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Research Background

Discuss about the Research Ethics on Nuclear Testing.

The current international law establishment clearly sets out regulations and standards of nuclear testing as well as use of nuclear weapons. However, the law does not prohibit the testing and use of such weapons. It is for this reason that nuclear weapons are distinguished from biological as well as chemical weapons, armaments that are comprehensively banned as per the convention of 1972 Toxin and Bacteriological weapons and the Convention of Chemical Weapons of 1993 respectively (Baylis, 2017).  The third Conference held from 8th to 9th 2014 December majorly focused on the legal gap and discussions on the Impact of nuclear weapons to humans. This gap was noted by the summary of Austria as well as the national pledge, and the desirability of prohibiting it. The most significant role played by Austria was the realization of the existence of both moral and ethical questions inn regard to nuclear weapons which surpass questions of law (Xuan et al., 2017). The ambivalence of law together with other general controversial life areas focuses deeply on human fundamental contradiction of the whole matter in question. Therefore, if international law gap highlighting nuclear weapons are to be eliminated, then their moral status should be the first thing to reflect upon.  

Up to this end and as per the focus of the whole subject, three reasons are thought out including just wart, consequentialism, and deontology. The purpose of the paper is to deliberate on the break with the security under which consequentialist discourse debates on nuclear weapons and how they are framed (Cole, 2017). Nuclear weapons should just be regarded the way they appear and not their purpose, with their moral status being assessed on how they course or inflict suffering (Rosario and Calsolari, 2017). Apart from abstracting and disconnecting them from realities of politics, such examinations brings out crucial questions of how and or whether law makers can be convinced that the singular inhumanity of nuclear weapons makes them unsafe and hence unethical to be used.

Research ethics involve daily activity requirements, the safeguard of the subject dignity as well as the research information publications. When scientists participate in research, they always cope with values such as society and science which may conflict with subject value, societies, and communities and create dilemmas and tensions in nuclear testing (Coffman, Tran, Kip, Berlowitz and Chae, 2017).

Ethical Issues, Integrity, Safety and Risks

The current international law establishment clearly sets out regulations and standards of nuclear testing as well as use of nuclear weapons. However, the law does not prohibit the testing and use of such weapons. It is for this reason that nuclear weapons are distinguished from biological as well as chemical weapons, armaments that are comprehensively banned as per the convention of 1972 Toxin and Bacteriological weapons and the Convention of Chemical Weapons of 1993 respectively (Frankenburg, 2017). The third Conference held from 8th to 9th 2014 December majorly focused on the legal gap and discussions on the Impact of nuclear weapons to humans. This gap was noted by the summary of Austria as well as the national pledge, and the desirability of prohibiting it. The most significant role played by Austria was the realization of the existence of both moral and ethical questions inn regard to nuclear weapons which surpass questions of law (Pieterse and Pruim, 2017). The ambivalence of law together with other general controversial life areas focuses deeply on human fundamental contradiction of the whole matter in question. Therefore, if international law gap highlighting nuclear weapons are to be eliminated, then their moral status should be the first thing to reflect upon. 

Ethical issues concerning nuclear testing surround the ability of the nuclear power plants being in position to provide sufficient power, promotion of the economy of the nation involved, the essence of national defense. The backbone of nuclear testing and nuclear power generation squarely lies on either truth or lies. It all depends on the intention of the personnel at hand. Research has it that most nations carry out the nuclear testing on falsehood and the following forms part of the lies falsehood that the public is fed with. The public is kept behind news that nuclear power generation which happens after taking the plants through testing is a solution to the global warming (Granata, Oliveira, Little, Renner and Bishop,2017). That nuclear energy has nothing in connection with nuclear power. These are the main ethical issues that need an address by international communities and more importantly stakeholders of the deals. Considerations in nuclear testing which comes handy with nuclear power should not be aimed at putting humanity at stake.

The priority list of nuclear generation and further testing should be aimed at peace and sustainability for human development. There should not be any excuse about the integrity of the creation of nuclear power. Integrity should come first over arms as an industry that aims at mobilization of capital and the perpetuation of insecurity (Lee, Murfett and Udayan, 2017). The scared about human life in relation to other creation make up the development, the risks for use as well as the maintenance. Human life and that of other creation should override any other interest. The public which comprise of humanity is called upon to give the best directive in the search for security. Security should in any form override any goal in the process of nuclear power creation. The lies on the nuclear energy cycle should be put clear and on point (Larcos, Prgomet, Georgiou and Westbrook, 2017). It should be in the public domain that the nuclear energy cycle is the main producer of the greenhouse gases. It should be clear and on point that climate change is contributed heavily by the production of nuclear energy.

Pros of Research

It should be understood that during nuclear testing radioactive wastes and ways of disposal is the main challenge. The solution to the problem of nuclear power generation in conjunction with the testing has been ignored and in most cases the proponents claim that the solution would be found. The difference between low and high levels of radioactive wastes is also an issue that needs a solution (Quigley, Lowman and Wing, 2017). The scared about human life in relation to other creation make up the development, the risks for use as well as the maintenance.

Human life and that of other creation should override any other interest. The discussion for nuclear reactors wastes and weapons need a serious discussion. The knowledge that uranium wastes are left unattended to since the mining is carried out in remote areas should need attention (Winchester, Schmalfuss, Wymer, Helfrich and Beyt, 2017). The indigenous population also requires the security and safety from the hazardous uranium wastes. They are part of humanity. The point is that humanity need protection from nuclear related hazards above the consideration that nuclear energy vital in the forms stated earlier.

The unethical nature of nuclear weapons, power and the whole nuclear fuel cycle is obvious in the current world just as the history narrates. Response plan to the issues and risks involves coming up with ways to reduce or do away with threats to research, and also opportunities to upsurge the impacts of nuclear testing. Researchers in the field of nuclear testing should work in ensuring that opportunities occur (Shariff et al., 2017). Likewise, the research is also responsible to reduce the probability and impacts of dangers and increase the possibility and impacts of prospects.  For threats that cannot be alleviated, the research needs to have vigorous contingency plans and even the response plan should contingency fail in its operation. The research does not eliminate all risks of nuclear testing as resource and time are limited.

Conclusion

Nuclear power generation in connection with testing should be done in the manner that it addresses humanity positively. The benefits of nuclear power are many but important is looking at the negative impacts that come along with it. The integrity and security as well as the ethics should be put in consideration. The ways of waste management and the control of the nuclear power should in any way form the framework for the nuclear test (Ornek, Acar, Acar, Ozdemir, Atilgan, Yumusak and Ozgermen, 2017). No objective should override human life and other creations in the environment. Public participation in the process should be part of the agenda in the nuclear testing process.

Cons Research

Baylis, F., 2017. Human Nuclear Genome Transfer (So?Called Mitochondrial Replacement): Clearing the Underbrush. Bioethics, 31(1),pp.7-19. https://scholar.google.com/scholar?q=Baylis%2C+F.%2C+2017.+Human+Nuclear+Genome+Tr.&btnG=&hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5&as_ylo=2017

Cole, L., 2017. Bio-Weapons Testing: History, Ethics, and Values. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, 32(S1), pp.S7-S7.

https://scholar.google.com/scholar?q=Cole%2C+L.%2C+2017.+Bio-Weapons+Testing%3A+History%2C+Ethics%2C+and+Values.+Prehospital+and+Disaster+Medicine%2C+32%28S1%29%2C+pp.S7-S7.&btnG=&hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5&as_ylo=2017

Coffman, J., Tran, T., Kip, K., Berlowitz, M.S. and Chae, S.H., 2017. Consultation to a Cardiologist Prior to Low Risk Procedures Generates Excessive Testing and Cost Without Affecting Outcomes in Patients with Stable Ischemic Heart Disease.

https://scholar.google.com/scholar?q=Coffman%2C+J.%2C+Tran%2C+T.%2C+Kip%2C+K.%2C+Berlowitz%2C+M.S.+and+Chae%2C+S.H.%2C+2017.  

Frankenburg, F.R., 2017. In November 1986, Massachusetts congressman Ed Markey released a report titled American Nuclear Guinea Pigs: Three Decades of Radiation Experiments on US Citizens that describes 31 human radiation experiments involving nearly 700 people. This report received little coverage, and the Department of Energy (DOE) did not follow Markey’s recommendations to locate the subjects to compensate them. Journalist Eileen. Human Medical Experimentation: From Smallpox Vaccines to Secret Government Programs, p.289.

https://scholar.google.com/scholar?q=Human+Medical+Experimentation%3A+From+Smallpox+Vaccines+to+Secret+Government+Programs%2C+p.289.+&btnG=&hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5&as_ylo=2017

Granata, C., Oliveira, R.S., Little, J.P., Renner, K. and Bishop, D.J., 2017. Sprint-interval but not continuous exercise increases PGC-1α protein content and p53 phosphorylation in nuclear fractions of human skeletal muscle. Scientific Reports, 7, p.44227.

Larcos, G., Prgomet, M., Georgiou, A. and Westbrook, J., 2017. A work observation study of nuclear medicine technologists: interruptions, resilience and implications for patient safety. BMJ Qual Saf, 26(6), pp.466-474.

https://scholar.google.com/scholar?q=Larcos%2C+G.%2C+Prgomet%2C+M.%2C+Georgiou%2C+A.+and+Westbrook%2C+J.%2C+2017. 2017

Lee, A.Y.S., Murfett, L. and Udayan, R.A.Y., 2017. Comparison of the prevalence of antinuclear antibody and subserology in urban and rural settings. Archives of Rheumatology, 32(1), pp.086-088.

https://scholar.google.com/scholar?q=Coffman%2C+J.%2C+Tran%2C+T.%2C+Kip%2C+K.%2C+Berlowitz%2C+M.S.+and+Chae%2C+S.H.%2C+2017. 

Ornek, F., Acar, D.E., Acar, U., Ozdemir, O., Atilgan, H.I., Yumusak, N. and Ozgermen, B.B., 2017. Short-and long-term effects of zinc treatment on lacrimal gland histopathology and tear functions tests in radioiodine-administered rats. Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia, 80(1), pp.35-40.

https://scholar.google.com/scholar?.+Arquivos+Brasileiros+de+Oftalmologia%2C+80%281%29%2C+pp.35-40.&btnG=&hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5&as_ylo=2017

Pieterse, H. and Pruim, J., 2017. Good Clinical Practices in (Nuclear) Research. In Quality in Nuclear Medicine (pp. 23-57). Springer International Publishing.

Quigley, D., Lowman, A. and Wing, S. eds., 2017. Tortured science: Health studies, ethics and nuclear weapons in the United States. Routledge.

https://scholar.google.com/scholar?q=Human+Medical+Experimentation%3A+From+Smallpox+Vaccines+to+Secret+Government+Programs%2C+p.289.+&btnG=&hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5&as_ylo=2017

Rosario, P.W. and Calsolari, M.R., 2017. Importance of cytological subclassification of thyroid nodules with Bethesda category III cytology (AUS/FLUS) into architectural atypia only and nuclear atypia: A prospective study. Diagnostic Cytopathology.

https://scholar.google.com/scholar?q=Baylis%2C+F.%2C+2017.+Human+Nuclear+Genome+Tr.&btnG=&hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5&as_ylo=2017

Shariff, M.I., Kim, J.U., Ladep, N.G., Gomaa, A.I., Crossey, M.M., Okeke, E., Banwat, E., Waked, I., Cox, I.J., Williams, R. and Holmes, E., 2017. The Plasma and Serum Metabotyping of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in a Nigerian and Egyptian Cohort using Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology.

https://scholar.google.com/scholar?q=Coffman%2C+J.%2C+Tran%2C+T.%2C+Kip%2C+K.%2C+Berlowitz%2C+M.S.+and+Chae%2C+S.H.%2C+2017. 

Winchester, D.E., Schmalfuss, C., Wymer, D.C., Helfrich, C.D. and Beyth, R.J., 2017. Feasibility of Audit and Feedback for Reducing Rarely Appropriate Nuclear Myocardial Perfusion Imaging Among Veterans.

Xuan, W.B., Wang, F.X., Zhou, L.J., Wang, T., Chen, J., Lei, Z.Q. and Yang, H., 2017. Research on Full-Scale Hydrostatic Burst Testing of Different Pipeline Girth Weld Defects. In Applied Mechanics and Materials (Vol. 853, pp. 351-355). Trans Tech Publications.

https://scholar.google.com/scholar?q=Larcos%2C+G.%2C+Prgomet%2C+M.%2C+Georgiou%2C+A.+and+Westbrook%2C+J.%2C+2017. 2017

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