What Could Employees Behavior in ORG Cultures Performance ?
Organizational cultures are accepted norms, shared values and signs that an organization has and employees behave according to them. Culture makes employees to behave in a similar manner that differentiate them from employees of another organization. Organizational culture forms a framework to dictate what is to be done and how it will be done. Culture of an organization develops with time. A culture of an organization can be described as the personality of the organization. Culture defines interactions and loyalty in the organization. Organization culture is influenced by owners, environment of operation, leadership style and the background of employees. Nowadays, organizational cultures are used to increase productivity of employees. Culture is used to shape perception, motivate, enhance attitudes and encourage learning in the organizations. A good culture leads to exceptional employees’ performance (Ahmad, 2012). It is the role of the management to create and sustain organizational culture that is in line corporate mission and vision. The management outline practices create symbols and endorse rituals that create organizational shared stories and assumptions becoming the organization’s culture. Culture enables the organization to be stable, resolve differences, handle risks and together overcome barriers.
The following report will analyze recent research on culture and it role to organizational performance using three journals. The journals will be analyzed simultaneously to understand the differences and similarities in; theoretical perspective, definitions, methodologies of research, results and interpretation of the study of culture and organization performance. The report will also outline application of the study in my place of work.
The journals used in this discussion are; (1) The impact of organizational culture on organizational performance by Nikpour (2017), (2) The impact of organizational culture on management practices and by Ahmad (2012) and (3) The influence of organizational citizenship behavior to organizational performance by Mohanty and Rath (2012). These articles have research that has been conducted to study culture in the organization and it influence on performance. The following the comparison of the three articles;
Definitions: Mohanty and Rath (2012) defines organizational culture has a framework of shared attributes that an organization poses and determine organizational success. They added that organizational culture can either be strong or weak or can be used as a tool to give an organization a competitive advantage. In addition, Mohanty and Rath added that organizational culture dictates employee’s citizenship behavior and this determine the long term effectiveness in the organization performance. Ahmad (2012) defines organizational culture as a contextual factor in the organization of management practices that creates shared value, mission, involvement and adaptability for the business performance. Ahmad emphasis culture as part of management practices that is fundamental to organizing and leading in an organization by instituting jointly related mode of conduct. Nikpour (2017) defines organizational culture has shared principles, beliefs, values by members in an organization. He states that organizational culture is as a result of; shared history, technology, mission and management style and country of origin. These factors create shared mental assumptions that give members of a particular organization to interpret and react in a certain way.
From these definitions, it clear that there is similarity in implying that culture has to be a shared behavior in and organization.
Methods: The three journal article uses the same data collection method. They use questionnaires to collect primary data from organizations. The questionnaires were designed to collect behavioral traits practiced in the organization and the response/ action that members take (Mohanty and Rath, 2012). The articles selected a sample size that they have used to carry out an organizational culture survey. Both research focused on cultural traits in the organizational and their impact to organizational performance in terms of effectiveness and efficiency.
Results: Nikpour (2017) found that organizational culture was correlated to organizational performance. He found that a positive organizational culture contributed to increased performance in an organization. Organizational culture was found to be having an impact on employee’s commitment to the organizational mission, involvement and strategies. Mohanty and Rath (2012) found that there is a correlated between the organizational culture and organizational citizenship. The result also showed that there is a correlation between the organization commitment and organizational performance. Ahmad (2012) found that there was a positive correlation between organizational culture and the management practices in an organization. He also found that there was correlation between the organizational cultural traits and organizational strategies, missions and objectives as implemented by the management.
From the results of the three articles, it shows that there is a correlation between organizational culture, organizational citizenship and management practices and organizational performance.
Interpretation: Ahmad (2012) interpreted his results of the research that all variables of organizational cultural traits have to be positive for organizational performance. He stated that management practices were complimentary to organizational culture. He concluded that the human resource management practices have impact on the organizational culture and therefore having effects on the organizational performance. Nikpour (2017) interpreted him finding that a relationship do exist between organizational culture, employee commitment and organizational performance. The results were interpreted that organizational culture has positive effect to employee willingness to organizational commitment. Organizational commitment leads to effectiveness and efficient that leads to increased employee performance in the organization. Nikpour (2017) concluded that employee’s commitment to organizational performance can be changed by designing or redesigning the organizational culture. Mohanty and Rath (2012) interpreted their results that organizational culture inculcated organizational citizenship. Organizational culture impacted on employee’s citizenship behavior in the organization. They concluded that organizational culture is nurtured and should be based in the citizenship behaviors to enable commitment to the organizational performance. They viewed organizational culture to having a possibility to be strengthened and this can lead to improved organizational citizenship behaviors in the organization (Nikpour, 2017). Therefore, organizational culture shape organization citizenship behavior that increase commitment to organizational goals and objectives.
From the result interpretation of the three journal articles, it similar that organizational culture was found and interpreted as a sharper of employees’ commitment, involvement, consistency and values of conduct in the organization. It also similar that organizational culture shapes behavioral traits in the organization that impact on the organizational performance.
Definitions: Mohanty and Rath (2012) emphasized that organization culture as a framework that forms basis for improving organizational effectiveness. The definition focuses on how organization culture shape organizational citizenship behaviors that leads to commitment to organizational performance. This is different to Nikplour (2017) who defined culture has the collection of shared beliefs, values and principles to employees who share organizational history, strategies , management style and country culture. Nikpour (2017) specified that organizational culture was shared assumptions that shaped interpretation and actions in the organization. On the other side, Ahmad (2012) definition was differentiated by the contextual factor that he attributed to organizational culture. He outlined that organizational culture has to be shared assumptions by both management and employees in the workplace. He recognizes organizational culture as shapeable and designable tool for sustained tool of instituting change.
Methods: Mohanty and Rath (2012) carried out a qualitative research to collect and analyze employee perceptions in the workplace. The research used a three varied scale of rating on the organizational culture and behavior on yes, no and cannot answer. The research was designed to collect employees’ perceptions on the study of organizational culture and organizational citizenship to organizational effectiveness. The research used a sample size of 344 employees from three different organizations operating in different Industries. Mohanty and Rath (2012) research used measure of central tendency and inter-correlations of the variables to analyze the data collected. Nikpour (2017) research was a descriptive research. The research used a sample size of 190 persons who were selected using Cochran’s formula. The questionnaires used in the research were based on Likert Scale. The scale ranged from 1 to 5. Nikpour (2017) used SPSS and AMOS software to analyze the data collected. Ahmad (2012) study was an explanatory research design. The research used 60 em0ployees using random sampling technique. The Likert Scale was used to measure data collected by questionnaires. Data was analyzed by use of Pearson correlation that showed degree of linearity of the variables. One-Way ANOVA was also used to determine significance of relationships of the variables.
Theoretical perspectives: Ahmad (2012) hypothesized that organizational culture plays a significant positive relationship with practices of performance management. He also hypothesized that organizational traits of involvements, adaptability lead to positive significant influence on practices of performance management. Nikpour (2017) hypothesized that organizational cultures do have an effect on organizational performance. Secondly, he hypothesized that organizational culture impacts organizational commitment to the employee. Lastly, he hypothesized that organizational members’ commitment has impact on the performance of the organization. Mohanty and Rath (2012) hypothesized that there is positive relationship between organizational citizenship behavioral traits and organizational culture. They also hypothesized that organizational cultural factors have positive influence organizational citizenship behavior for the performance of tan organization.
The journal articles have based their studies on different settings. The workplaces used have different requirement and code of conduct. It shows that the organizational culture is attributed to performance and organizations’ success. The data used for the study based on individual perceptions and therefore the research results are based on perceptions of the employees in the workplace. Though the journals have used different research designs, methodologies and theoretical perceptive, it clear that organizational culture has an impact to performance and plays a center role in the human resource management.
From the articles studies; organizational culture has an impact to organizational citizenship. Organization culture is shaped or designed to enhance positive organizational citizenship behavior traits in the organization. Organizational citizenship increase employee’s commitments in the organization by enabling them to be involved, consistent and dedicated to their job. Performance management practices have an impact to the organizational culture by creating objectives, instituting missions and dictating code of conduct. Therefore, organizational culture is an important aspect in an organization for positive significant performance and business success.
The journal synthesis has exposed me in different perspectives of organizational culture. I will apply the knowledge gained in supervising employees in a workplace. I will use performance management practices to create and shape an organizational culture that will increase employees’ commitment, involvement, consistency and adaptability in order to increase organizational performance. I will also promote organizational citizenship behaviors to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency in the organization.
From the analysis of three journals about organizational culture and it impact, it can be concluded that culture is at the centre of employees’ behavior in an organization. Culture can be changed or designed to align with the organization’s mission and objectives. Organizational culture also enables managers to increase effectiveness in the organization. Therefore organizational culture has positive significant impact on organizational performance and it the role of the management to shape the culture.
Ahmad, M. (2012). Impact of Organizational Culture on Performance Management Practices. Business Intelligence Journal January Impact Of Organizational Culture, 2012 Vol.5 No.1.
Mohanty, J. And Rath, B. (2012). Influence Of Organizational Culture On Organizational Citizenship Behavior: A Three-Sector Study. Global Journal of Business Research, Volume 6, P.Number 1.
Nikpour, A. (2017). The impact of organizational culture on organizational performance: The mediating role of employee’s organizational commitment. International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 6(2017), pp.65-72.
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