Discuss about the Research Methodologies for Management of Knowledge.
Theory helps the researcher to understand the construct and paves the way to evaluate the construct. After deciding the way the construct can be operationalized the researcher decides the dependent and the independent variable. Observation is made based on the effect of the independent variables on the dependent variables.
Theory helps a researcher to establish a connection between the hypothesis and the result. The researcher assumes a situation and then moves forward with the investigation. The theory talks about the concrete evidences and helps the researcher by paving the way to reach a proper outcome of the research work.
The X theory states that when the employees are unmotivated and dislike working, then the management has to implement the authoritarian style of management (?ahin 2012).
The Y-theory states that when the employees are happy and motivated, then the management implements participative style of management.
Constructs can be defined as the trait or the characteristics that is evaluated in the research paper (Cohen, Manion and Morrison 2013). The researcher carries out various investigations to find out more about that trait or characteristics
Theory helps the researcher to evaluate the construct in a research paper. Theories help talks about the concrete examples regarding topic. Once a researcher is evaluating a construct, the person can make use of the theory to evaluate the construct. The theory will help the researcher to understand whether the hypothesis taken in relation to the construct is supported or rejected.
Three examples of management constructs are:
- Corporate social responsibility
- Organizational culture
- Financial performance
Corporate social responsibility can be operationalized by making use of the sustainable practice within the organization (Gordon and Grant 2013). Another way of putting corporate social responsibility into operation is by helping that population of the society who cannot afford to make proper living for them.
Organizational culture can be operationalized by increasing employee engagement. In addition to this, motivating the employees can also help in operationalizing organizational culture.
Financial performance can be operationalized by introducing the act of reusing and recycling. Once the waste materials will be process and reused, it will help in enhancing the financial performance. On the other hand, proper marker research will also be helpful to operationalize financial performance.
Hypothesis can be defined as the proposition or supposed statement that is made in the beginning of the research (Green, Camilli and Elmore 2012). The hypothesis is proposed when the researcher has little or no evidence and bases further investigation on that hypothesis to reach a proper conclusion.
Roles of the hypothesis can be as follows:
- Hypothesis acts an enquiry and helps the researcher to understand the destination of the project.
- Hypothesis helps the researcher to separate irrelevant and relevant observation that are necessary in a situation.
- Hypothesis helps the researcher to select the facts that will be helpful for the research work. The researcher can refer to the hypothesis and then decide the facts that will be necessary to complete the research work.
- As the name suggests external validity is about external environment. It talks about generalization and measures effect of the research on population, ecological settings and the variables of the research (Schwarz and Sudman 2012).
- Internal validity can be described as the measure that evaluates whether the researcher has minutely followed the principle of cause and effect of a phenomenon (Newton 2012).
- Construct validity evaluates whether the researcher has live up to his or her claims (Wahyuni 2012). When a researcher has said that he or she would investigate a topic, then the result should be that topic and not other related topics.
The above-mentioned validities are important for a research work as the society should know how the findings would be helpful. When a person is referring to the work, he or she should find the things that have been claimed in the research and not other topics. If a researcher is carrying out a research on depression, it should not about stress but only depression. A research should make the readers aware of every aspect of a topic. Hence, not only the effect but the cause is also important for the research paper.
While collecting data for a research work, it is important to random sampling as the individuals should be considered equal and everybody will get a fair chance to put their views regarding any subject (Baker, Edwards and Doidge 2012). Moreover, random sampling helps in removing the systematic bias from the part of the researcher. the participants are not differentiated based in the race or ethnicity and are chosen without any biasness.
Sample frame is the population from where the respondents for the research are chosen.
Sample frame helps the researcher to decide the types of respondents required for random sampling. For example, to study about online shopping, the researcher will have to choose the sample frame like office areas or university. If the sample frame is of old age homes, then, the research would not be fruitful as the senior citizens living in old homes would not be well acquainted with online shopping.
The 1200 pages will act as 1200 clusters. As there are 250 names on one page, hence the number of elements for the researcher will be 30000 elements.
Random sampling can be done by selecting an alphabet to choose the samples. For example, in the first stage the names of the people will be arranges whose surnames starts with C. in the second stage, the names will be arranged on the ascending order by the number of letters present in the surname. Once the names will be arranged in the ascending order, the first 300 samples will be chosen for the interview. Many respondents might not pick up the phone or might not to take the survey. The researcher will have to continue the phone calls until 200 respondents give their response about the topic.
Baker, S.E., Edwards, R. and Doidge, M., 2012. How many qualitative interviews is enough?: Expert voices and early career reflections on sampling and cases in qualitative research.
Cohen, L., Manion, L. and Morrison, K., 2013. Research methods in education. Routledge.
Gordon, R. and Grant, D., 2013. Knowledge management or management of knowledge? Why people interested in knowledge management need to consider Foucault and the construct of power. Tamara: Journal for Critical Organization Inquiry, 3(2).
Green, J.L., Camilli, G. and Elmore, P.B., 2012. Handbook of complementary methods in education research. Routledge.
Newton, P.E., 2012. Clarifying the consensus definition of validity. Measurement: Interdisciplinary Research & Perspective, 10(1-2), pp.1-29.
?ahin, F., 2012. The mediating effect of leader–member exchange on the relationship between Theory X and Y management styles and affective commitment: A multilevel analysis. Journal of Management & Organization, 18(02), pp.159-174.
Schwarz, N. and Sudman, S. eds., 2012. Autobiographical memory and the validity of retrospective reports. Springer Science & Business Media.
Wahyuni, D., 2012. The research design maze: Understanding paradigms, cases, methods and methodologies. Journal of applied management accounting research, 10(1), pp.69-80.