This involves Renal Disorders. For someone in untreated renal failure , list what types of alterations one would see for the following (including rationale why it would be altered in that way).
1. Hematocrit: In case of untreated renal failure kidneys fail to maintain a normal lower level of hematocrit. Anemia is said to be a known complication associated with renal deficiency and this is mostly because of abnormally low level of erythropoietin production. Hence, it can be suggested that renal insufficiency and the level of hematocrit is correlated.
2. Potassium: kidneys help to maintain a balanced potassium level inside the human system. But in case of untreated renal failure the kidneys fail to remove excess potassium from the system and this results in high potassium build up in the blood.
3. Calcium: in case if renal failure, calcium drains out from the bones and lost from the human system (Robles, 2008). This brings about a reduction in calcium level inside the human system. Normal level of calcium is approximately between 9.0-10.5mg/dL. But in case of renal failure the calcium level drops below 9.0mg/dL.
4. Phosphate: Kidneys help to maintain calcium within the bone by generating active form of vitamin D and also by managing phosphate level, which is considered as a bone-strengthening mineral. The calcium and phosphate levels in the system are related like seesaw, if calcium level rises, phosphate level falls or vice-versa. Higher level of phosphate gives rise to low level of calcium that actually results weakened bones.
5. pH: Kidneys maintain proper pH balance within the system. Metabolic acidosis and subsequently academia takes place in case of kidney failure. In this condition the pH of the blood is low because of augmented hydrogen ions production or incapability of the system to produce bicarbonate inside the kidneys.
6. Creatinine: In case of untreated renal failure the normal serum creatinine level reaches around 3mg/dL in an adult human system (Gupta, 2004). Creatinine is considered as a waste product, which comes from the muscle activity. Creatinine is removed by the kidneys, but if the kidney function slows down, the level of creatinine rises.
Gupta, R. (2004). Calculation of Creatinine Clearance Based on Unadjusted Body Weight Leads to Errors in Renal and Heart Failure Patients. Circulation, 110(7), pp.e70-e70.
Robles, N. (2008). Calcium Antagonists and Renal Failure Progression. Ren Fail, 30(3), pp.247-255.