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Research Proposal And Research Methodology Assignment Add in library

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Questions:

1. Describe about Research Proposal and Research Methodology Assignment? Also Explain:

1) Introduction
2) Research question
3) Literature Review
4) Methodology
5) Data Collection
6) Limitations

 

 

Answers:

1. Introduction

It has been observed that the bullying majorly happens in the schools, communities and homes. However, these types of events sometimes describes as “rite of passage”. However, through some of the studies it has been observed that bullying is not a sudden rising issue rather it is a socially learned activity. Through, this kind of social learning does not comes from the conventional society it comes from the arrogance developed through some of the unfavourable incidents within the school boundaries. However, through the study by Kokkinos et al. (2014) it has been observed that bullying is not only the problem of youth but also a problem of every age group. Some of the initiatives through programs like “anti-bullying” have been initiated to reduce the bullying events but it requires more of a social initiative to encounter this problem. Currently most of the advanced schools have implemented monitoring mechanism with the help of technology and this monitoring to some extent helped to reduce the bullying events. The method of bullying activity differs according to the situations and according to the mentality of the students. However, most commonly found bullying activities are threatening, cyber-bullying. In some of the events, it has been observed that the bullying happened due to the religion and race. 

2. Research Questions

  • What kind of bullying majorly happens in schools?
  • How does it is hampering the image of the schools?
  • How it is affecting the student’s mental health?
  • What action they took to minimize the bullying within the schools premises?
  • What kind of awareness does the school develops and through what kind of events about the bullying?
  • How the school helped the parents to deal with the bullying issues?

 

 

3. Literature Review

Most of the researchers who majorly worked on bullying described their responsiveness to the relationship between the level of bullying and the internal operating environment of the schools. ). In most of the cases, it has been identified that those students who got bulled inside the schools went into a mental trauma. This happened majorly in the cases of kids and young youths. The bullying took them into a depressed state where they starts found themselves alone. This gradually affects their daily lifestyle and due to that the academic and the social performances of those students starts decreasing (Kousholt & Fisker, 2014).  

Through the different studies, it has been identified that the bullying inside the school premise has a very long-term effect on the students. Bullying majorly affects the mental health of the students especially the young students. The study by Kousholt & Fisker (2014) has seen that the mental illness like chronic anxiety, depression and suicidal tendency develops very silently within the minds of the victims. According to the report provided by Embury & Saklofske (2014) has very critically shown that in current times the bullying in schools is quite unavoidable. However, current most of the schools are trying to increase a co-ordination between parents and teachers to identify the sign of distress attitude within the students that can help them to identify the bullying activities. 

One of the most shocking data was provided by the George Washington University (2004), which reflects that most of teachers do not have the adequate training to handle the bullying issues. The same study had shown a very different thing on bullying. It shows that 70% of the students have carried the bullying attitude from their seniors. However, according to some of the teachers, the bullying is nothing but a common incident of life and it should be taken sportingly rather than seriously (The George Washington University, 2004).         

However, according to Arcus (2002) to battle bullying behaviors all school should adjust a zero patience policy towards any forms of bullying. Therefore, the observation on the bullying activities from the students could help to identify the intrinsic or extrinsic source of bullying. The identification of the bullying motivation will also provide a snapshot about from which circumstances and from which social aspects the growth of bullying is actually happening.  If the source of bullying can be identified it will be very much easy to handle this phenomenon.

Through some of the other studies, it has been observed that the response from the teachers differs in several ways in accordance with the situation and events (Olweus, 1993). According to the study by Marshall et al. (2009) it has been observed that the teachers tried to manage the bullying events through their earlier experiences. However, the degree of management majorly differs due to the intent and the involvement issue from the teachers end. Sometimes it has been observed that some of the teachers are very much proactive to handle the issue on the other hand in some cases it has been observed that some of the teachers were not so much active to minimize the consequences of bullying. Through some other studies, it has been observed that some of the teachers tried to encounter the issue with constructive approach. However, both these approaches are very much evident. The most important point was pointed out by the study of Rodkin & Gest (2011) through stating that the development of the classrooms internal cultural will help to handle the issue more effectively than others.

According to the research by Craig (1998) and Arcus (2002) it has been observed that the consequences of bullying sometimes gone to the extreme. It has been observed that sometimes the consequences lead to the chronic depression and suicidal attempts from the students. The suicidal trend is very much higher in the cases of young students because they consider it as a social humiliation (Rodkin & Gest, 2011). According to the study by Embury & Saklofske (2014), it has been observed that most of the bullying cases hampered the psychological health of the students. It most of the time reduces the academic and the social participation interest from the bulled students. The National Education Association produced the most shocking evidence. It showed that students who became a repeated victim of bullying inside the school premises it develop the learning disability within themselves. However, through some of the reports it has been observed that schools are claiming that they are taking care of the bullying incidents through doing activities like counseling and increasing the events like group participative sports (Rodkin & Gest, 2011). However, it has been observed that the incidents on bullying are not decreasing significantly.    

Two separate research conducted by Craig (1998) it has been observed that mental disorders like the suicidal tendencies, anxiety and social identity crisis starts developing due to the bullying activities. Some of the other studies very specifically pointed out that the kids are more affected by the psychological disorders like depression and anxiety. However, the suicidal tendency is majorly appears within the young kids and the most influential reason behind this is that the young kids considers bullying is a social humiliation for them.

According to Helpin and Croft’s (1963) the internal climate of a school influences the behavioral nature of a school. This study also states that the internal culture majorly helps in the development of the friendly climate and the proper personality of the students. This development majorly helped the students to grow a positive attitude within them. This personality and the attitude development influence the minimization of the bullying activities within the school premises.

 

4. Research Methodology and Data Collection

4.0.1 Orientation of the Sample population

The sample population will consists of students from 8th to 12th standard. However, other than the students the parents of the students and the teachers will also be considered as the member of the sample population for the continuation of this research. Therefore, the orientation of the sample population will be :

 

                       Population Groups

Number of participants

1

Students (Grade 8 to 12)

30 students

2

Teachers

30 teachers (including supervisors)

3

Parents

30 Parents

Table 1: Sample population Orientation

(Source: Created by Author)

However, to select this sample random sampling will be considered. The main reason for the selection of the random selection is that the random sample selection will reduce the chances of any kind of sample biasness. Therefore, the transparency of the sample selection will be intact.

 

4.0.2 Research Design

To conduct this research a cross-sectional study will be done. The cross-sectional study helps to analyze the psychological development of the phenomenon. The main reason for the selection of the cross-sectional study is that it will provide a scope to analyze an event not through cause-effect relationships but through observation of a population. The cross-sectional study will help to gather the supportive primary data that will support the analyzed data during the data analysis.

On the other hand, the research will be done through the descriptive study through keeping a focus on the structured development of the questionnaires. The entire study will be conducted through the proposed sample orientation. The students will be questioned through a one to one interview in the presence of their parents. Thorough this interview the main motto will be to collect data about their bullying incidents. The sub-lining motto will be to identify how that event affected their mental health. On the other hand, through interviewing the parents the researcher will try to understand how the bullying affected their child’s behavior and how the schools responded to it. This interview will be conducted in a neutral venue and nature will be one to one. However, teachers will be questioned through creating a focus group. The main motto of this focus group interview will be to analyze and identify the pulses of the teaches on the bullying issue. Therefore, the open-ended questions will provided a detailed view about the issue whereas the close-ended questions will provide a snapshot of the issue.

 

4.0.3 Instruments of the Research

To conduct this research both the open-ended and the close-ended questions will be developed. Keeping the sensitivity on the mind the quantitative questions will be designed for the students and the parents. The design of the questions will be such a kind that it will help to focus on a particular point rather than focusing on a broader points. However, the questions for the teachers will be designed with the open-ended questions. The main reason for designing the open-ended questions is that it will help to bring more insight view of the issue. This insight view will help the researcher to extract more detailed information about the form and the motive of bullying that happens inside the school premises. This form and motive helps in the identification of the source of the bullying attitude.

4.0.4 Research Time Table

Table 2: Research Timetable

(Source: Created by Author)

5.0 Limitations

The major limitation of this research work is as it is an academic research, most of the schools and the teachers may not show much interest to participate in the interview. On the other hand, the parents may not allow their kids to participate in the interview. The main reason behind this is that they may think that the questioning on the sensitive issues may degrade the mental stability of their kids. Other than these, time will be a major limitation for this research project because more periods could provide more data on the phenomenon.

 

Reference List

A Halpin, & Croft, D. (1963). The Organizational Climate of Schools. Chicago: University of Chicago.

Arcus, D. (2002). School shooting fatalities and school corporal punishment: A look at the states. Aggressive Behavior, 28(3), 173-183. doi:10.1002/ab.90020

Brinson, Sabrina A. (2005). Boys don’t tell on sugar-and-spice-but-not-so-nice girl bullies. Reclaiming Children and Youth: The Journal of Strength-based Interventions, 14, 169-174.

Craig, W. M. (1998). The relationship among bullying, victimization, depression, anxiety, and aggression in elementary school children.Personality and Individual Differences, 24(1).

Kokkinos, C., Antoniadou, N., & Markos, A. (2014). Cyber-bullying: An investigation of the psychological profile of university student participants. Journal Of Applied Developmental Psychology, 35(3), 204-214. doi:10.1016/j.appdev.2014.04.001

Kousholt, K., & Fisker, T. (2014). Approaches to Reduce Bullying in Schools - A Critical Analysis from the Viewpoint of First- and Second-Order Perspectives on Bullying. Child Soc, n/a-n/a. doi:10.1111/chso.12094

L. Marshall, Varjas, K., Meyers, J., Graybill, E. C., & Skoczylas, R. B. (2009). Teacherresponses to bullying: self-reports from the front line. Journal of School Violence, 8(2),136-158. doi: 10.1080/15388220802074124

Olweus, D. (1993). Bullying at school - What we know and what we can do. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers

C. Rodkin, & Gest, S. D. (2011). Teaching practices, classroom peer ecologies, and bullyingbehaviors among schoolchildren. In D. L. Espelage & S. M. Swearer (Eds.), Bullying in North American Schools (2nd ed., pp. 75-90). New York: Routledge.

Prince-Embury, S., & Saklofske, D. (2014). Resilience Interventions for Youth in Diverse Populations. Dordrecht: Springer.

The George Washington University. (2004, December 15). Bullying - Is it part of growing up, or part of school violence. Retrieved from The Center for Health and Health Care in Schools: https://www.healthinschools.org/News-Room/InFocus/2004/Issue-2.aspx
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