Discuss About The Responsibility Industry Corporate Social?
In today’s industry practices, Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is dishevelled with many MNC’s and industries in strategic planning procedures. The drivers behind CSR can be due to the reason for showing responsibility towards human and environment. This can also be said that company’s along with producing product or service has to take responsibility to satisfy entire stakeholders those can be common people, employees, owners, buyers or government. According to Mallen Baker, "CSR is about how companies manage the business processes to produce an overall positive impact on society" (Careers and Industry Guide, 2017) Competitors, government and populations often influence organisations to destabilize or undertake unethical motives. Laws and penalties levied by government and legal bodies keep safeguard of ethics and social values of industries. Legal processes if structured accordingly ensure international borders are not exposed only for self interest. CSR’s confirms shareholders that their organisations provide maximum profit out of processes while ensuring to make positive impact on environment and society. Implementation of CSR in industries has been visible immensely since the last decade as organisations are tending to be modest in behaving under CSR criteria’s (Aras, 2008). Australian companies those are listed in stock exchange have taken initiatives by showing their part of responsibility towards nation. According to a study made by Australian Centre for CSR, Australian companies have increased their awareness regarding CSR (Mendoza, 2017). Good initiatives shall always be encouraged so that working with communities proactively alleviates the potential by damaging obstructions in business and create significant benefits for long term (The conversation Media Group, 2017). This report will make research on implementation of CSR while demonstrating the way corporate governance may contribute to higher standards of business performance and accountability in mining industry of Australia.
Mining industries are accountable for a noteworthy proportion of GDP in many developed nations and has an impending prospective to deliver sustainable economic growth to worlds most needful communities. In global context, the societal anticipation is growing towards corporate, especially in developing nations to foster responsibility by not generating profits only but benefiting entire community with their presence. Large MNC’s and global resource’s sectors are responding to expectations by adopting high profile range of CSR guidelines and sustainability frameworks along with serving public relation practices. Despite of considerable potential in economy along with environmental and social impact on mass commune, many low profile and small Australian mining and exploration companies operates ignoring CSR practice in the country (Rice, 2016). While making the research it was found that junior levelled industries and communities focussed to approach CSR and while visualising the contraction in operations, they failed to understand the overall importance of CSR (Lyons, 2016). Various theories in CSR will explore the complex force that shapes mid tier mining industry in Australia and implement CSR and sustainability in their challenging operational environment.
The critical research in CSR practices of resources sector has been seen delivering inappropriate operations and also been accused of making unexpected processes. CSR programmes are been conceded without consulting communities and is been carried without thinking about its priorities. Those industries are also criticised as developers of environment and social damage whereas billion dollar brands becomes vulnerable to communities and suffer fallouts from mining sector without sharing much benefits out of it. Global conglomerates in mining sector remain only handful that also dominates the industry. Many junior resources industries who explore potential mineral deposits are sold off to big companies in order to develop and carry business according to country’s austere laws and regulations (Scilly, 2017). Thus they have pitiable reputation and have got a history of getting targeted by developing nations which has got weak environmental regulations. These companies lack CSR knowledge and the amount of significance they has on the regions they operate which is the reason they are been under rated in CSR and sustainability investigation and shows that larger companies gets disproportionate focus. This report will make study of few CSR theories which will assist small mining industries and develop their challenging force while responding to social expectations and behaviour towards environment in responsible way.
Institutional theory: This theory states that the behaviour of firm’s is regulated by institutional field or environment. The major constituents of field include scope of firm’s activity, social context and network of social relationships. The institutional environment brings uniformity in practices carried by businesses through mechanisms namely normative, coercive and mimetic. Mimetic practices deals with peer strain on firms to obey rules. Coercive refers to technical pressure that aspires companies to get align with societal prospect. Normative mechanism refers to internalization of credence about sustainability and suitability of behaviour. The forces of institutional theory drive organisations to get in line with belief and social norms along with internalization of processes from external force. Mining industries in Australia can be conceptualised as socially co ordinate unit which functions on an incessant basis to achieve goals. Thus it can be said that specific group of organisations are likely to be exaggerated by regulations. CSR designates the organisation to voluntarily behave by not harming its stakeholders and besides looking into business issues, also look after environmental and social issues. The institutions drive organisations to select norms and align their behaviour with norms, while institutional theory demonstrates the reason behind performing CSR activities (Mishra, 2016).
Integrative theory: This theory focuses on detecting and scans respondents of social demands while generating social authenticity. Integrative theory enables exceeding social acceptance and prestige of companies by making corporate laws in favour of society and environment. The management identifies issues in corporate and evaluates while responding to political and social issues those might place impact on business. The basic responsibility towards public in this theory considers suitable managerial behaviour that is found in relevance with people policy. The board prototype of social trend is reflected in public opinion and reduction in social issues. Legal requirements and enforcements are also said as drivers of such CSR theories in industries and implementation processes for sustainability. Managing stakeholders is an approach towards public who are directly or indirectly affected by industries policies and procedures. This theory increases the advantages by stimulating sensitivity of people and environment as then the stakeholders might understand the dilemmas faced by organisations. Corporate social performance can also be said as a set of theories which searches for social authenticity while giving efforts towards gaining appropriate response (Garriga, 2004).
Utilitarian theory: Under this theory the corporations performs as an element of economic system which has got functional mechanisms traditionally known as profit maximising. Corporate responsibility idea had emerged after realising the need for economic responsibility along with maintaining ethics in business. According to analysis made by Secchi, utilitarian theory gives way to businesses by determining individualism in controlling public and responsibilities towards self and social communities (ISMAIL, 2009). This theory is synonymous with instrumental theory under which the corporate are seen only as an instrument for creating wealth, and social activities for them are only a tool for achieving economic results. In instrumental theory, the basic idea behind investments is to invest in local communities only and according to Friedman, the investors shall perform activities that serve revenues for long terms while providing resources and facilities for the source of income of public living in similar community. On the other hand utilitarian theory is associated to strategies for competitive advantage theories as formulated by authors like Porter and Cramer, who have formulated their theories according to dynamic use of natural resources for competitive advantage. These theories also include unselfish nature of industries as they are recognised socially and treated as an instrument for marketing purpose. Utilitarian theory can further be divided into social cost theory and functionalism theory. The social economic system of communities is highly influenced by non economic forces of corporate which are the basis of social cost theory or instrumental theory in CSR and shall be taken as social power of companies whose specific purpose is to build relationship between politics and society. The functionalism theory advocates that industries and corporations are seen as a part of economic system whose ultimate goal is making profits and the firms shall make investments so that stakeholders get maximum profits out of it. Thus, the basic purpose behind this theory is to give industrial systems a defensive tool i.e. CSR tactic that could provide making balance between profiteering and social objective for equilibrium of economic system (ISMAIL, 2009).
Implementation strategy of CSR program as stated by Lynch (2006) is been developing as compared to earlier days. The key factors emphasizing strategies of company are welfare and competition improvement, market competition, global and local demands, empowerment and involvement of workers for setting industry policies, evolution of technological and communicational forms and lastly the fallout of industries due to ethical problems. According to the author, social responsibility and innovation are taking crucial part in industries strategies (Setyadi, 2013). The strategy contains overall of the organisation and states how the company carry their structure and financial models while stating their allocation of available resources to realise maximum outputs. Competitive or business strategy which shows the level of competition with the surroundings includes its competitors. While the operational strategy concentrates on various divisions of company that offers contribution. Some authors have also put an effort in maintaining sustainability of mining sector by including a category in corporate strategies. The strategy that mentions sustainability strategies in industries is based on knowledge management and social information which supports the continuity in mining operations. By implementing this strategy, mining companies applies for advancement in enhanced corporate governance, turnover and social environment (Ranängen, 2015). In order to get sustainable advantage, maintaining nominal economic performance is necessary so that stakeholder’s expectation is fulfilled. The companies will not survive if normal CSR is not carried by it unless; government subsidy or funding from private entry is provided (Yakovleva, 2005).
The first level in implementing CSR in mining industry is to achieve turnover as bigger the profits are, bigger allotment can be made for CSR programmes. A fair CSR strategy will always carry responsibility by following the principle of fairness and equity which requires considerable amount of investment in it. Industries can conduct communication and uphold fair relationship with local community along with government by operating safely and making profit without interfering in their day to day life. Second strategy that can be applied is improving mining operations is by strengthening development of business. As mining industries operates on natural resources those are non-renewable in nature, the company, to remain sustainable has to find new locations whenever their present locations seems to be dwindling (Hohnen, 2007). Implementing CSR program in mining industry is difficult as in the exploration phases the companies cannot implement profit enhancing strategies. Therefore only investment preservation strategies suites best for them which is why local communities and government are required to be maintained for generating favourable situations in preservation process. Investors also look for environmental situations and preservations to decide upon investment of their capital. However to carry operations between communities and company, ethics maintenances is also required to be considered as many companies closes due to ethical misbehaviour. It is expected that mining industries shall also implement ethical duties in their CSR strategies as it constitutes as an important role in industry environment (Setyadi, 2013).
This report has made analysis of various theories and strategies in implementation process of CSR programs for sustainability in mining industry in Australia. In order to get motivation behind implementing it, benefits behind implementation process shall also be seen by the companies that could secure them for operating their mining business while strengthening relation with their surroundings. Socially tied mining industries are quick in realising success as compared to no social tied ones. If companies do not maintain CSR in their business, the activities carried by them become highly vulnerable. In order to get continuous run and sustainability, CSR programs is highly recommendable as the benefits received then can be seen by both company and communities (Muir, 2015). Besides, the chance of improving infrastructure and healthy lifestyle is observed; it will also reduce the burden in terms of education and earnings. Government is also benefitted by getting a relief in the form of establishments made according to welfare of people and promoting regions which are unrecognised (Ksiezak, 2016). Therefore, when companies establishes CSR practices and coordinates with government, sustainable development is realised easily. Other benefits of CSR programs and knowledge management makes organisations committed to making employees learn and develop talent pool in them so that work efficiency is increased. Increment in accountability standards and performance is recognised quickly while CSR are taken as compulsory process in company’s operations. The reputation and publicity improves relationship with stakeholders while local communities become supportive. Innovation and cost curtailing is obtained while getting an access to markets and thus chance of increasing production becomes conventional. While involving community and practicing in social responsible manner, environment is protected along with securing human rights and fair operational practices. The company’s brand identity is also strengthened by approaching to CSR institutions rather than focussing on making advertisements only which are limited to few audiences (Creative Commons, 2017).
After making analysis of CSR implementation processes, theories and role of CSR for maintaining sustainability in mining sector, the junior mining sectors in Australia demands involvement of three parties i.e. government, company, and society. The implementation of CSR shall be made from the beginning stage of commencement and while entering into the sites. The benefits achieved by the industries can be seen with stability in operations and achieving sustainability by getting permits from government and social communities. One of the most successful mining industries situated in Australia is BHP Billiton who has set an example for other mining industries in terms of maintaining CSR programs in mining operations (BHP Billiton: Resourcing the Future, 2014). Benefits received from implementation of CSR process in few mining industries proves that maintaining social responsibility along with profit making is highly appreciated by government and people. Normally mining sites are located in villages and underdeveloped regions, realising community development is ascertained if CSR program enabled companies are increased in those areas and government shall also support for such grateful presence of companies in those areas. On the other hand, companies shall also maintain their part of responsibility to support sustainability of mining industry in Australia. Environmentally, minimising side effects shall also be considered by companies by taking environment as their first priority. During the time when new site is detected, peeling of soil and plants is done which is threatening the biodiversity in those areas. Thus companies are challenged to avoid making adverse collision of territory and minimise destruction by changing procedures. Thought out mining plan can safeguard biodiversity and environmental destruction. Therefore on concluding note it can be said mining companies who shows utmost interest in environment and CSR are the ones who contributes to high standards of accountability and business performance while possessing sustainable division in country (Yakovleva, 2000)
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ISMAIL, M., 2009. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND ITS ROLE IN COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT: AN INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE. [Online] Available at: https://www.sosyalarastirmalar.com/cilt2/sayi9pdf/ismail_maimunah.pdf [Accessed 09 October 2017].
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Lyons, M., 2016. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY (CSR) IN JUNIOR AND MID-TIER AUSTRALIAN RESOURCES COMPANIES OPERATING IN DEVELOPING NATIONS – BEYOND THE PUBLIC RELATIONS OFFENSIVE. [Online] Available at: https://eprints.qut.edu.au/92310/1/Margaret_Lyons_Thesis.pdf [Accessed 09 October 2017].
Mendoza, 2017. Mining and sustainability:experience from Australia. [Online] Available at: https://im4dc.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/Mining-and-sustainability-in-Australia-English.pdf [Accessed 09 October 2017].
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Rice, S.S.a.J., 2016. Australian corporate social responsibility reports are little better than window dressing. [Online] Available at: https://theconversation.com/australian-corporate-social-responsibility-reports-are-little-better-than-window-dressing-66037 [Accessed 09 October 2017].
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The conversation Media Group, 2017. Australian corporate social responsibility reports are little better than window dressing. [Online] Available at: https://theconversation.com/australian-corporate-social-responsibility-reports-are-little-better-than-window-dressing-66037 [Accessed 09 October 2017].
Yakovleva, N., 2005. Corporate Social Responsibility in the Mining Industries. [Online] Available at: https://books.google.co.in/books?id=rAwkDwAAQBAJ&pg=PT100&lpg=PT100&dq=IMPLEMENTATION+STRATEGY+OF+CSR+IN+MINING+INDUSTRY&source=bl&ots=3Zwr7RllwN&sig=k8YCip9ckpETWPT2dENs1txN9n8&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiW8cjltOPWAhUBs48KHR8-AS84ChDoAQhWMAM#v=onepage&q=IMPLE [Accessed 09 October 2017].
Yakovleva, H.J.a.N., 2005. Corporate social responsibility in the mining industry: Exploring trends in social and environmental disclosure. [Online] Available at: https://www.academia.edu/3204698/Corporate_social_responsibility_in_the_mining_industry_Exploring_trends_in_social_and_environmental_disclosure [Accessed 09 October 2017].
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