Discuss About The Reduction Risk Sudden Infant Death Syndrome?
This research study is conducted in order to identify the usefulness of the pacifier use in reducing sudden infant death syndrome or SIDS. Therefore the questions of such research study are interesting and appropriate as these questions are able to find the relationship between the pacifier use and the reduction of SIDS. Hence, the questions are suitable to exhibit a clear idea regarding the role of the pacifier in decreasing the risk of SIDS with bed sharing, prone feeding, and soft bedding. However, this study is significant to show a clear relationship between the pacifier use and the SIDS. As argued by Lubbe & ten Ham-Baloyi, (2017), smoke pressure, bed sharing and soft bedding are the common factors that influence the risk of SIDS.
Sucking on a pacifier during the bedtime or nap time will be helpful for the children to minimize the severity of SIDS (Psaila et al., 2017). As per the statistical data, 90% risk of SIDS can be reduced by using the pacifier at the sleep time of baby.
The purpose of the study is to examine the relationship between the use of the pacifier during the sleep of the children and SIDS.
According to the study, parents need to understand the use of the pacifier in order to reduce the risk related to SIDS. However, as per the research pacifier can reduce the risk related to soft bedding, bed sharing, and smoke exposure, which are the potential factors of SIDS. As supported by Andrisani & Andrisani (2017), the pacifier is useful as it leads the baby fall asleep and sucking on the pacifier during the bedtime may help to reduce the severity of sudden infant death syndrome. Hence, the researchers of such article highlight that pacifier may be beneficial for the children who are below 1 year by reducing sudden death risk during their sleep.
This study reveals that use of the pacifier is an undefined mechanism still now. Several studies failed to give the clear information about the significance and protection capability of the pacifier against SIDS that is highlighted in this research. As argued by Molaudzi & Molepo, (2017), prolonged pacifier use may cause the middle ear infection and dental problem during the infancy. Hence, it has been found in this study that pacifier involves the reduction of risk of SIDS that occur due to prone sleeping. However, such result has no statistical significance.
Data has been collected from the Chicago Infant Mortality Study or CIMS in order to identify the risk factors of SIDS. The design of CIMS focuses on the SIDS and unexpected death of children at infancy that may cause by other factors. The data is based on the survey among the African and the American Whites. All Chicago residents' infants are enrolled under CIMS who are below 1 year and died between the year of November 1993 and the month of April in 1996. Medical examiners of Chicago are involved in this process. However, 400 questions are proposed in order to collect data. After two weeks 235 questions are also completed based on the SIDS. Hence, it has been cleared that questionnaires have been used by CIMS to obtain data regarding the SIDS. 260 SIDS cases and 260 SIDS control cases are undertaken in this current study in order to collect data. As commented by (Joyner, Oden & Moon, 2016), case study analysis is a useful aspect of acquiring relevant and appropriate data regarding any topic.
Conditional logistic regression analysis is considered in this study in order to measure the relationship between sleep related factors and SIDS. Therefore, univariate conditional logistic regression models have been used in this study to identify the odd ratios that cannot be adjusted and associated with risk factors of individuals. Several conditional logistic regression models are applied to understand the odds related to SIDS by considering maternal age, maternal education, marital status, and Kessner index that are the potential factors to measure the frequency of the parental care. However, unconditional logistic regression models have been taken in this methodology to measure the effectiveness of pacifier use in SIDS reduction. Finally, conditional logistic regression model has been constructed by the researcher in order to adjust the confounding variables that help to identify the role of pacifiers that involves the modification of the association of different factors, which affect the risk related to SIDS. Conditional logistic regression models are crucial to understand the each variable regarding the topic in research (Buccini, Pérez-Escamilla & Venancio, 2016). Here the independent variable is the use of the pacifier and the dependent variable is the reduction of risk related to SIDS. Moreover, calculation of odd ratios has been done based on the every variable of users and non-users of the pacifier.
Regarding this study, it has been found that approx 70% risk related to SIDS is reduced by using the pacifier after adjusting the known confounders in the methodology. Therefore, it has been examined that pacifier use has a relation to the reduction of the SIDS related risk in each category of infant factors and the maternal factors also. However, the risk regarding SIDS can be reduced in the greater amount if the mothers are 20 years of age group, non-smoker, married with intense parental care. Therefore, the breastfed infant has also kept away from the SIDS risk through the application of pacifier (Yiallourou et al., 2014). On the other hand, proper use of the pacifier during the particular sleep environment of the children is useful for them to give them a safe sleep.
According to result, it has been observed that bed sharing, smoking during pregnancy and prone sleeping without the use of pacifier have a close association with high risk of SIDS as the P value of the differences of do not use the pacifier and use pacifier of such factors are 0.55 NS, 0.81 NS and 0.76 NS. On the other, it has been also found that breastfeeding is related to the decreased risk of SIDS by using the pacifier as here the P value is 0.19 NS. However, through the findings researcher get a clear idea of the efficiency of anything (Varghese et al., 2015). The odd ratios of maternal smoking, bed sharing, and prone sleeping is ranged from 0.25 to 0.33 while the odd ratios related to breastfeeding possess 0.33 values. Moreover, the differences between the variables of interest and the use of pacifier fail to exhibit significant result.
According to the Chicago Mortality Study based on the case control study use of the pacifier is beneficial to minimize the risk of SIDS. However, this study highlights that pacifier provides some additional protection to the children having, non-smoking, breastfeeding and older married mother. Such characteristics lead the children to get proper parental care and low risk of SIDS (Alm et al., 2016). On the other hand, children those sleep in the soft bed and prone side get additional protection through using the pacifier. Hence, it has been found that use of the pacifier is more effective while the children are in adverse sleeping condition. However, due to inappropriate sample size, the differences of the odd ratios are not significant in this study.
There is no clear evidence about why the pacifier use is more beneficial considering the factors such as older maternal age, non-smoker mother, and proper parental care. Hence, it can be said that pacifier use with adequate parental care in the adverse sleeping condition is a protective approach for the infants to reduce SIDS risk (Odoi et al., 2014). Moreover, risk related to SIDS is not declined properly in the current years. Hence, such study is useful in giving the epidemiologic results regarding the benefits of pacifier use for the children in adverse sleeping condition. Hence, based on this evidence, further research can be conducted to gain more knowledge about pacifier use.
Alm, B., Wennergren, G., Möllborg, P., & Lagercrantz, H. (2016). Breastfeeding and dummy use have a protective effect on sudden infant death syndrome. Acta Paediatrica, 105(1), 31-38.
Andrisani, G., & Andrisani, G. (2017). Pacifier Use May Decrease the Risk of SIDS. Journal of Neurology and Neuroscience, 45-56.
Buccini, G. D. S., Pérez-Escamilla, R., & Venancio, S. I. (2016). Pacifier use and exclusive breastfeeding in Brazil. Journal of Human Lactation, 32(3), 52-60.
Joyner, B. L., Oden, R. P., & Moon, R. Y. (2016). Reasons for Pacifier Use and Non-Use in African-Americans: Does Knowledge of Reduced SIDS Risk Change Parents’ Minds?. Journal of immigrant and minority health, 18(2), 402-410.
Lubbe, W., & ten Ham-Baloyi, W. (2017). When is the use of pacifiers justifiable in the baby-friendly hospital initiative context? A clinician’s guide. BMC pregnancy and childbirth, 17(1), 130.
Molaudzi, M., & Molepo, J. (2017). In vitro efficacy of different solutions in the disinfection of silicone pacifiers. South African Dental Journal, 72(4), 158-161.
Odoi, A., Andrew, S., Wong, F. Y., Yiallourou, S. R., & Horne, R. S. (2014). Pacifier use does not alter sleep and spontaneous arousal patterns in healthy term?born infants. Acta Paediatrica, 103(12), 1244-1250.
Psaila, K., Foster, J. P., Pulbrook, N., & Jeffery, H. E. (2017). Infant pacifiers for reduction in risk of sudden infant death syndrome. The Cochrane Library, 70-100.
Varghese, S., Gasalberti, D., Ahern, K., & Chang, J. C. (2015). An analysis of attitude toward infant sleep safety and SIDS risk reduction behavior among caregivers of newborns and infants. Journal of Perinatology, 35(11), 970.
Yiallourou, S. R., Poole, H., Prathivadi, P., Odoi, A., Wong, F. Y., & Horne, R. S. (2014). The effects of dummy/pacifier use on infant blood pressure and autonomic activity during sleep. Sleep medicine, 15(12), 1508-1516.
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