$20 Bonus + 25% OFF +
5
%
Cashback
information
Securing Higher Grades Costing Your Pocket? Book Your Assignment at The Lowest Price Now!

Retrieved From International Dyslexic Association

tag 0 Download20 Pages 4,755 Words tag Add in library Click this icon and make it bookmark in your library to refer it later. GOT IT
Nate Gilbert Student Reviews Student Reviews Student Reviews Student Reviews Student Reviews 4.7/5 hire me

Question:

Discus about the Report for Retrieved from International Dyslexic Association.

 

Answer:

In this study, it is proposed that spelling errors in written form collected according to Bear D. , Invernizzi, Templeton, & Johnston (2012)’s Spelling Inventory List, would be qualitatively analyzed to shed light on the current development of spelling of the dyslexic learner. Emerging spelling errors from the dyslexic learners give valuable information on the spelling errors made by them. This will help in identifying possible cognitive strategies used by the dyslexic learner`s to spell. Subsequently, it helps to provide practitioners / educators a benchmark in teaching spelling strategically based on individual dyslexic learner`s area of difficulty in spelling.

Working Title: Exploring Spelling Errors among Dyslexic Learners

Keywords: Spelling, spelling errors, development of spelling, dyslexia, spelling disability

Research Background

Dyslexia has been defined by British Dyslexia Association:

“Dyslexia is a specific learning difficulty that mainly affects the development of literacy and language related skills.  It is likely to be present at birth and to be life-long in its effects.  It is characterized by difficulties with phonological processing, rapid naming, working memory, processing speed, and the automatic development of skills that may not match up to an individual's other cognitive abilities” (British Dyslexia Association, 2007).

 

International Dyslexic Association has adopted the definition of dyslexia as:

“A language based disability. It refers to a cluster of symptoms which results in people having difficulties with specific language skills, particularly reading. Students with dyslexia usually experience difficulties in other language skills such as spelling, writing and pronouncing words. It is also characterized with accurate and / or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive problems. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge”.                    

(International Dyslexic Association, 2016)

95% of dyslexic children response positively toward educational interventions which is reflected in their reading and writing process (Lum, 2011). Whereas, the remaining 5% continues to face challenges which needs intensive efforts and long-term support (Lum, 2011). Sariah Arimin who is the president of Dyslexic Association of Malaysia (DAM) have supported this statement using her reports on DAM centres which have shown 90% of success rate where the remaining 10 % is associated with other learning factors such as ADHD (Arfah,2012). Sariah Arimin in her published article ("Kelas Disleksia di 12 sekolah," 2012) also shared that about 300,000 dyslexic children in Malaysia are lack of proper learning facilities. According to her, if proper learning facilities and remediation is not provided to this category of learners; it will impact the socioeconomic aspect of the country. There are 12,076 special education teachers up to August 2010 where these teachers handle a specialized class of 40 children (Arfah, 2012). Insufficient special education, and teachers in Malaysia are also seems to be challenged as well. Subsequently, researches exploring more in dyslexia should be able to benefit the educators/practitioners as well as the dyslexic students in Malaysia to develop literacy skills in order to cope with the Malaysian Primary educational system which requires students to master 3M skills (“Membaca” Reading) (“Menulis” Writing) (“Mengira” Arithmetic).

“Standard spelling has assumed importance beyond the function it plays in written language. It has become the ‘ticket’ to the literacy club- the heir to the traditions and scholarly world of print” (Bean & Bouffler, 1987, p.67)

Exploring spelling errors in the perspective of English language is equally important as exploring it in Malay language for dyslexic learners in Malaysia. Spelling plays a vital role in reading as well as writing (Blachowicz, et al. 2006). According to Critchley & Critchley (1978), dyslexics face problems in acquiring the relations between symbols and sounds that underlie English Orthography which means that they have difficulty in spelling. Various experimental studies that analyze the spelling type had concluded that English spelling is a complex skill including letter knowledge, phonology, orthography and morphology (Boulware-Gooden, Joshi & Grigorenko, 2015). Particularly, in the case of orthography, the inconsistent relationship between graphemes and phonemes can cause irregular results since there are 26 alphabets, 45 phonemes and about 200 graphemes in the English language (Boulware-Gooden, Joshi, & Grigorenko, 2015).

Brown & Ellis (1994) mentioned that researches subsequently categorize spelling development into stages based on the idea that analysis of spelling errors reflects the metalinguistic understanding of language. Such assumption could be extended to dyslexic learners as well. Different spelling development stages might shed light on how dyslexic learners develop their metalinguistic understanding of language.Similarly, an action research was conducted by Ashbaugh (2016) using Bear`s Words - their Way Primary spelling inventory to asses dyslexic students current development in spelling and enables the researcher to set a benchmark in teaching multi-sensory techniques in spelling instruction; the findings showed improvement in spelling of complex consonants, R-controlled vowels, abstract vowels and other long pattern vowels of the dyslexic learners.

Spelling development for learners develops in a similar sequence of Vygotsky`s (1962) Zone of Proximal Development (Bear D. , Invernizzi, Templeton, & Johnston ,2008). The concept of phases of spelling development illustrate growth of student`s knowledge on the features of the spelling system (Templeton & Bear, 2013). According to Bear D. , Invernizzi, Templeton, & Johnston (2008) five stages of Henderson’s spelling development were identified as Syllable and Affixes, Letter Name Alphabetic, Emergent, Within Word Pattern and Derivational Relations. Bear (2008) have summarized each stage of the spelling development. Spelling inventories comprises lists of words that are compiled based on the variety of spelling features that they represent from the range of increasing levels of difficulties (Bear et al., 2012, p. 26).  Bear (2008) have included three types of spelling inventories: Primary, Elementary and Upper level spelling inventory in his book Words Their Way. The skills of spelling are measured from Emergent Stage to the Derivational Relations based on Henderson’s spelling development sequence (Bear & Templeton, 1998). In this study, the Primary Spelling inventory will be used to conduct spelling assessment with the dyslexic learners. It comprises 26 words ranging from CVC words to words with derivational endings (-ing). The Primary Spelling Inventory only measures features of spelling from Emergent stage till Syllables & Affixes stage ; it only comprises the four stages out of five stages in the Henderson`s Sequence of Spelling Development.  If the dyslexic learner managed to get most of the spelling correct from the list of 26 words; then 5 words from the Spelling inventory will be added to the list which will measure the spelling skills for Derivational Relations which is the last stage of the spelling development sequence (Bear & Templeton, 1998).

 


Although there are many spelling tests available such as Vernon PE (1977) Graded Word Spelling Test. London: Hodder & Stoughton (Snowling & Stackhouse, 2013) ; Wide Range Achievement Test III (WRAT-III); Young D (1983) The Parallel Spelling Tests A and B. London: Hodder & Stoughton (Snowling & Stackhouse, 2013) but the most suited spelling test inventory to use for this study would be Bear D. , Invernizzi, Templeton, & Johnston (2012) Spelling Inventory List as this study tends to look into the current spelling development of the dyslexic learner to further analyze possible cognitive strategies used by the dyslexic learners to spell. Thus, identifying the learner`s area of difficulty in spelling. Bear (2008) have categorise each features of spelling that will be developed by the learner according to the stages of spelling development proposed by Henderson (1974) in the spelling inventory. If the learner makes two or more errors in the particular feature of spelling (Bear`s Spelling Inventory), that would indicate the current stage of spelling development of the learner. There are various dyslexic association that have suggested Bear D. , Invernizzi, Templeton, & Johnston (2012) Spelling Inventory List to evaluate spelling of dyslexic learners. According to Moira Finnegan from Decoding Dyslexia Oregon, dyslexic assessment for spelling can be done using Bear`s Words Their Way (Finnegan, n.d.). Besides that, it is also suggested for analyzing dyslexic learner`s spelling using its spelling inventory as a guide to start inventions to teach spelling (Dyslexics.org.uk, n.d.)

Research problem 

Gomez (2004) confirms that an understanding of the size of the problem on dyslexia in Malaysia has not been obtained despite of pilot studies and small scale researches being done to understand it. According to Thayasan (2013) it has been reported that in the year 2013, there are as many as 400000 children with dyslexia ; which is about 24.7% of increment compared to the number of children with dyslexia around 314000 in the year 2010. The growing number of dyslexic children in Malaysia also increases the responsibility of educators/ practitioners to use effective teaching instructions to develop literacy skills among the dyslexic children.  There are many studies conducted to analyze Malay language in the perspective of dyslexia in Malaysia.  For example, a study conducted by Malie & Jiniti (2010) which explores writing difficulties among dyslexic learners; Mohammad & Lecthumy ( 2013) analyzes the underlying problems in writing mechanism faced by the dyslexic learner ; Muhammad, Ruzanna, S.Vijayaletchumy, Abdul Aziz, & Abdul Rahim (January 2012) focused on patient experiencing dyslexia with difficulties in spellings related to learning Bahasa Melayu. Malay orthography differs from English orthography.Malay language has a lesser number of phonemes in its phonology repertoire for the spoken language (Awang, 2004; Lee, 2008). As compared to English language which has about 24 consonant and 20 vowel phonemes, Malay language has approximately 25 consonant phonemes (inclusive of /q/ but exclude /x/) and 9 vowel phonemes (inclusive of 3 diphthong /ai/, /au/, and /oi/) (Asmah, 1985; Yap, et al., 2010; Zaharani, 1993). Thus, the findings of studies that are conducted in Malay language cannot be transferable to English language in Malaysia. In Malaysia, English is considered as the second language and widely used in business, employment, education, politics, tourism, law, media as well as translation (Hanapiah, 2004).

Subsequently, it is equally important to explore dyslexia in terms of  English language. Although there are studies being conducted in terms of English language that have highlighted the importance of morphological awareness  among dyslexic (Hsia, 2013) and reading comprehension abilities of a dyslexic child (Sankaran, 2006). Study that critically analyze spelling errors which provide an insight on the development of spelling among dyslexic learners have not been explored in Malaysia.  Hence, the current study will be conducted to address the lack of literature that explores the spelling errors in English language of dyslexic learners in Malaysia. This will also explore the possible cognitive strategies used by them to spell. Subsequently, it will be able to further justify specific interventions that can be ascertained in overcoming it.

Significance of the research and future study suggestion

It would enable practitioners / educators to set a benchmark in teaching spelling to overcome spelling disability based on specific interventions suggested since the number of children with dyslexia shows increment. In the future, this study can be extended in examining the spelling development progress of the dyslexic learners based on the intervention suggested in this study.

Study Limitations

The current study is limited to study population selected in qualitatively analyzing the spelling errors. As it only provide valuable information for intervention for spelling based on the selected dyslexic participants only.

Research objective and research questions

The key research objective is to qualitatively analyze the spelling errors of the dyslexic learners to set a starting point in teaching spelling based on the dyslexic learner`s current spelling development. As a result, the research questions are:

  1. What is the current development in spelling of the dyslexic learner?
  2. What are the cognitive strategies that might have been used by the dyslexic learner to spell?
  3. What are the learner`s area of difficulties in spelling?
 

Summary of literature review

J.P Gupta (1993) who have conducted a detailed research either in a normal condition or clinical, explains dyslexia level occurring in Malaysia Science University Hospital, Kelantan (Muhammad, Ruzanna, S.Vijayaletchumy, Abdul Aziz, & Abdul Rahim, January 2012). His findings revealed that poor performance in graph-phonemic will be shown in dyslexic children in both reading and writing skill. However, they will show 70% achievement in the automatic skills, the auditory skills, and graphical skills (Muhammad, Ruzanna, S.Vijayaletchumy, Abdul Aziz, & Abdul Rahim, January 2012). Children having dyslexia fail to combine “grapheme‟ and “phoneme”, which is the main problem of dyslexia in Malaysia (Muhammad, Ruzanna, S.Vijayaletchumy, Abdul Aziz, & Abdul Rahim, January 2012).

Previous study conducted by Just & Carpenter (1987) also highlighted that dyslexic students performed worst in spelling more difficult words that the normal college student especially words with multiple morphemes and double morphemes like the word “accommodation”. The most crucial skill in dealing with spelling and word reading is having the capacity to associate phonemes with graphemes (L.Breadmore & M.Carroll, 2015). Spelling skill is dependable on the linguistic knowledge but the benefaction of linguistic knowledge is not well understood (Carolina, n.d.). A study comparing dyslexic and language impairment children as adolescent which were matched with same age as those in the clinical group revealed that the tests of spoken and written language skill were undistinguishable; both groups performed at age-expected level but both groups shows phonological awareness deficits (Goulandris, Snowling, & Walker, 2000).

The first step to remediate phonological deficit among dyslexia children is very important as it highlights on the “decoding first” accounts; “all available skills” accounts imply as optional skills to cope with phonological deficits (L.Breadmore & M.Carroll, 2015). A study conducted by matching peers according to literacy ability reveals that the usage of morphology in dyslexia is delayed or following a different trajectory (C.Bourassa & Treiman, 2008). The linguistic knowledge revolves in knowing the phonological, morphological and orthographical perspective in order to spell a word (Boulware-Gooden, Joshi, & Grigorenko, 2015).  Individuals with spelling disability performed poorly in various spelling tests as compared to normal developing children which were matched according to their age. Another interesting theoretical comparison revealed that older individuals who have spelling disability performed similarly as compared to younger normally developing individuals in spelling tests (C.Bourassa & Treiman, July 2001). This give rises to another perspective that both of the group of individuals (spelling disability and normal development) spelling will be indistinguishable although group of spelling disability individuals spell at a slower rate ; this also highlights that if the spelling task of both the spelling disability individuals and normally developing individuals is analysed qualitatively,  would be able to give valuable insights on the nature and causes of spelling disabilities (C.Bourassa & Treiman, July 2001). 

Over the years, there are number of spelling development models that have been refined by Ehri 1986; Gentry 1978, 1982; Henderson & Beers 1980; Morris 1983. There are some common things being shared by all these spelling models: a) attempted to analyse spelling errors of invented spelling written by children b) qualitative analysis of spelling errors sheds light on different cognitive processes involves in spelling of children at different development levels ; it is focused on stage to stage development c) although phonological awareness is very important in early spelling of children; phonological awareness also explains how children acquire the description of words orthographically (Brown & Ellis, 1994). 

Bear (2008) further identified that many children with dyslexia tends to memorise spelling words assigned for weekly spelling test; it do not generalise spelling accuracy in their written work. As a result, teachers should not focus on the teaching patterns alone but teach dyslexic students the skills to develop this process on their own (Bear D. , Invernizzi, Templeton, & Johnston, 2008). Hence, it is very important to qualitatively analyse the spelling of the dyslexic learners to understand which features of the spelling that they have developed and vice versa. It creates a great opportunity for practitioners / educators to understand specific areas of spelling that needed to be work on.

Theoretical Framework

Developmental Stage Theory of Spelling

Cognitive stage theory and models of spelling development emerged in a parallel direction (Ellis 1994, 1997; Gentry, 1984). The study conducted by Charles Read can help to draw on the evolution of the developmental stage theory of spelling. Read (1971) assumed that children can memorise bits of unpredictable spellings, but the assumption failed to justify the capability of a mature reader or writer. Based on this findings, Read (1971) examined the “invented spelling” to investigate the knowledge of preschool children regarding English orthography. As a result, he found out that children achieved the common and systematic spelling of unknown words. Hence, this initiated the study of “development stage theory of spelling”.

Developmental spellings are resulted from different strategies used by the children at different phases of cognitive development (Ellis 1994, 1997; Gentry, 1984). Cognitive theory relates to how children construct knowledge from their experiences across a sequence of stages (Rogoff, 2003). These stages are determined by the child’s developmental level, not their chronological age (Rogoff, 2003). Henderson and Templeton (1986) believe that cognitive developmental theory has an impact on spelling acquisition by children, because spelling achievement follows a series of developmental stages through which learners pass. Templeton and Spivey (1980) draw on Piaget’s cognitive developmental theory in their research on how children develop the concept of “word” and how this concept of “word” corresponds to the levels of cognitive development. Cognitive developmental theory is also used by Bear and Templeton (1998). The development of word study as an instructional tool can be understood by following a student’s cognitive development as they progress through the different stages (Bear and Templeton, 1998). Furthermore, the knowledge of cognitive development helps teachers by providing lessons about the right developmental level for students (Bear & Templeton, 1998). 

 

Summary of proposed research design

Participants

5 dyslexic learner`s will be chosen for this study who are currently studying in one of the centre of Dyslexic Association Malaysia (DAM). The age of the dyslexic learner`s will be between 7 years old to 12 years old.

Data

Dyslexic learners will be asked to spell 25 words in increasing difficulty. These lists of words are adapted from Bear D., Invernizzi, Templeton, & Johnston (2012) Primary Spelling Inventory list. The words range from various features of primary level. The word “sled” will be omitted from the Primary Spelling Inventory list because it is not commonly used in Malaysian context and dyslexic learners will have difficulties in comprehending the meaning of word before spelling it.

Data Collection

The spelling data would be collected from a Primary Spelling Inventory list that will be administered like a usual spelling test by the teacher of each dyslexic learner who participated in this study. It will begin by teacher informing the dyslexic learner that the purpose of administering the list of spelling is to learn on how they spell. Teacher that is administering the spelling is not allowed to give the spelling beforehand to the dyslexic learner. It begins by saying the word once. Teacher is allowed to read a sentence containing that particular word when the meaning is not clear. Teacher is required to say the word naturally without breaking it into syllable.

Analysis

The spelling data collected will be analysed according to Bear D. , Invernizzi, Templeton, & Johnston ( 2012) Feature Guide for Primary Spelling Inventory. The dyslexic learner`s current development in spelling can be determined by addressing the areas of errors in the spelling development stage.

This will enable the researcher to infer the features of spelling that the dyslexic learner have developed and vice versa. The possible cognitive strategies used by the dyslexic learner can also be inferred according to the features used by the dyslexic learner to spell the given words based on the Feature Guide for Primary Spelling Inventory and developmental stage theory of spelling.

Triangulation of data collection will also be done where the teacher will conduct informal discussion with the learners on the rationale of the spelling written would also be useful in providing valuable information on the cognitive strategies used by the dyslexic learners to spell. Hence, highlighting learner`s area of difficulty and provides importance in identifying intervention that will suit the dyslexic learner`s needs.

Pilot study

Ng Li Cheng is a 13 years old dyslexic student who is currently studying in Pusat Dyslexia Malaysia (PDM). Primary Spelling Inventory list was administered by his teacher with 25 words list by omitting the word “sled”. The spelling list was not given beforehand to Li Cheng. Teacher read the sentence containing the word to make the meaning clearer to Li Cheng and said the word again.

Qualitative Analysis

Li Cheng has developed the knowledge on how spelling works. He knows that letters represent sounds in words. Primary Feature Guide analysis shows that he has developed final and short consonant sounds knowledge. For example, words like “fan” and “pet” spelled correctly (RQ1). Possible strategies used by Li Cheng to spell are by pronouncing the words and listen for familiar letters and sounds. For example, word “coach” is spelled as “koc” where the initial sound of the word is written as how it sounds like. During an informal discussion with him, Li Cheng mentioned that he tries to spell words according to how it sound like when he have no idea on how to spell it. Besides that, when asked how he spelt the word “dream” correctly; he mentioned that “I have seen the word many times …so it sticks in my brain” (RQ2). Currently, Li Cheng is facing difficulty in spelling words with consonant blends as he makes most of the errors in it. Besides that, he could not spell words with inflected endings and words with long vowels (RQ3). Intervention for spelling should focus on teaching spelling that contains the features of consonant blending and then slowly move on to words with long vowels and inflected endings.

Research planning

2016

 

Research activities

March-April 2016

May-June 2016

July-August

2016

Sept-Oct 2016

Nov-Dec 2016

Jan-Feb 2017

Proposal writing and Literature review

 

 

 

 

 

 

Proposal presentation

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1-3

 

 

 

 

 

 

Data collection

 

 

 

 

 

 

Data analysis

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 4

 

 

 

 

 

 

Candidature defence

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1-5

 

 

 

 

 

 

Editing and submission

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

(2016). Retrieved from International Dyslexic Association: https://dyslexiaida.org/definition-of-dyslexia/

Apel, K., & Masterson, J. J. (July 2001). Theory - Guided Spelling Assessment and Intervention. Language , Speech and Hearing Services in Schools, Vol 32; 182-195.

Arfah, S. (2012, January 8). Special education: Smooth the way, New Straits Times. Retrieved from https://www.nst.com.my/channels/learning-curve/special-educationsmooth-the-way-1.29200

Asmah Omar. 1985. Susur Galur Bahasa Melayu. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.

Ashbaugh, A. (2016). Multi-Sensory Teachniques in Spelling Instrcution: An Action Research Study forStudents with Dyslexia. Digital Commons @ Otterbein, 96.

Association, B. D. (2007). Defination. Retrieved from British Dyslexia Association: https://www.bdadyslexia.org.uk/dyslexic/definitions

Awang, S. (2004). Teras Pendidikan Bahasa Melayu: Asas Pegangan Guru [Core of Malay Language Education: Teachers’ Foundation Beliefs]. Bentong: PTS Publications Sdn Bhd.

Bear, D. R., & Templeton, S. (1998). Explorations in developmental spelling: Foundations for learning and teaching phonics, spelling, and vocabulary. The Reading Teacher ; International Reading Association, 222-242.

Bear, D., Invernizzi, M., Templeton, S., & Johnston, F. (2012). Words their way : Word Study for Phonics , Vocabulary and Spelling Instruction. Pearson.

Bear, D., Invernizzi, Templeton, & Johnston. (2008). Developmental Word Knowledge. In D. Bear, Invernizzi, Templeton, & Johnston, Words Their Way: Word Study for Phonics, Vocabulary and Spelling Instruction (pp. 7-15). Pearson.

Bean, W.&Bouffler, C. (1987). Spell by Writing .PETA: Sydney

Blachowicz, C., & Fisher, P. J. (2006). Teaching vocabulary in all classrooms (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill

Boulware-Gooden, R., Joshi, R., & Grigorenko, E. (2015). The Role of Phonology, Morphology and Orthography in English and Russian Spelling. Dyslexia, 142-161.

Brown, G. D., & Ellis, N. C. (1994). Handbook of Spelling: Theory, Process and Intervention. Wiley.

C.Bourassa, D., & Treiman, R. (2008). Morphological consistency in spelling: A comparison of children with dyslexia and typically developing children. Dyslexia, 155-169; Volume 14 ; Issue 3.

C.Bourassa, D., & Treiman, R. (July 2001). Spelling Development and Disability: The Importance of linguistic factors. Language,Speech and Hearing services in schools, Volume 32, 172-181.

Carolina, U. o. (n.d.). Written Language Lab Arnold School of Public Health. Retrieved from Communication Sciences and Disorders: https://www.asph.sc.edu/wll/linguistic_knowledge.html

Critchley. (1978). Dyslexia defined. London: Acford.

Dyslexics.org.uk. (n.d.). Retrieved from Learning to Spell and Write : https://www.dyslexics.org.uk/spelling.htm

Ellis, N.C. (1994). Longitudinal studies of spelling acquisition. In G.D.A. Brown &N.C. Ellis (Eds.),

Handbook of Spelling: Theory,Process and Intervention.Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 155–178.

Ellis, N.C. (1997). Interactions in the development of reading and spelling: Stages, strategies, and exchange of knowledge. In C. Perfetti, L. Rieben and M. Fayol(Eds.), Learning to Spell: Research, Theory, and Practice Across Languages. Hillsdale, NJ:Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Finnegan, M. (n.d.). Dyslexia 101: A Speech Language- Pathologist`s Perspective. Retrieved from https://www.decodingdyslexiaor.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/Dyslexia-101-SLP-Perspective.pdf.

Gentry, J.R. (1984). Developmental aspects of learning to spell. Academic Therapy,20(1), 11–19

Gomez, C. (2004). Dyslexia in Malaysia. In I. Smythe, J. Everatt, & R. Salter, International Book of Dyslexia: A Guide to Practice and Resources (p. 159=163). John Wiley& Sons Ltd.

Goulandris, Snowling, & Walker. (2000). Is dyslexia a form of specific language impairment? A comparison of dyslexic and language impaired children as adolescents. Ann Dyslexia.

Hanapiah, M. b. (2004). English Language and the Language of Development: A Malaysian Perspective. Jurnal Kemanusiaan, 15.

Henderson, E.H. & Templeton, S. (1986). A developmental perspective of formal spelling instruction through alphabet, pattern and meaning. The Elementary School Journal, 86(3), 304-316.

Hsia, G. S. (2012/2013). Morphological Awareness in the Reading Comprehension Ability of a Dyslexic Adolescent. Masters Degree University of Malaya.

Jamieson, C., & Simpson, S. (2006). Spelling : challenges and strategies for the dyslexic learner and the teacher. In M. J.Snowling, & J. Stackhouse, A Practitioner`s Handbook Dyslexia Speech and Language. England: Whurr Publishers.

J.P Gupta. (1993). Specific Learning Disabilities: A Neuropsychological Perspective. Dalam Alferdo Ardila (1007). International Journal of Neuroscience. Vol. 89. No. 3-4. Pg. 189-205.

Just, M. A., & Carpenter, P. A. (1987). Dyslexia:Characteristics and Causes. In The Pscychology of Reading and Language Comprehension. Bostan; London; Sydney; Toronto: Allyn and Bacon, Inc.

L.Breadmore, H., & M.Carroll, J. (2015). Morphological Spelling in spite of phonological deficits: Evidence from Children with Dyslexia and Otitis Media. Applied Psycholinguistics, 22.

Lee, L. W. (2008). Development and validation of a reading-related assessment battery in Malay for the purpose of dyslexia assessment. Annals of Dyslexia, 58, 37-57.

Lum, M. (2011, Dec 4). Hard to Learn. Retrieved from Chrysalis Special Needs Centre for Learning Difficulties: https://www.chrysalis.com.my/site/index.php/dyslexia.

Malie, Y. H., & Jiniti, W. A. (2010). Disgrafia dan Cara Membantu: Kajian Kes ke atas Murid Program Integrasi Pendidikan Khas. Jurnal Tindakan Pendidika, Volume 4 : 1-22.

Mohammad, W. M., & Lecthumy, S. (2013). The Levinson Theory in the Detection of Spelling Errors Among Dyslexic Children. International Journal of Scientific Research, Volume 2 : Issue 12.

Muhammad, W., Ruzanna, W. M., S.Vijayaletchumy, Abdul Aziz, A. Y., & Abdul Rahim, N. (January 2012). Dyslexia in the Aspect of Malay Language Spelling. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, Vol.2 No.1.

Read, C. (1971). Pre-school children’s knowledge of English phonology. HarvardEducational Review. 41(1), 1–34.

Rogoff, B. (2003). The cultural nature of human development. New York: Oxford University Press.

Sankaran, S. T. (2006). Reading comprehension abilities of a child with dyslexia: A case study. (Unpublished Master Dissertation). Faculty of Languages and Linguistics, University of Malaya.

Snowling, M. J., & Stackhouse, J. (2013). Dyslexia, Speech and Language : A Practioner`s Handbook. Whurr Publishers.

Templeton, S., & Bear, D. R. (2013). Development of Orthographic Knowledge and the Foundations of Literacy: A Memorial Festschrift for edmund H. Henderson. Routledge.

Templeton, S. & Spivey, E.M. (1980). The concept of word in young children as a function of level of cognitive development. Research in the Teaching of English, 14(3), 265-278.

Thayasan A (2013) Available from: https://thestar.com.my/lifestyle/story.asp?file=/2013/1/17/ lifefocus/12579906&sec=lifefocus.

Yap, M. J., Rickard Liow, S. J., Jalil, S. & Faizal, S. S. (2010). The Malay Lexicon Project: A database of lexical statistics for 9592 words. Behaviour Research Methods. 42(4): 992-1003.

Young, K. (2007). Developmental stage theory of spelling: Analysis of consistency across four spelling-related activities. Austrailian Journal of Language and Literacy, 203-220.

Zaharani Ahmad. (1993). Fonologi Generatif: Teori dan Penerapan. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.

OR

Getting nightmare regarding pending chemistry assignment? Then it is high time you consider hiring chemistry assignment help service of MyAssigemnthelp.com. We at MyAssignmenthelp.com deliver quality subject specific assistance on more than 100+ subjects. For us, students' need is foremost, and we work round the clock to offer science, humanities and commerce assignment help. Among Commerce wing, our one of the most popular services is capital budgeting assignment help. In science segment, we have gained popularity with biology assignment help.

Most Downloaded Sample Of Management

Toulin Method Of Argumentation

Download : 292 | Page : 1

You are required to write a researched argument essay that convinces persuades the reader of your position / stance. This is an academic, researched and referenced document that demonstrates your understanding of the objectives of the course. The structure of the argument will follow the TOULMIN METHOD of argumentation.

Read More arrow Tags: Australia Arlington Management University of New South Wales 

Consumer Behavior Assignment

Download : 214 | Pages : 9

Executive Summary The purpose of this report is to elaborate the factors which are considered by individuals before selecting an occupation. Choosing an occupation is indeed a major decision of everyone’s life and it does give a shape to where he would be heading in the course if time. The report begins with a list of various occupations which have been going since the human civilization started though it has indeed changed its form to...

Read More arrow Tags: Australia Arlington Management University of New South Wales 

Internet Marketing Plan For River Island

Download : 371 | Pages : 13

Introduction With the increase enhancement in the field of technology, it has been considered essential by the businesses to implement such technology in their business processes. Further, the increasing demand from the customers regarding the better quality of products and services delivered to their doorstep has also necessitated for the businesses to implement the e-business strategy in their business processes. E-business which is common...

Read More arrow Tags: Australia Arlington Management University of New South Wales 

Strategic Role Of HR In Mergers & Acquisitions

Download : 331 | Pages : 9

Executive Summary In a merger & acquisition, role of an HR has emerged as a very critical function. At each stage of merger and acquisition process, HR plays a strategic role. The importance of role of HR part in integration of the merged companies should not be taken lightly and should be handled very carefully and with due planning. At pre acquisition stage, due diligence should be taken before the start of the process and HR must carve ou...

Read More arrow Tags: Australia Arlington Management University of New South Wales 

Relationship Between Knowledge Management, Organization Learning And HRM

Download : 365 | Pages : 7

Introduction In this competitive business environment where every business organization is trying to attract the customers of each other, it becomes essential for these organizations to remain competitive by innovating new ideas and thoughts, so that value added products and services can be provided to the customers. The motive of such organization in providing value added services to their customers, require their employees to be quite effect...

Read More arrow Tags: Australia Arlington Management University of New South Wales 
Next
watch

Save Time & improve Grade

Just share Requriment and get customize Solution.

question
We will use e-mail only for:

arrow Communication regarding your orders

arrow To send you invoices, and other billing info

arrow To provide you with information of offers and other benefits

1,111,142

Orders

4.9/5

Overall Rating

5,043

Experts

Our Amazing Features

delivery

On Time Delivery

Our writers make sure that all orders are submitted, prior to the deadline.

work

Plagiarism Free Work

Using reliable plagiarism detection software, Turnitin.com.We only provide customized 100 percent original papers.

time

24 X 7 Live Help

Feel free to contact our assignment writing services any time via phone, email or live chat.

subject

Services For All Subjects

Our writers can provide you professional writing assistance on any subject at any level.

price

Best Price Guarantee

Our best price guarantee ensures that the features we offer cannot be matched by any of the competitors.

Our Experts

Assignment writing guide
student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating 4/5

2594 Order Completed

95% Response Time

Michael Johnson

Masters of MSc in Economics

Washington, United States

Hire Me
Assignment writing guide
student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating 5/5

529 Order Completed

95% Response Time

Ivan Blank

PhD in Functional Human Biology

Wellington, New Zealand

Hire Me
Assignment writing guide
student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating 5/5

234 Order Completed

100% Response Time

Samantha Ji

PhD in Chemistry with Specialization in Organic

Singapore, Singapore

Hire Me
Assignment writing guide
student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating 5/5

265 Order Completed

97% Response Time

Ken Campbell

MSc in Electrical Engineering

Wellington, New Zealand

Hire Me

FREE Tools

proofreading

Proofreading & Editing

Complete guid on proofreading and editing.

plagiarism

Plagiarism Checker

Get all your documents checked for plagiarism or duplicacy with us.

essay

Essay Typer

Get different kinds of essays typed in minutes with clicks.

edit

GPA Calculator

Calculate your semester grades and cumulative GPa with our GPA Calculator.

referencing

Chemical Equation Balancer

Balance any chemical equation in minutes just by entering the formula.

calculator

Word Counter & Page Calculator

Calculate the number of words and number of pages of all your academic documents.

Refer Just 5 Friends to Earn More than $2000

Check your estimated earning as per your ability

1

1

1

Your Approx Earning

Live Review

Our Mission Client Satisfaction

I love this service its affordable and dependable I will definitely recommend this service to all my friends!

flag

User Id: 234644 - 17 Oct 2019

Australia

student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating

well only thing you should work on is your english and originality of the work .

flag

User Id: 302636 - 17 Oct 2019

Australia

student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating

Although not a very good result, but I have passed my assignment. Thank you very much.

flag

User Id: 202550 - 16 Oct 2019

Australia

student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating

Hi There and thank you so much complete my assignment work I am happy with the work and with the reference for this assignment

flag

User Id: 45953 - 16 Oct 2019

Australia

student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating
Have any Query?