality and sustainable dairy production. The main goal of management is to achieve an economically optimal level of input in production through monitoring production all sites. The economic goal of the farm is predicted through the use of PLM that is expected to monitor and predict the quality of feeds that a cow use at a time hence reduces feed wastage. Moreover, the software aims to monitor all the distribution to ensure high efficiencies within the supply and distribution (Pallab 2008, p.39). Secondly, quality goal focus on the delivery of quality and safer produce free from any related contamination. Monitoring health of every single cow within the farm with the goal of ensuring sick cow has its milk excluded in the main production system. This will also enable the farm management to predict problem well before it can spread to other animals. Thirdly, sustainability in production is another goal of the entire production with the view to ensure that there is minimal environmental pollution resulting from the production (Kovacs & Paganelli 2003, pp.165–165).
The farm has several assessments that include health assessments for each cow though the organization is trying to add assessments into the software. One assessment done on the farm is the animal health that aims at examining the diseased animal and isolate it. This is projecting to assist managerial assessments of organization’s production systems. Another area of concern in the assessment is the consistency of drivers with the managerial goals for the farm. This implies that drivers, as outlined in the strategies of the farm, need to continuously assess to see their performance. Moreover, the assessment is supposed to help in risk mitigation and is meant to understand the level of efficiency in the organization (Jörg, Pernici & Weske 2004, pp. 202).
One ArchMate view of the software can be designed to show three views structural and dynamics. The structural view shows the relationship between drivers, stakeholders, and goals can be linked to the software (ArchiMate® 2017). The ArchiMate view on the three main aspects of stakeholders, drivers, and goals are interlinked within the main software to give the main objective of the farm. Stakeholders are related to drivers and also link goals set by the farm management. The structure of the software highlight key stakeholders and the drivers they link, for instance, animal feed supplier is linked to the driver called supply. Each stakeholder has a role to play in the value chain of the farm and this is directly related to drivers such as supply for instance which also a driver is leading to effective feeds delivery in the farm. All these three aspects form the backbone of the value chain for ArchiFarm and can be incorporated in the ArchMate. Dynamics, on the other hand, is used to model the temporary business elements within the farm (Gerben 2014).
The business process includes internal and external functions. Firstly, internal functions can be further grouped into three producing, selling, and supporting functions. Secondly, ArchiFarm selling functions describe sales process and marketing where sales focus on product presentation to customers and marketing that focus on product promotion. ArchiFarm has a good producing function with the view of producing quality milk, conduct research on milk and distributing milk to processors and wholesaler. Selling aspect of internal functions is done at the wholesale level since the farm distributes milk to the processing plant and later to the wholesaler. Supporting functions are divided into finance, computing, human resource and purchasing functions (Jarvis 2003, p. 9). Computing aspect is becoming the main component of the business process in the farm with the development and implementation of PLM. The finance function is concerned with development and maintenance of accounting records or management. Human resource, on the other hand, manages the employees in every site with direction from head office in Sydney. Purchasing function assists the farm to purchase feeds from feed producers, contract maintenance contractors hence farm machinery purchases. External functions include advertising campaigns, marketing, and recruitment of employees (Grant, Hall, Wailes & Wright 2006, pp 2–15). The farm has human resource management that offers employee recruitment based in the head office. As farm business function the department is a task to recruit both management and farm works that perform different work each site. Marketing is the sole responsibility of the head office located in Sydney.
The ArchiMate view for the business function consists of two main layers one for the internal functions and another for external functions. These layers are joined to the main layer of business processes/functions. This view assists the management to assess the external functions and hence deduce their effects on the overall performance of functions. The management is, therefore, able to verify the relationship between various components of the business functions within the ArchiFarm. Another aspect of the ArchiMate view is on the business collaborations or interactions that define the levels of interaction between various business functions within layers. The main business function backbone is joined together with other layers forming the first level of interaction (Band 2016).
Business processes are various tasks that work coherently together to produce services. According to Lapalme (2010, pp. 37–43), there are three main business processes are management processes, operational processes and supporting processes that can be highlighted within the farm. The core foundation of the ArchiFarm is the optimized milk production with considerations of quality, healthy and sustainable. Firstly, the management processes control the operational processes and this is based on the corporate structure headed by the board. The basis of the governance within the farm is based on the cooperate culture of the farm and the strategic ability to control all the business operations within the farm. Secondly, operation processes consist of the main farm milk production business process that can be termed as the core business of the farm. The business operation within the farm ensures that all the business involved in the milk production (Malakooti 2013). In addition, the operation processes ensure that all other business processes within the farm are properly coordinated to the smooth operation of the farm in general. Thirdly, the supporting processes are services such as health assessment that is done by veterinarians. Supporting processes help the farm to achieve and ensure that is the required processes works without risk from diseases and milk contamination. The farm has automated machine that will use data to monitor the health of animals and this is important for supporting processes that reduce contamination of milk supply (Byrne 2012).
The ArchiMate view on the business processes is structure of business processes, consistency, and completeness, responsibilities. Firstly, the main view would have structures of business processes that are attached to the main layer maximizing the idea of synchronizing the three processes that are the core business processes within the farm. The layer here is a business layer and an aspect is a behavior. The software needs to incorporate the three main processes that include joining business operation process to management and supporting processes. Operational processes especially farm feeding processes are automated to determine the number of feeds that are given to the individual animal with the view to closely optimise operation processes. Another area of business processes that forms part of ArchMate is supporting that focus on the services such as accounting processes, health assessments, and other supporting services. The organization view automated machine will help the farm increase production through data-driven support processes (Telematica Institute 2006, p.7). The management processes is a unifying process that monitors or supervise all other processes to achieve the set objectives of milk production. An example of an ArchMate view is shown in the figure below.
In conclusion, the Precision Livestock Management adoption within the ArchiFarm is projecting good production management characterized by optimal production with the proper use of feeds within the farm. Business functions play an important role in the farm and can be grouped into internal and external functions. Business processes on the other, include managerial processes, operational processes, and support processes. The interactions of various layers of business link to form backbones that will be used to monitor or assess processes and functions. PLM is projected to cause high efficiencies in the milk production with limited resource wasted. In addition, the automated production monitoring system will synchronize production and predict any risk associated with the disease.
ArchiMate®, 2017, Specification: Stakeholders, Viewpoints, and Views. Access at https://pubs.opengroup.org/architecture/archimate3-doc/chap14.html
Band, I, et al, 2016, An Introduction to the ArchiMate® 3.0 Specification, White Paper from The Open Group.
Berckmans, D, 2004, Automatic On-Line Monitoring of Animals by Precision Livestock International Society for Animal Hygiène - Saint-Malo
Horowitz, B T, 2015, How RFID Delivers Big Data On Cows And Milk Production. Accessed on 27/7/2017. https://techcrunch.com/2015/11/03/how-rfid-delivers-big-data-on-cows-and-milk-production/
Byrne, T, 2012, Real Story Group Blog – Digital workplace and enterprise architecture: two sides to the same coin,
Grant, D,; Hall R,; Wailes N, & Wright C, 2006, The false promise of technological determinism: the case of enterprise resource planning systems. New Technology, Work & Employment, vol.21, no.1, pp 2–15
Gerben, W, 2014, Mastering ArchiMate - Edition II - A Serious Introduction to the ArchiMate Enterprise Architecture Modeling Language.
Harmon P, 2007, Business Process Change: 2nd Ed, A Guide for Business Managers and BPM and Six Sigma Professionals. Morgan Kaufmann
Information Resources Management Association the USA, Enterprise Information Systems: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools and Applications, p. 1065
Jarvis, B, 2003, Enterprise Architecture: Understanding the Bigger Picture – A Best Practice Guide for Decision Makers in IT, The UK National Computing Centre, Manchester, UK. p. 9
Jones, FT, 2001, Quality Control in Feed Manufacturing Feedstuffs Reference Issue and Buyers
Jörg, D,; Pernici B, & Weske, M, 2004, Business Process Management: Second International Conference, BPM 2004, Potsdam, Germany, June 17-18, 2004, Proceedings. Springer Science & Business Media, pp. 202
Kovacs, G. L.; & Paganelli, P. 2003, A planning and management infrastructure for large, complex, distributed projects — beyond ERP and SCM". Computers in Industry, vol.51, no.2, pp.165–165
Lapalme, J., 2010, Three Schools of Thought on Enterprise Architecture, IT Professional, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 37–43,
Malakooti, B, 2013, Operations and Production Systems with Multiple Objectives. John Wiley & Sons.
Moxey Farms 360° Video Tour - Australia's Largest Single Site Dairy farming operation. Accessed on 27/7/2017. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5RWSwSJ6smM
Pallab S, 2008, Advances in Government Enterprise Architecture. p.39.
Price Waterhouse Coopers 2011, The Australian Dairy Industry: The Basics. Accessed on 27/7/2017. https://www.pwc.com.au/industry/agribusiness/assets/australian-dairy-industry-nov11.pdf
Sheilds, MG, 2005, E-Business, and ERP: Rapid Implementation and Project Planning. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. p. 9.
The Contribution of Enterprise Architecture to the Achievement of Organizational Goals: Establishing the Enterprise Architecture Benefits Framework, Technical Report, Department of Information and Computing Sciences Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands, (2010 online)
Telematica Institute 2006, Annual Report 2005. p.7. Accessed 18 Jan 2009.
Zoran S, et al. 2007, Service-oriented Software System Engineering. p.145-146.