Discuss about the Research Method and their Paradigms for ICT.
Exploratory research is carried out when the scope of research is unknown and the topic is fertile that was discovered as literature gap. It is also known as grounded theory and it can be applied to social science along with that of humanities when the phenomenon is not deterministic. ICT innovations like that of smart phone and laptop have made the students academically dull- is a kind of topic that can be dealt with by taking recourse to exploratory research (Alvesson & Sköldberg, 2017). The results will be different in different countries and even within the same country it will yield different results. It is used in order to form a hypothesis and not to form one. Exploratory research can provide valuable insights in order to carry out further research.
A paradigm comprises of set of assumptions that illustrates how things work. In the words of Rossman and Rollis, it means “shared understandings of reality”. Some of the assumptions are whether the truth can be determined for all situations, whether everyone agrees on it and what are the evidences that can be made use of in order to determine the truth (Cohen, Manion, & Morrison, 2013).
In Descriptive research, a large amount of data is collected regarding variables and then they are measured in order to reach causal relationship. It makes use of quantitative method and mathematical methods are made use of in order to arrive at a solution. It makes use of the scientific method and it examines issues relating to what, where and when (Coolican, 2017). It involves research around a concept or situation about what the researcher knows but he wants to elaborate on what he/she has observed. They can involve techniques that are quantitative or an assimilation of qualitative along with quantitative method. A descriptive research topic is whether increasing the rate in taxes will help in reducing investment and affect in a negative manner economic growth opportunities.
This involves the administering of a large number of questionnaires along with interviews to respondents who have been selected randomly. Econometric tests are carried out like that of autocorrelation, sampling error test and multiple regression analysis. Descriptive Research methods produce rich amount of data that helps in forming important recommendations (Creswell, 2013). Survey methods can be carried out which can be termed as marginal tabulation. For example, outcome of public opinion polls can be reported in news media with the help of marginal tabulation. Descriptive research provides important information in the identification of tactics along with changes within the arena of instructional design. Survey data can also be used in order to explore the relationship in between two or more than two variables. Investigating relationships is possible in case of survey data that will contribute in making a substantial contribution as compared to those researchers who confine their data analysis within the field of single variable description. Questionnaires are flexible in nature as they can refer to past, present or the future phenomena (Denscombe, 2014).
Explanatory Research makes use of cause along with effect analysis and it is widely used in the case of doctoral research where there is enough scope for originality. It devotes a large amount of attention to why and how and makes extensive use of an in-depth analysis. An example of topic in the domain of explanatory research is- Constitutional lapses force the local governments to become inefficient in relation to service delivery. It is also known as casual research and it is carried out in order to specifically identify nature in relation to cause and effect relationship. It is generally carried out in order to understand the impact of certain changes on the norms that are existing (Padgett, 2016). It generally focuses on analysing a situation or a particular problem in order to expound on the pattern of relationship existing between variables. For example, if 20% of the students fail in a particular exam explanatory research will be able to tell the reason behind this failure.
It involves quantitative studies and makes use of hypothesis testing. The following are the assumptions of quantitative research. The steps involve specifying the research goals and devising the research questions (Schmidt & Hunter, 2014). The literature has to be reviewed and the hypothesis is to be formulated. Formulating hypothesis will involve reducing the problem to a falsified statement related to a set of variables of interest (Sekaran & Bougie, 2016).
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Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2013). Research methods in education. Routledge.
Coolican, H. (2017). Research methods and statistics in psychology. Psychology Press.
Creswell, J. W. (2013). Research design. Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches, 20-30.
Denscombe, M. (2014). The good research guide. For small-scale social research projects, 90-100.
Padgett, D. K. (2016). Qualitative methods in social work research. Sage Publications.
Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. E. (2014). Methods of meta-analysis. Correcting error and bias in research findings.
Sekaran, U., & Bougie, R. (2016). Research methods for business. A skill building approach, 120-40.