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Embracing of the no user’s interface has always been the case in modern world where the users consider the systems of the computer management with the principal interface are those, which utilizes no user’s interface. The statement that is mentioned above has been boosted in the voice user interface or VUIs is the greatest interface because the interface of the system in comparison to the graphical user interface or GUI (Cui, 2016). Interfacing amongst each other is definitely different from the way intercommunication is done with the GUI or graphical interfaces.
There are several principles, which are meant for depicting no user interface for seizing typical procedure. Two examples of the above mentioned statement are the locking and unlocking a car. The instruction of the examples is that one have to walk to the location, wherever the car is kept, then he or she has to redeem the car keys from the pocket, and then push the unlock button and finally unlock the car (Da Xu, 2014). The steps two and three in unlocking the car lock can be kept together using a digital interface.
An application from the phone is utilized by the user to conduct the above examples. However, it is perceived that the application from the phone utilized for managing the locks is digital interface but often, it may go out of date or sometimes one may forget a phone. The above examples thus clearly define the statement that the best interface is the no user interface.
Compare the bandwidth, distance, interference rating, cost and security of a) twisted pair cable, b) coaxial cable and 3) fiber optic cable. Use current data, give specific details for at least 3 types of cable within each category, these should have different specifications, rather than simply different brands of the same type.
TWISTED PAIR CABLE
FIBRE OPTIC CABLE
It gives the lowest bandwidth of about 1.5mb/s for a distance of about 2.5 km.
Coaxial cables are made for transmission of signals especially for sending tv signals, cctv cameras, and also for accepting videos and audios.
It gives greater bandwidth than the twisted pair and the coaxial cable, which is up to the range of 10Gbps. Transmission is almost 250km with a higher bandwidth of 2.5Gbps for more than 32,000. The attenuation of fibre does not depend on the bandwidth..
The security for Twisted Pair Cable is much less compared to other two and it can be easily trapped (Jullien, 2013).
The security of coaxial cable is 3% more than the twisted pair cable. Therefore, even this can be termed as unsecure.
Fibre optical cable is most secured cable compared to the twisted pair cable and the coaxial cable.
This is the cheapest cable and mainly utilized in smaller organizations as the installation charges are cheap.
This is more expensive compared to the twisted pair cable and because of its cost, it is less popular.
The installation cost is less as compared to the coaxial cable in fibre optical cable. However, the equipments needed for this cable are very expensive (Miller, 2012).
The distance covered by twisted pair cable is up to 2.5 km
The distance covered by coaxial cable is up to 100m
The distance covered by this cable is up to 250km.
The three common ways to obtain information from IoT devices are sensors, RFID management and Video tracking. Compare the three technologies by addressing the advantages, disadvantages, key requirements for the things. Provide two applications of each (these applications should NOT be sourced from the textbook). You may use a table to present the material if you wish.
RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION
i) A distinct and simple way of recognition is easier when executing with RFID
ii) Tags are read simultaneously (Dobkin, 2012).
iii) It is an amalgamation of RFID tags with sensors
iv) The tags utilized in RFID the sensitivity is lesser in the adverse conditions
i) They have very high capability of current and the cost is extremely less.
ii) The photoelectric sensors can sense all types of materials and have extremely long life with faster response time.
iii) Sensors for example the inductive sensors are much resistant to harsh environments (Bao & Chen, 2012).
i) Comprehensive data is tracked and all he footage with seconds is followed.
ii) It intensified in such a manner that it is able to provide all the necessary information as far as it was recorded and tracked.
iii) It is not very easy to manipulate video tracking
iv) It provides assurance that there is much security as everything can be tracked (Wang et al., 2015)
The main disadvantage of RFID is that it is extremely costly. Another disadvantage is that the tags can be damaged during the usage.
The main disadvantage is that the sensors require physical contact. Another disadvantage is that the response is extremely slow.
The main disadvantage is that the storage capacity is extremely high. Another disadvantage is that it is extremely expensive.
b) Auto identification
c) Unique identity
a) Reliability requirements
b) Automatic driving
c) Safety requirements
a) Public or the private access
b) Work flow should be customizable
c) Ease of use and capabilities of multi user.
-It is utilized for identifying instances where a db. is controlled in the background to provide or receive information needed. It is applied by organization that provides logistics solution are such us UPS, FedEx and USPS
-Other application of RFID in manufacturing and distribution where in picking and system for sorting in the warehouse.
1.Basic End of travel sensing
2.material handling and parts detection
It is applied in.
-Tracking cargo trucks that go for long distances.
-for shriveling of animal in game reserves.
-For tracking events in games as the happen like football matches.
Discuss the issues associated with security and privacy in the context of the Internet of Things.
The security depends on the number of factors, how information is sensitive and the cost of alleviating vulnerability of the security. As part in producing and manufacturing this IOT the company should implement design process for security as follows.
(1.) The firm should conduct an assessment for security risk.
(2.) Retaining and minimizing the data gathered (Da Xu, 2014).
Secondly the company should offer training to its employee in making this sensible and reasonable security. The company should be monitoring the IOT all through their life cycle and hence identifying the patches that may make the IOT products vulnerable management.
Some of the IoT devices may presents potential privacy and security risks that could be implemented and bring harm to the consumers. Some of the risk of security that can bring harm are
(1) enablement of access that is not authorized
(2) personal information misuse.
(3) facilitation of been attacked by other systems
(4.) Safety risks for security must be created.
Privacy risks flowing must be identified in the IoT as they act as an addition to risks of security (Cui, 2016). The risks involved in privacy maybe direct collection of personal information that is sensitive, account numbers in finance, commerce through the mobile etc. Some of the privacy and security risks are perceived that they may not be realized, may also undermine the confidence of the consumer that necessitate the technologies to meet the objectives. “As one participant stated, “promoting privacy and data protection principles remains paramount to ensure societal acceptance of IoT services.”
An IoT water level monitoring application requires updates from a sensor periodically, using the command/response paradigm. The application triggers a request every 1 s. The round-trip propagation delay between the application and the sensor is 12 ms. On average the sensor consumes 3 ms to process each request. The application consumes 2 ms to send or receive any message. If the application blocks on every request to the sensor, how much of its time budget can be saved by redesigning the application to use the publish/subscribe communication model in lieu of the command/response approach?
The application triggers a request every 1 s.
The round-trip propagation delay between the application and the sensor is 12 ms.
On average the sensor consumes 3 ms to process each request.
The application consumes 2 ms to send or receive any message
Hence, the total time used by the application is 1+ 12 + 3 + 2 ms = 18 ms.
Hence if the application blocks all the requests the application would be saving 18 ms for the system. The designed application would be much more efficient than the present model.
Describe Nielson's Law. How does it relate to Moore's Law? What are the implications for the Internet of Thing?
Jacob Nielsen law is explained as principles referred to as the “10 usability heuristics for user interface design” which were released by early 1994.The principles that brings in the law are as follows:
(1) The user should be informed by the system to what is going on by the system giving time appropriate feedback with a given time that is realistic.
(2)The system should be compatible with the user language and there should be some matching on the real world and the system itself that is in use.
(3) it should allow one to redo and undo.
(4) the system should show its consistency and the required standards.
(5) the system should be built in that it prevents errors before they occur (Zhao et al., 2013).
(6) Mr Nielsen considers recognition to be better that to recall.
(7) the system should be ease to use and efficient and much more flexible (8) the dialogues or the system contain information that is relevant to user only.
(9) the system should be set in a way that it can correct from errors recognize them and diagnose them.
(10) a system should produce a help function and documentation giving all guidelines on how to use the system.
Moore law was named after its founder Gordon E. Moore which is the observation in computing history of the hardware’s, that the transistors numbers on the circuits that are integrated doubles every two years but ranging for about 18 months. Many gadgets that are electronic and digital links to Moore’s Law. Moore’s Law says that there is a driving force in technology and social changes in the 20th and 21st centuries.
Moore’s second law states that the cost used by producers or manufacturers in order to satisfy Moore’s law follows an opposite trend as the computer power cost to the consumer falls (Waldrop, 2016)
Some of the reason to why the Moore law exist are such as producers in need of the law, manufacturers who are competing, provision of better design tools by technology that is successful, also in demand of customers. The existence of Moore’s law has led to reducing the robustness structure of device to handy to devices used by hands over the past number of years.
Bao, X., & Chen, L. (2012). Recent progress in distributed fiber optic sensors. Sensors, 12(7), 8601-8639.
Cui, X. (2016). The internet of things. In Ethical Ripples of Creativity and Innovation (pp. 61-68). Palgrave Macmillan, London.
Da Xu, L., He, W., & Li, S. (2014). Internet of things in industries: A survey. IEEE Transactions on industrial informatics, 10(4), 2233-2243.
Dobkin, D. M. (2012). The rf in RFID: uhf RFID in practice. Newnes.
Jia, X., Feng, Q., Fan, T., & Lei, Q. (2012, April). RFID technology and its applications in Internet of Things (IoT). In Consumer Electronics, Communications and Networks (CECNet), 2012 2nd International Conference on (pp. 1282-1285). IEEE.
Jullien, C., Besnier, P., Dunand, M., & Junqua, I. (2013). Advanced modeling of crosstalk between an unshielded twisted pair cable and an unshielded wire above a ground plane. IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, 55(1), 183-194.
Miller, S. (Ed.). (2012). Optical fiber telecommunications. Elsevier.
Waldrop, M. M. (2016). The chips are down for Moore's law. Nature, 530(7589), 144-147.
Wang, L., Liu, T., Wang, G., Chan, K. L., & Yang, Q. (2015). Video tracking using learned hierarchical features. IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, 24(4), 1424-1435.
Zhao, R., Fischer, W., Aker, E., & Rigby, P. (2013). White Paper: Broadband Access Technologies. A White Paper by the Deployment & Operations Committee.
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