Different people have different personal values. There are many factors that have its impact on the personal values of the people. It has been analysed that personal values develop the nature and behaviour of the personal and also form the basis of how the person deals with the things in different haze of life (Kolodinsky, Giacalone and Jurkiewicz, 2008). Not only in the personal life but the people behaves differently at the organisations as well. This may be because of their nature and background that is supported by their personal values. Thus, it can be said that personal values may somehow affect the behaviour of the person at the organisations. This is the research that provides us to analyse the relationship between the personal and the organisations values and how it can be matched to management the people at the organisations (Van den Broeck, Vansteenkiste, Lens and De Witte, 2010).
This is the part of the research that describes the problem that is basis of the research, as far as tis research is considered, it has been analysed that the topic of the research is reeled to the personal and the organisational values of the people. The research problem in this topic is that about the issues that the individuals or the managers of the organisations face in order to match t personal values of the employee with their organisational values, it has been assumed that matching both the values help the employees to perform better and also help in creating better working environment (Suar and Khuntia, 2010).
This is the part of the research that discusses about the questions that needs to be answered after conducting this research. Some of the questions are:
- What are the personal values and organisational values?
- How these values are related to each other?
- How they can help in developing better working environment?
What are values?
Values can be defined as the standards and principle of the person that he or she follows during his or her lifetime. These values help in guiding the individual to make decisions in their life (Zou, Tam, Morris, Lee, Lau and Chiu, 2009). Every situation that comes in front of the individual is somehow similar as they survive the similar phases of life; it is their values and their behaviour that makes the difference at the time of handling such situations (Ballout, 2007). Thus values act as the very important part that plays an important role in framing the behaviour of the individual and helping him or her making any kind of judgments (von Collani and Grumm, 2009).
Personal values are the values that have been defined as the principle of the individual at their personal level. These values are developed during the growing stage of the individual. When an individual takes birth, family plays an important role in developing values amongst the child (Schwartz, 2012). The next step is school, where the teacher and the peers or the other classmate develop so kinds of values amongst the child (Hoffman, Bynum, Piccolo and Sutton, 2011). Later the stage has come where the peers or the colleagues at the organisations helps the individual to develop some values (Oreg, Bayazit, Vakola, Arciniega, Armenakis, Barkauskiene, Bozionelos, Fujimoto, González, Han and H?ebí?ková, 2008). These values are developed as the result of the personal experiences amongst the person. It is not what is developed by them. The surrounding and the people around the individual helps him in developing different values that forms his behaviour and provides him the basis of make decision and handle the situations at times (Resick, Baltes and Shantz, 2007). Personal values of the individual develop and get affected by different factors such as:
Family: the members of the family are the one how taught different teachings to the children that remains in the mind of the child for a very long term and may help in framing behaviour as per the beliefs of the family (Ambrose, Arnaud and Schminke, 2008).
Peers: peers are the one who surround the individual all the time when he stepped out of the home. It has been analyse that company of the peer and their behaviour also affect the values of the person or the individual.
Experiences: every individual face different kinds of situations and thus have different perception regarding single aspect. This also helps developing a value that can be different for the different individuals (Hafiza, Shah, Jamsheed and Zaman, 2011).
Various scholars have conducted many researches and suggested that there are many factors that affect the behaviour and the values of the person (Wheeler, Coleman Gallagher, Brouer and Sablynski, 2007). It has been analysed that when the conceptual framework of values are understood, it can be the basis of opinions and decisions making of the person. Examining the fit been the personal values and the organisations helps in understanding the match between the personal and the organisational values.
There are some assumptions about the values.it is assumed that values of the individual influence the behaviour and the judgement criteria of the person (Wright and Pandey, 2008).
As far as the organisations are concerned, it has been analysed that values are the important part in supporting the decision making process at the organisational level as well (Aggarwal and Bhargava, 2009). Organisational values can be defined as the set of beliefs that act as the basis of how the members of the company decisions the gaols of the firm and how they behave in the organisations during the process of attaining those gaols (Moynihan and Pandey, 2007). The author argues that culture is very much influenced by the rules and the social standards that are maintained in the organisations. This also depicts the value of the organisations (Lester, Kickul and Bergmann, 2007). Organisational values develop guidelines and standards of the organisation that forms the values of the company (Cennamo and Gardner, 2008). There values of the organisation act as the factor that has its impact on the workplace behaviour.
Value congruence or matching:
It is the suggested term for similarity between the personal and the organisational values. The intensity of similarity between the organisational and the personal values is known as fit. It can also be called as personal and organisational fit.b
This is the conceptual model of person and organisation fit. Some of the researchers have attempted to examine the relationship between the individuals and organisational behaviour (Coyle-Shapiro and Shore, 2007). It has been analysed that there is the relation or the interaction between the personal values and the organisational values and the behaviour of the people at the organisation (Greguras and Diefendorff, 2009). The above figure explains that how the personal values interact with the organisation in order to be ethical and committed to the company’s behaviour and standards. This figure shows that how the interaction of the organisational and the personal values of the organisation results in development of some of the positive outcomes such as organisational commitment and ethical working environmental and practices at the organisation (Edwards, 2008). It is not necessary that all the values of the person can aligned to the organisational values. There can be misalignment between the values of both the parties but it does not affect the organisational objectives but it can affect the process of attaining those objectives or gaols (Amos and Weathington, 2008).
Link of personal values with Big five traits:
Big five trait are the trait that are needs to be examined in order to find out the ability of the individual to be the leader. All these big five traits include:
Agreeableness: Agreeableness is the trait that is related to the person who believes in making contacts with the people and get along with the people very easily.
Individuals who score high on Agreeableness tend to be good-natured, compliant, modest, gentle, and cooperative. Individuals who score low on this dimension tend to be short-tempered, cruel, suspicious, and stubborn. Agreeableness is highly compatible with the motivational goal of kindness values—concern for the welfare of the other people who are associated with the individual. Agreeableness is also quite compatible with the motivational goals of conformity values and of tradition values. This means that the person with traditional values or are agreeable in nature sticks to their culture and family values and shows the same with the organisations as well (Cobb-Clark and Schurer, 2012). In contrast, Agreeableness conflicts with pursuing dominance and control over others, the goal of power values. There are several values that can be linked to the person who scores high on agreeableness scale such as universalism, transitions, self-motivated, social, straightforward, power and achievement etc.
Extraversion are the people who are extrovert in nature that means that have the capability to speak in public as well as the nature of sharing their opinion with others. Individuals who score high on Extraversion tend to be friendly, fluent, confident, and dynamic; those who score low tend to be introvert, reserved, and cautious. Extraversion is compatible with pursuing excitement, novelty, and challenge, the goals of stimulation values (Fleeson and Wilt, 2010). In addition it, the active and assertive aspects of Extraversion facilitates the goal of achievement values, success through demonstrating competence according to social standards. We therefore hypothesize that Extraversion correlates positively with attributing importance to stimulation, achievement, and self-indulgence values. In contrast, we expect a negative correlation between Extraversion and tradition values. It has been analyse that the individuals who are extrovert does not believe in traditional values. It is concluded from the studies that extraversion is the attitude or the nature of the people and this is linked with the values such as modern, social, loud, dominating etc.
Conscientiousness: Individuals high in Conscientiousness tend to be careful, thorough, responsible, organized, and scrupulous. Those low on this dimension tend to be immature, disorganized, and dishonest. There are two aspects of this theory. The people who are conscientious in nature are motivated and have sense of achievement. The values that are found to be associated with this trait of the person are hardworking, cautious, committed etc.
Openness to experience: It is one of the big five traits that describes the openness of the individual for different types of risks. It describes the capability of the person to face the risks. It has been analysed that the people who have the capability to take risks have somewhat different values the people who do not take risks; they are not courageous in nature and take the steps that are safe. This is also the behaviour or the characteristics of the person that is against the traditional values. This is because the people who are capable of taking risks believe in modern thinking and not on traditional values.
This is the study that focuses on matching the personal values with the organisational values. As far as the variables are considered, it has been analysed that personal values of the people and the organisational values are the independent variables whole the outcomes of the fit between the person and the organisation that is the ethical behaviour and performance outcome is considered as dependent variables.
List of hypothesis:
H1: personal values affect the organisational values of the person.
H2: person and organisational fit affects the ethical behaviour of the company.
H3: personal and organisational behaviour both affects the behaviour of the company.
Data collection is the phase of the research in which the researcher has to collect the relevant data about the research so that the study can be done on that data to find the meaning conclusion out of that (Gill, Stewart, Treasure and Chadwick, 2008). It is the research that involves two types of data collection method. The first is the primary data collection method in which the employees of the companies are interviewed in order to take their views on the topic. The other method that has been used for data collection is secondary method in which many articles have been studied to analyse the findings of prior research that has been conducted on the relevant topics (Peffers, Tuunanen, Rothenberger and Chatterjee, 2007).
Semi structured interviews is the type of interview that has been used in this research. The major aim of this research is to analyse the personal and organisational fit in the companies and to gain the in depth knowledge about the values that are possessed by the individuals and their link with the organisational values, it is required to go with the employees and understand their perspectives. Semi structured interviews are flexible enough so that different questions can be asked as per the answers of the person who is being interviewed. This helps in giving the recent and the actual view of the topic and its associated aspects.
The interview consists of around 8-10 questions and the running time for the same is 45 minutes for each person. Most of the questions are related to the topic and allow the employees to give their insights about the topics and what they actually feel at the workplace.
Sample size and collection:
As prior studies discusses about the persona and organisational fit, but it is not discussed the links between the organisational and the personal values can be linked so that the positive outcomes can be achieved from the organisation. In terms of sample, it is required to take the sample from different industries so that the impact of industrial values and the work that the organisation do can also be studied (Noor, 2008). It is required to study the impact of industry on the values of the organisations so that the intensity of the organisational value linkage can be understood. The sample of this research includes 4 organisations from different industries. The employees selected for the interviews are from different department of the company. As far as the sample method is concerned, the method that has been used in this research is cluster sampling.
Pilot study is the study that is being conducted in order to make the adjustments in the research (Leon, Davis and Kraemer, 2011). It has been analyzed that in this research the researcher have selected only 4 participants from different industries to conduct the interview so that the he can cover the whole sample. This is used to analyze the effectiveness of the method used and to examine the interview question that has been selected to be asked in the interview.
It is required to be ethical at the time of conducting any type of research. As far as tis research is considered, it is the research having a very critical topic that is related to the personal values of the people. The interview questions talks about the culture and the values of the individual and thus it is required to frame the research in such a way so that it does not affect the sentiments of any of the culture or the person. Being ethical in the research helps the researcher to be away from the controversies and thus helps him to conduct the research easily.
Data analysis is the process in which the data that has been collected needs to be analysed so that the meaningful conclusion can be framed from the research. As far as the data collected is concerned, it has been analysed that there are any software available that can be used to sort and examine the data. NVIVO is one of the software that will be used by the researcher in this research (Bazeley and Jackson, 2013). It helps the researcher to sort the data that has been collected for the research. The data that needs to be analysed will be collected from the interviews of the employees only. This is because the other associated information is being analysed by the literature review of the articles and the journals that has been studied by the researcher to understand the prior findings of the research.
Research contribution and gap in previous studies:
The researches that has been conducted related to this topic has suggested that personal values are very much related to the professional values of the people because their personal values affect the nature of the performance and their behaviour at the workplace, it has been analysed that most of the factors affect the professional and personal values of the person but the change in the nature of the people are personal and professional level is not being studied till now. This is because; it has been observed that people behave differently in their personal life and their professional life.
The limitations of the research are that it does not consider the factors other than the organisational factors. This is because there are many factors that can affect the alignment and the management of the personal and the professional values. The other limitation is that the researcher has used semi structured interview as the method to collect the data. It may act as the limitation because the semi structured interviews does not allow the researcher to ask the similar question to all the participants and this may affect the standardization in the method of collecting the data.
The future research can be conducted considering the factors as well such as the personal background of the individuals and the peer behaviour towards them in the organisation. It has been analysed that this is the area where the organisations need to make in depth researches because making the person and the organisational fit is very important.
It has been found from the pilot study of the research that 2 of the participants believes that their personal values are considered in their organisation at the time of making the organisational values and there is a fit between the personal and the organisation. It has been analysed from the interview that their organisation is considering the values of the employees and thus having a great outcomes. This is because of the alignment of the organisational and the personal values of the people who are working there. Two of the other participants suggest that there is no link between the personal and the organisational values. Even though the employees are performing very fine and giving great outcomes. This may be because they are trained to follow the organisational values at the organisation irrespective of their personal values. They suggest that it is difficult to align the personal values of every employee with the organisational and framing the organisational values as per the world or the industry that the organisation works in is better.
It has been concluded from the above report that this is the research that is about the personal and the organisational values and the fit between the personal and the organisation. It has been analysed that personal values develop the nature and behaviour of the personal and also form the basis of how the person deals with the things in different haze of life. Not only in the personal life but the people behaves differently at the organisations as well. This is the research that provides us to analyse the relationship between the personal and the organisations values and how it can be matched to management the people at the organisations. The main focus of the research is values. Values can be defined as the standards and principle of the person that he or she follows during his or her lifetime. A conceptual model has been formulated in the study that discusses about the fit of the personal and the organisational values and its impact on the ethical and performance behaviour of the organisation. Several hypotheses have been made in the research. In the end, the report also discusses about the pilot study that has been conducted on the 4 participants. These participants have been interview dos that the situation of the different companies or the industries can be analysed. As far as the personal values are concerned, it has been concluded that the personal values of the person helps in developing their organisation nature which can be analysed by big five trait of the person.
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