Career counselling is a process of assisting people to choose the career path that is best suited for them. The responsibility of a career counsellor is critical, since the person’s personality along with the educational background and areas of interest are to be analysed, before suggesting a career option. Two theories namely the theory of John L. Holland and theory of Donald E. Super has been discussed in details. John’s personality has been highlighted along with the development stages of establishment as given in the case study.
Counsellor: Hi John.
Counsellor: How are you doing these days?
John: I am good
Counsellor: Is there anything you want to share with me?
John: I was doing well and was happy with my life, until recent times, when I have been facing issues with my wife as well as work. I am facing difficulty in my workplace and feel the lack of job satisfaction. Moreover, my son has been undergoing psychological treatments and assessments and that also makes me disturbed.
Counsellor: So you are upset with your personal as well as professional life?
John: Yes and I need your guidance.
In the given case study, John was facing difficulties at his workplace. He was also facing issues with his spouse. Moreover, John felt that he was at the wrong workplace. He went to the counsellor and Mr.Tan, assists the counsellor as a career counselling supervisor.
Holland’s theory of career choice: This is an important theory on making the right choice of career as well as career development. This theory mentions that most of the people have one of the six personality traits among realistic, social, investigative, artistic, conventional and enterprising. These are known as the Holland codes. People having the same kind of personality create a healthy work environment (Walsh & Osipow, 2014). Moreover, each person needs to match their personality with their work environment, such that it might lead to job satisfaction. A summary of the Holland’s theory has been presented.
Super’s career development theory: This theory recognises the changes that people undergo, while they gradually mature. Since John was of the age of 44years, hence he was at the establishment phase (Walsh, 2014). Super’s five life and career development stages are as follows:
Growth- In this the age of a person is between 0-14 years. In this stage, self-concept and needs of the world are developed. Exploration- In this stage, the age of the participants ranges from 15 years to 24 years. In this phase, the participant ties out new things in life and explores the world. Establishment- The participant in this stage is aged between 25 years and 44 years. The entry level skills are built and stabilised in this phase of life. This is the most important phase of career development. Maintenance- In this phase continual adjustment process takes place to improve the current position. In this phase, the age of the participants range from 45 years to 64. Decline-. In this phase the age of the participants are more than 65. In this phase, huge reduction in the output is observed and the person gets prepared to retire (Sampson et al. 2014).
This theory is relevant in case of John, since he was at the age of 44 in the exploration phase, and in this phase he was suppose to be most productive.
Career counselling is a responsible professional, and the counsellors need to ensure that the professional responsibilities and code of practices and ethics are maintained by them.
The ethics to be maintained by the counsellor includes maintaining privacy of the clients. The counsellor needs maintain the confidentiality of the clients. The counsellor of John, has to maintain confidentiality about the issues faced by John (Herlihy & Corey, 2014). Moreover, John needs to make aware of the treatment and therapies that he needs to go through. Another ethical consideration for the counsellor includes courteous behaviour of the counsellor with the client. In the given case study, since John was undergoing through a traumatise phase hence, he needed to be dealt with care. The other ethical considerations are as follows:
Beneficence: A career counsellor has the responsibility for ensuring and promoting what is good for the client. In the counselling sessions, the counsellor should do what is good for the client. This is a major responsibility of the counsellor and it should be maintained by the counsellor.
Non-malfeasance: The counsellor needs to avoid engaging in any form of non-maleficent activity with the client. This is an important ethical issue that has to be abided by the career counsellor.
Autonomy: One of the important ethical responsibilities that encourages the client to think independently and take critical decisions without the guidance of the career counsellor.
Justice: The ethical responsibility of the counsellor to provide equal treatment to all the clients irrespective of the age, race, ethnicity of the client. No form of discrimination should be encouraged by the counsellor.
Counsellors have the basic responsibility to understanding their client and engage in an open and clear conversation with the client. The communication between the counsellor and the client has to be accurate and the counsellor needs to make the client comfortable enough to discuss his problems and issues. As seen in the given case study, John had been facing difficulties at work, along with conflicts with his spouse. Moreover, his son was undergoing personality disorder. Hence, he was mentally disturbed and felt that he had chosen the wrong career. The counsellor is responsible for guiding John and understanding the difficulties faced by him. Moreover, if the counsellor wishes to venture into new specialized areas, the adequate knowledge and training has to be obtained by him, before he counsels any client in the specialized area. Another responsibility of the counsellor is to ensure that he is qualified enough for being employed as a career counsellor. This is important, since the career decision of many people are dependent o these counsellors and their guidance. The ethical considerations and professional responsibilities are essential to be maintained by the counsellor.
Objective assessment refers to a process of assessment in a form that has a single correct answer to a question. Objective assessment is an important assessment method for assessing the personality of a person (Leong, 2014). The objective assessment is useful in understanding the personality of a person. In case of John, this objective assessment is useful to understand and analyse the personality of John. Psychological tests measure the mental functioning of a person. The objective assessment is useful and if used by the counsellor, would be useful in understanding the issues faced by John and analyse his situation successfully.
One of the tools for the counselling assessment is DiSC. This is one of the important assessment tools that could be used for career counselling of John. By applying the science of DiSC, the personality of John could be assessed, thus, suggesting him the appropriate career option. Moreover, the internal conflicts faced by John could be sorted out and mitigated by the use of this assessment tool. The main advantage of DiSC is simplicity as well as cost effectiveness. This assessment tool also has unique features such as job matching features according to the personality of the person undergoing the assessment. The assessment results obtained using this tool is reliable and valid. Hence, use of this tool is viable as well as reliable in case of John. Another significant career assessment tool is MBTI. This tool is an effective one, and suitable for Assessment o the personality of John. The benefits of using this include avoidance and resolution of conflicts, discovering the key areas of interest of individuals, and suggesting career options accordingly. In the given case study of John, MBTI is the most appropriate assessment tool for career counselling. The main advantages of MBTI are as follows: avoidance as well as resolution of conflicts, identification of the strengths and ensuring that the strengths are highlighted. Use of this assessment tool helps in career development. Communication strategies are also assisted by the use of MBTI. MBTI also assists in developing thinking skills. Emotional intelligence is also developed using this tool. Since John was facing various issues and was dissatisfied with his present work, hence, focusing on his strengths for suggesting a career is essential. Moreover, using MBTI, self-understanding of the personality is essential. DiSC and MBTI assessment tools are justified in case of John and the results obtained are reliable. However, for career counselling of John, MBTI is the most appropriate tool. Thus, both these tools are useful and valid. The results obtained from both these tools could be relied upon by the counsellor. MBTI could be suggested and recommended as an assessment tool for assessing the personality of John. Use of MBTI affects the counselling session positively since the results could be relied on by the counsellor as well as by John. The use of MBTI affects the counselling session positively and provides validity to the session. Hence, John could use this MBTI assessment tool to analyse his own personality and the counsellor could also clearly understand the areas of interest such that the most suitable career option could be given to him. The use of the tool MBTI is justified for John, since his issues could be best understood by this assessment tool. Moreover, this tool is effective in analysing the issues faced by John as well as understanding his personality. MBTI would help John to develop emotional intelligence as well as identify his area of interest. Thus the use of the assessment tool MBTI is recommended for counselling of John.
The objective testing is an important test for personality assessment as well as career counselling. An elaborate process of objective testing includes various procedures to be followed by the counsellor, before conducting the test, while the test is going on and after the test is completed.
In order to ensure that the test is conducted successfully, standardised educational assessment procedures are to be followed by the counsellor, to assess the client successfully. The procedures to be followed are as below:
The integrity of the test as well as the test results are to be maintained by the counsellor. The test materials are to be used only for conducting the object tests, and should not be produced commercially.
The clients undergoing the career counselling process has to be prepared before the test is conducted. The test administrator is responsible for preparing the clients for the objective test. The best preparation that is provided by the counsellor is giving clear instructions to the clients.
While the test is going on, it should be ensured that the assessment is done in an unbiased way as well as without consultation with anyone else. Moreover, while the assessment is going on, a do not disturb tag is to be put, such that no one disturbs while the assessment is going on. The instructions are to be read clearly by the person undergoing the tests. The administrator should move around in the test room and observe all the examinees such that malpractices are to be prevented. John was 44 years old and hence he was in the establishment phase of career. The career counsellor should guide him properly such that he might find a right career for himself and support his family as he was supporting earlier.
After the test is over, the results are analysed and the assessment result of the client is presented. After the assessment is over, the results are presented. The results should not be manipulated or tampered to retain the authenticity of the assessment results.
DiSC and MBTI assessment tools are justified in case of John and the results obtained are reliable. However, for career counselling of John, MBTI is the most appropriate tool. Thus, both these tools are useful and valid. The results obtained from both these tools could be relied upon by the counsellor. MBTI could be suggested and recommended as an assessment tool for assessing the personality of John. Use of MBTI affects the counselling session positively since the results could be relied on by the counsellor as well as by John. The use of MBTI affects the counselling session positively and provides validity to the session.
Career counselling is an important activity and a proper guidance needs to be provided such that the most appropriate career could be chosen by any person. The whole counselling session was an effective one and most of the issues faced by John were sorted by the counsellor. The use of MBTI assessment tool is recommended for John. John was guided successfully to pursue a career of his choice. At the end of the counselling session, I, as a counsellor was successful in motivating John and inspire him for a better lifestyle.
Foutch, H., McHugh, E. R., Bertoch, S. C., & Reardon, R. C. (2014). Creating and using a database on Holland’s theory and practical tools. Journal of Career Assessment, 22(1), 188-202.
Herlihy, B., & Corey, G. (2014). ACA ethical standards casebook. John Wiley & Sons.
Leong, F. (2014). Career development and vocational behavior of racial and ethnic minorities. Routledge
Patton, W., & McMahon, M. (2014). Career development and systems theory: Connecting theory and practice (Vol. 2). Springer.
Sampson, J. P., Hou, P. C., Kronholz, J. F., Dozier, V. C., McClain, M. C., Buzzetta, M., ... & Reardon, R. C. (2014). A content analysis of career development theory, research, and practice—2013. The Career Development Quarterly, 62(4), 290-326.
Walsh, W. B., & Osipow, S. H. (2014). Career counseling: Contemporary topics in vocational psychology. Routledge.
Walsh, W. B. (2014). Counseling psychology and optimal human functioning. Routledge.
Zucker, S., Galindo, M., Grainger, E., & Severance, N. (2004). Administration practices for standardized assessments
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