$20 Bonus + 25% OFF
Securing Higher Grades Costing Your Pocket? Book Your Assignment at The Lowest Price Now!


Please Explain why Hypertension causing Kidney Disease. Compare two Options for treatment.


This essay focuses on the pathophysiology, clinical symptoms and treatment procedures of end stage renal disease with respect to the medical reports of a patient.

Relationship between pathophysiology and clinical symptoms- The patient is suffering from end stage kidney disease in which the kidneys barely function. In case of end stage renal failure, the rennin-angiotensisn-aldosterone-system (RAAS) gets abnormally upregulated. The enzyme rennin cleaves angiotensinogen to angiotensin I, which is converted to angiotensin II. Upregualtion of RAAS leads to increase in the production of angiotemsin II.  There is an increase in intra-glomerular pressure. Hypertension, glomerulonephritis and diabetes are the most common cause of this condition (Jha et al., 2013). Increase in blood pressure leads to thickening of the vasculature (Coresh et al., 2014). The protein metabolism products begin to accumulate in the blood when the kidney stops functioning. This leads to waste buildup. With decline in kidney function, urea begins to accumulate and leads to a condition uremia. Accumulation of fluids in the body leads to edema (swelling of tissues) (Tomino, 2014). The other most common symptoms are increase in blood pressure (more than 120/80 mmHg), elevation of potassium levels in blood (greater than 5.0 mmol/L), hyperphosphatemia (reduction in phosphate excretion), hypocalcemia, higher creatinine volume due to low glomerular filtrate, calcification of vascular tissues. Failure to excrete excess amounts of potassium leads to an increase in its levels. This condition is called hyperkalemia. This increased level manifests itself in the form of numbness, weakness, nausea and slow pulse. Excess potassium levels make a patient more prone to cardiac arrest. Decrease in urine output (720 mL/ day compared to 800-2000 mL/day) is another major symptom. Abnormally elevated levels of serum creatinine (825 compared to 135  micromol/L) is a direct consequence of low glomerular filtration rate. Obesity is a major risk factor in case of chronic kidney disease. It is also associated with a high heart rate (HR- more than 80 bpm), crackels in the lungs (Gansevoort et al., 2013). Chronic kidney disease also causes muscle fatigue and makes a patient feel exhausted. This is due to failure in proper oxygen circulation in the body. Signs of depression are extremely common in such patients. Several studies have established links between depression and uremia. The patient has normal sodium levels in the blood. However, a sodium rich diet will increase complications in the body. This disease is also associated with uremic pruritus. The patients suffer from itching syndrome. The normal hemoglobin count ranges from 130-180 g/L. However, a renal patient suffers from anemia (low red blood cell count). Certain psychiatric issues like agitation, palpitation, malaise and somnolence may also develop in case of extreme renal failure. Therefore, the symptoms and biochemical test reports of the patient in this case study are manifestations of kidney failure.

Relationship between medical history and renal condition- The patient has a medical history of hypertension, depression and seasonal rhinitis. Hypertension is a leading cause of end stage renal failure. The blood vessels in the body are damaged due to high blood pressure (Hall et al., 2014). The arteries become narrow and hard. Therefore, there occurs a reduction in blood supply to the kidneys. The nephrons do not get nutrients and oxygen in adequate amounts and the balance of salts, acids and hormones in the blood gets disturbed. Kidney failure often leads to development of allergic symptoms like runny nose, which resemble rhinitis conditions. Seasonal rhinitis is a nasal tract inflammation that occurs during specific periods of the year. It is caused due to hypersensitive reactions to pollens, weeds, spores or grasses. There is a close relationship between chronic kidney failure and symptoms of depression. The possible cause for this association might lie in the fact that depression leads to inflammation in the body and such inflammations accelerate the progress of kidney failure (Tomino, 2014). A study suggests that depression is more prevalent in patients who are on the fifth stage of chronic kidney failure (end stage kidney disease). The patient also shows a history of alcoholism and smoking. Prolonged smoking reacts with drugs used to treat hypertension and reduces the flow of blood to the kidneys. It also increases the risks of cardiac attacks in people suffering from hypertension. This worsens their condition. The patient also reports consuming 6 stubbies of heavy beer every week. Excess consumption of alcohol interferes with the kidney’s ability to filter blood. It also disturbs the balance of fluids and electrolytes in the body. It leads to hepatorenal failure and liver cirrhosis. It also increases blood pressure, which is again associated with chronic kidney damage. Therefore, it can be stated that the patient’s medical and social history have aggravated his renal failure.


Management of end stage renal failure- Several treatment options are available, which help in reversing the function of damaging kidneys and purifying the blood. Most patients with end stage renal disease are treated with hemodialysis and renal transplantation (Liyanage et al., 2015). In hemodialysis, an artificial kidney machine or dialyzer is used to restore the balance of electrolytes and to purify the blood. The walls of the dialyzer are made up of cellulose (semi-permeable membrane) and contain pores of different sizes. Solute diffusion across the semi-permeable membrane is its basic mechanism. This membrane separates the two compartments inside the machine (one for washing the fluids, the dialysate compartment and other for blood purification). The concentration gradient across this membrane is maintained by counter-current mechanism (Robinson et al., 2016). Alteraton of hydrostatic pressure inside the dialysate compartment leads to ultrafiltration. Blood from the patient is sent to the machine by a synthetic graft or an arteriovenous fistula in one arm. The purified blood is returned to the person through the same arm. Hemodialysis is of different types depending on the severity of the disease. Patients can opt for in-centre hemodialysis, daily home hemodialysis or nocturnal home hemodialysis. Certain complications and risks are associated with this procedure. The hand with the arteriovenous fistula can experience some numbness, which can lead to a condition called ‘steal syndrome’ (Coresh et al., 2014). Other complications like formation of aneurysm, narrowing or clotting of the vessel may also occur. Infection and bleeding are prevalent risks. It creates some adverse mental effects like fatigue, anxiety, depression and increased vulnerability to suicide on the patient as well. Renal transplantation is another effective treatment option. Its success depends on the medical conditions of the kidney donor (Liyanage et al., 2015). A functional kidney is inserted in the lower portion of the abdomen and connected with the urinary bladder and blood vessels (Muzaale et al., 2014). Several immunosuppressants are prescribed to the patient, which will prevent the immune system from rejecting the donated kidney. Transplantation is considered more effective than hemodialysis and shows better survival chances. Its major complications are abscesses in the walls of the abdomen, abdominal hernia, urinary fistulae and rejection by immune system. Cognitive behavioral changes and depression are associated with this method.

Therefore, it can be concluded from the essay that there are several factors which increase the risk of end stage renal disease. The electrolyte balance in the body gets disturbed and the person has to opt for rigorous treatment procedures.



Coresh, J., Turin, T. C., Matsushita, K., Sang, Y., Ballew, S. H., Appel, L. J., ... & Green, J. A. (2014). Decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate and subsequent risk of end-stage renal disease and mortality. Jama, 311(24), 2518-2531.

Gansevoort, R. T., Correa-Rotter, R., Hemmelgarn, B. R., Jafar, T. H., Heerspink, H. J. L., Mann, J. F., ... & Wen, C. P. (2013). Chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular risk: epidemiology, mechanisms, and prevention. The Lancet, 382(9889), 339-352.

Hall, M. E., do Carmo, J. M., da Silva, A. A., Juncos, L. A., Wang, Z., & Hall, J. E. (2014). Obesity, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease. International journal of nephrology and renovascular disease, 7, 75.

Jha, V., Garcia-Garcia, G., Iseki, K., Li, Z., Naicker, S., Plattner, B., ... & Yang, C. W. (2013). Chronic kidney disease: global dimension and perspectives. The Lancet, 382(9888), 260-272.

Liyanage, T., Ninomiya, T., Jha, V., Neal, B., Patrice, H. M., Okpechi, I., ... & Rodgers, A. (2015). Worldwide access to treatment for end-stage kidney disease: a systematic review. The Lancet, 385(9981), 1975-1982.

Muzaale, A. D., Massie, A. B., Wang, M. C., Montgomery, R. A., McBride, M. A., Wainright, J. L., & Segev, D. L. (2014). Risk of end-stage renal disease following live kidney donation. Jama, 311(6), 579-586.

Robinson, B. M., Akizawa, T., Jager, K. J., Kerr, P. G., Saran, R., & Pisoni, R. L. (2016). Factors affecting outcomes in patients reaching end-stage kidney disease worldwide: differences in access to renal replacement therapy, modality use, and haemodialysis practices. The Lancet, 388(10041), 294-306.

Tomino, Y. (2014). Pathogenesis and treatment of chronic kidney disease: a review of our recent basic and clinical data. Kidney and Blood Pressure Research, 39(5), 450-489.


Cite This Work

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:

My Assignment Help. (2018). Renal Disease And Its Aspects. Retrieved from

"Renal Disease And Its Aspects." My Assignment Help, 2018,

My Assignment Help (2018) Renal Disease And Its Aspects [Online]. Available from:
[Accessed 28 May 2020].

My Assignment Help. 'Renal Disease And Its Aspects' (My Assignment Help, 2018) <> accessed 28 May 2020.

My Assignment Help. Renal Disease And Its Aspects [Internet]. My Assignment Help. 2018 [cited 28 May 2020]. Available from: delivers assignment help to millions of students of USA. We have in-house teams of assignment writers who are experts on wide ranges of subjects. We have appointed teams of native writers who provide assignment help to students in New York City and all over the USA. They are skilled assignment writers who successfully cater to search terms like do my assignment in the USA

Latest Nursing Samples

NSG426 Integrity In Practice: Ethic And Legal Considerations

Download : 0 | Pages : 2
  • Course Code: NSG426
  • University: University Of Phoenix
  • Country: United States

Answer: Nursing E-portfolio Legal issues and frameworks in competent nursing In my academic course of nursing I have faced with many ethical dilemmas and am looking forward to many such ethical dilemmas. I believe that as a nurse I should be aware of my legal and the ethical duties as a nurse. One of the legal aspects is the responsibility and the accountability of the registered nurses. A nurse is committed to provide a safe care to t...

Read More arrow

NRS 490 Nursing Capstone Assignment

Download : 0 | Pages : 6
  • Course Code: NRS 490
  • University: Grand Canyon University
  • Country: United States

Answer:   Area Awareness New practice approaches I have realized that evidence based medicine encompasses a systematic approach that helps to solve a clinical problem. For this purpose we are required to integrate best available research evidences with our clinical expertise. We should also give due respect to the preferences and individual needs of a patient before implementing any such intervention (Melnyk et...

Read More arrow

SITXWHS003 Implement And Monitor Work Health And Safety Practices

Download : 0 | Pages : 6
  • Course Code: SITXWHS003
  • University: Victoria University
  • Country: Australia

Answer: Introduction: Accident prevention is the single most important operation. To ensure that this succeeds, the policy advocates for a substance free environment. The use of alcohol or narcotics is strictly forbidden in the workplace. In the event that an employee is injured in the line of work, the institution will cater for medical expenses and rehabilitation so that the employee can return to work as soon as possible. To maintain safet...

Read More arrow

NS3118 Evidence-Based Practice

Download : 0 | Pages : 9
  • Course Code: NS3118
  • University: James Cook University
  • Country: Australia

Answer: Introduction: Evidence based practice (EBP) is one of the necessary professional standards for registered nurse. The NMBA registered nurse standards for practice values EBP and encourages nurse to use best available evidence in taking health care decisions and providing safe and quality care to patient (Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia, 2016). The necessity for competencies in EBP has been realized for its potential to enhance...

Read More arrow Tags: Australia Dinmore Management forensics University of New South Wales 

NUR502 Theoretical Foundations For Nursing Roles And Practice

Download : 0 | Pages : 5
  • Course Code: NUR 502
  • University: Grand Canyon University
  • Country: United States

Answer: Introduction A master's degree in nursing under the certification of American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) is core nursing education that enables advanced practice nurses to work as register nurse practitioners, certified clinical nurse specialists, certified nurse midwives, and certified nurse anesthetists. I have selected nurse practitioner as a career option of my interviewee. This is because; nurse practitioner i...

Read More arrow Tags: United States Miami Management University of Florida 

Save Time & improve Grade

Just share Requriment and get customize Solution.

We will use e-mail only for:

arrow Communication regarding your orders

arrow To send you invoices, and other billing info

arrow To provide you with information of offers and other benefits




Overall Rating



Our Amazing Features


On Time Delivery

Our writers make sure that all orders are submitted, prior to the deadline.


Plagiarism Free Work

Using reliable plagiarism detection software, only provide customized 100 percent original papers.


24 X 7 Live Help

Feel free to contact our assignment writing services any time via phone, email or live chat.


Services For All Subjects

Our writers can provide you professional writing assistance on any subject at any level.


Best Price Guarantee

Our best price guarantee ensures that the features we offer cannot be matched by any of the competitors.

Our Experts

Assignment writing guide
student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating 5/5

1758 Order Completed

99% Response Time

William Martinez

MS in Biology

Washington, United States

Hire Me
Assignment writing guide
student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating 5/5

234 Order Completed

100% Response Time

Samantha Ji

PhD in Chemistry with Specialization in Organic

Singapore, Singapore

Hire Me
Assignment writing guide
student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating 4/5

2594 Order Completed

95% Response Time

Michael Johnson

Masters of MSc in Economics

Washington, United States

Hire Me
Assignment writing guide
student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating 5/5

265 Order Completed

97% Response Time

Ken Campbell

MSc in Electrical Engineering

Wellington, New Zealand

Hire Me

FREE Tools


Plagiarism Checker

Get all your documents checked for plagiarism or duplicacy with us.


Essay Typer

Get different kinds of essays typed in minutes with clicks.


GPA Calculator

Calculate your semester grades and cumulative GPa with our GPA Calculator.


Chemical Equation Balancer

Balance any chemical equation in minutes just by entering the formula.


Word Counter & Page Calculator

Calculate the number of words and number of pages of all your academic documents.

Refer Just 5 Friends to Earn More than $2000

Check your estimated earning as per your ability




Your Approx Earning

Live Review

Our Mission Client Satisfaction

hi need to rework it again not good I need irac for each issue separately and not a single paragraph like this. Each issue one paragraph with the rule and application together and then a simple conclusion. I need an overall introduction and overal...


User Id: 406230 - 28 May 2020


student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating

Excellent WORK, very informative, right to the point and comprehensive. really the assignment made by expert


User Id: 155603 - 28 May 2020


student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating

Got credit, just a few issues with grammar and more of the descriptive style essay rather than the argumentative to battle ideas from both points of view.


User Id: 142499 - 28 May 2020


student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating

Everything was up to the mark. satisfying services. i am contented with the work. the services were great


User Id: 415989 - 28 May 2020


student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating
callback request mobile
Have any Query?