The mining options presented have got a myriad of challenges such as risk factors that must be analyzed during establishment of standard operating procedures. Admittedly, risks associated with each mining option have unique characteristics such as accidental collapse of the roof in areas where reinforcements are not done properly. The cross deep shaft method is often associated with this kind of risk as the shafts are sunk relatively deeper. Due to the overbearing weight of the earth movers and the vibration of the machines management, areas prone to earth quakes may be triggered off. The geologists must therefore competently analyze the data from the area using modern sophisticated tools and software. The identified hotspots must therefore be avoided at all costs.
Improper and insufficient training of all workers can also be a potential source of problems. The inexperienced crane operators and drivers may cause damage to people and properties as they try to navigate the terrain during mining. The entire system of mining must therefore take into consideration the complex routing of the machinery and equipment to minimize on backtracking and unnecessary collisions.
Some mines have weaker rocks which could cave in during operation. It is therefore often required that once an area is depleted, the remnants must be cleared off. The belt transect method will come in handy in this case. The wall destabilizers are therefore useful for this purpose. Notably, the proposed designs aim at maximizing the extraction potential while at the same being cognizant of the fact that safety and costs are equally critical aspects in the operation.
Methane gas emissions
Expectedly, in the course of extraction of coal gaseous releases via the rock crevices is a common phenomenon. On such dangerous gas is methane. It is harmful to humans as it can cause suffocation and even fatal injuries if not managed properly. The design so presented will amicably handle the emission by ensuring that ventilators are provided for smooth exchange with air from outside. However, this will require extra cost towards its facilitation.
Acid mine drainage
Chemical reactions ensue immediately the rocks are set lose. The rocks contain various chemical compounds which would then be mixed with the mining remnant to result into compounds such as carbonates. These carbonates would find themselves dissolved in the underground water reserves and in the rainwater. Ultimately, acidic conditions are compounded in the mine which affects both fauna and flora. For example, the soil pH is drastically lowered resulting into lower yields for agricultural lands.
Respiratory problems (health risk)
As mentioned earlier, the gaseous releases from the mines pose greater health risk to the workers. It is intimated that inhaling methane gas is more dangerous than carbon monoxide inhalation. Workers must therefore be properly equipped with the right personal protective gadgets as they explore and extract the coal mine.
Mining often cause environmental degradation afterwards. The permanent scars left on the ground are often a hindrance to socio-economic destruction. Besides, being health hazards, they can potentially social problems to the inhabitants.
The above mining design options have got both merits and limitations. The belt transect method is the fastest and perhaps the cheapest to establish and run. The area identified is worked on in a rectangular manner before collapsing the weaker walls to give way to new region as movement is both traverse and longitudinal.
Open pit mining is the commonest method of mining in coal extraction. As mentioned earlier, the extensive approach leaves the earth’s surface with serious environmental scars. Besides, the rocks that were overturned will be broken down; some may contain serious radioactive elements that are often a health risk.
Specifically, proper planning beforehand on the above-mentioned aspects is very critical. The best strategy is selected after a thorough evaluation of the available options. Different models have been used. In our case, a simple yet effective model is used to ascertain whether the minimum criteria are met.
Therefore, in conclusion, we propose the belt transect method which takes into proper accounting of risk, efficiency and reliability.
Generate and evaluate multiple mine design options
This section presents four designs options to be considered in depth based on efficiency, safety and reliability. The proposed designs (see the attached images) include: spoke design; vertical shaft sink, circular panning; and honey comb. In the spoke design, four rectangular extensions are made available from the central location and the land wall machinery move in that direction as open pit mining is carried out. The conveying system (reversible) that is linked with the main piling system facilitates raw material transportation to the designated center. The vertical shaft sink method, the underground mining technique is employed where reinforced shaft is sunk into the ground and allowed to support the extraction work. They allow quickest access and passage of the raw material. In the honey comb method, the open pit is applied in a serial manner such that the area is
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