Discuss about the Satisfaction Level of Government Sector Employees.
Job satisfaction is the combination of feelings an employee possess towards his job and role. It is a subjective variable that ascertains whether employees’ expectations are met or not while working for an organization. Job satisfaction refers to the contentment an employee derives from the job which directly affects his commitment towards the organization (Kaliski, 2007). It has been proved in many studies that job satisfaction yields productivity on the job. An employee who feels satisfied with his job tends to perform excellently as compared to his counterparts who do not feel the same (Lease, 1998). Job satisfaction is a strong indicator of employees’ attitude at the job (Saari & Timothy, 2004).
The process of measuring job satisfaction can be complicated and may give incoherent outcomes. The reason lies in the fact that job satisfaction is a subjective phenomenon. The components that potentially affect an employee’s level of satisfaction with job vary from person to person. Some people give more importance to financial rewards whereas others focus on career growth opportunities in the organization. Furthermore, the factors affecting job satisfaction can be intrinsic or extrinsic in different cases. The organization needs a comprehensive method that exclusively coves the affective, cognitive and behavioural elements while assessing the level of job satisfaction in the firm.
Proposed measures of job satisfaction
Job satisfaction is the product of the interplay between various elements related to a job. The two most critical measures of job satisfaction are psychological factors and organizational factors. Psychological factors such as opportunities for growth, acknowledgement, feedback for improvement, the scope for innovation, relationship with superiors, autonomy and flexibility help in building a positive or negative attitude towards the job (Neog & Barua, 2014). The presence of these elements facilitates in creating an affirmative work culture where employees feel motivated to perform at higher levels (Jiskani, Bhatti & Ahmed, 2011).
The organizational measures such as compensation management, financial and non-financial rewards, performance management system and company policies play a crucial role in assessing the employees’ job satisfaction level. These factors are explicit as they are vital in fulfilling the lower order needs (Aydin & Bulent, 2009). A transparent and systematic performance appraisal process ensures that every employee receives a fair reward for his performance (Stredwick, 2005). The organizational measures should be given equal importance while measuring the job satisfaction to create a committed and empowered workforce.
The psychological and organizational measures of job satisfaction are two critical aspects of a job. According to Herzberg two factor theory (1959), organizational factors are hygiene factors whose absence may cause dissatisfaction in the workplace. However, their presence doesn’t guarantee job satisfaction unless motivators or psychological factors are present also. Therefore, the motivators like recognition, autonomy at work play an instrumental role in bringing satisfaction because they are inherent (Herzberg, Mausner & Synderman, 1959). It is a vital fact that both measures of job satisfaction bear a significant magnitude in creating an overall impact on job satisfaction (Stredwick, 2005). It is advisable that the company in concern should devise a process with a balanced approach between the two measures of job satisfaction.
Strategies to increase job satisfaction
This section focuses on some concrete strategies that should be implemented to enhance the level of job satisfaction in the organization. A comprehensive effort at the system level is necessary for sustainable results. Some strategies for increasing employee contentment at the workplace are discussed below.
Foster an organic culture. The primary characteristic of organic corporate culture is the empowered employees who are free to experiment and innovate. In the organic culture, communication takes place in all the directions (Hage, 1965). Employees get invitations to express their opinions and views on all the strategic matters. Further, employees get frequent recognition for their contributions at the individual and team level. They get learning opportunities so that they can study latest technology and skills prevailing in the market. Employees trust their leaders and managers. They collaborate, coordinate and connect with others to create a friendly work environment which yields higher productivity (Lunenburg, 2012). The report recommends that the company should flatten the hierarchy and adopt a team-based work philosophy so that the decision making can be decentralized and employees feel engaged and empowered. Further, the communication channels must be strengthened to motivate employees to share honest feedback, creative ideas and constructive suggestions. The report also recommends building value and ethics-driven work culture.
Provide competitive compensation packages. It is advisable that the company must give salaries, perks and benefits after considering the ongoing rates. If needed, it is desirable to conduct a job evaluation to determine the worth of every job to revise the packages accordingly. The non-financial benefits should also be adequately included to create a balanced salary structure. Additionally, work-life balance is a crucial factor these days. The company can offer flexible working hours, work-from-home and other benefits to increase job satisfaction among employees. The opportunities for promotion, incentives, and increments play a significant role in boosting the morale of employees. The benefits related to health, maternity, retirement and social security are equally important.
Create Assessment Centres. Assessment centres help in gauging the potential of employees to prepare them for higher and strategic positions. Assessment centres efficiently help in skill mapping and drawing the gap between present skills and required skills to create a competitive workforce (Tripathi, 2016). The centre judges the emotional, cognitive and behavioural competencies of employees and helps in improving them continuously. The report recommends developing a dedicated assessment centre for career and succession planning of employees. Employees feel satisfied and worthy when they get chances for training and learning on a regular basis.
Convincingly, job satisfaction is an integral element of a competitive workforce in which employees are loyal, committed and efficient. The presence of hygiene and motivating factors help in raising the level of job satisfaction in the workplace. The recommended strategies and interventions are bound to produce a positive impact on the overall job satisfaction of employees through planned implementation and execution.
Aydin & Bulent. (2009). A research analysis on employee satisfaction in terms of organizational culture and spiritual leadership. International Journal of Management.
Hage, J. (1965). An axiomatic theory of organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly, 10, 289-320.
Herzberg, F, Mausner, B, & Snyderman, B. (1959). The motivation to work (2nd ed.). New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Jiskani, S., Bhatti, K., & Ahmed, S. (2011). Measuring job satisfaction level of government sector employees: A case of bureau of statistics, Government of Sindh, Pakistan. Journal of Management and Social Sciences, 7(1), 19-26.
Kaliski, B.S. (2007). Encyclopaedia of business and finance (2nd ed.). Detroit: Thompson Gale.
Lease, S. H. (1998). Annual review, 1993–1997: Work attitudes and outcomes. Journal of Vocational Behaviour, 53(2), 154–183.
Lunenburg, F. (2012). Mechanistic-organic organizations—An axiomatic theory: authority based on bureaucracy or professional norms. International Journal of Scholarly Academic Intellectual Diversity 14(1), 1-7.
Neog, B., & Barua, M. (2014). Factors influencing employee’s job satisfaction: An empirical study among employees of automobile service workshops in Assam. The SIJ Transactions on Industrial, Financial & Business Management 2 (7), 305-316.
Saari, L. & Judge, T. (2004). Employee attitudes and job satisfaction. Human Resource Management, 43(4), 395-407.
Stredwick, J. (2005). Introduction to human resource management, 2nd ed., Burlington: Elsevier Butterworth Heinemann.
Tripathi, R. (2016). Assessment centres: benefits and shortcomings. Emerging Research in Management &Technology, 5(2), 1-34.