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Practical exercises assess students’ ability to apply theoretical learning to practical, real world situations. This is Individual assignment that each student must design and configure an IT infrastructure solution for a small organization.

A report of approximately 2000 must be provided to present your proposed ideas. The report must satisfy the following specific criteria:

  1. Demonstrate ability to plan, locate information using the Internet, organisations andpublications and analyse this information.
  2. Demonstrate knowledge of IT Infrastructure and design a network using three-layers hierarchal model.
  3. Simulate and configure network devices as one step towards network implementation and testing.
  4. Demonstrate the ability to determine cloud base services that suit enterprise requirements.

Each student has to select an organization with the following specification:

  1. The organization must use information technology to implement its business operations.
  2. It must have a website to improve the organization marketing and customer satisfaction through better services. The organization domain name is: www. compName.org.au
  3. Email services for each staff member.
  4. More than one campus at different locations.
  5. Wireless network services within the organization campuses.
  6. Assume the organization has more than 3000 computers at each campus connected in a network and have access to the Internet.

Prepare a report to propose a network design for the selected organization. Your report should consider the followings:

  1. Analysis and propose the organization IT infrastructure by:
  2. Developing logical network diagram that includes the geographical scope of the network explaining the network backbone devices and a categorization various network segments, users, and applications.
  3. Develop a detail logical design based on three-layers hierarchal model (Core, Distributed and Access layers). The network should include in details the set of required network devices and servers, with the justification.
  4. Based on your logical diagram, discuss the possibility of scaling the current network for future services.
  5. Specify the IP addresses, subnet masks to the various networks and control the process by which IP addresses are assigned to individual clients and servers.
  6. Use network simulator (Cisco Packet Tracer) to simulate part of the network. The simulation scenario should include the access layer devices, web server, DHCP, and

DNS. Your scenario should demonstrate how the client computers dynamically obtained IP network configuration including IP, DNS, and default gateway addresses. In addition, you have to demonstrate how the client accessing the web server.

Assume the IT department of the selected organization wants to adapted virtualization and Cloud computed for hosting some of the organization applicationservers.

  1. Propose two organizations that provides Cloud services for hosting the organization servers. Justify your answer by explaining the level of services each company provides that suit the organization requirements.
  2. Outline the techniques of using service virtualisation in supporting and implementing Cloud platforms.
  3. Demonstrate how the virilization and Cloud computing can support the dynamic scaling of the selected organization applications.
Report Requirements

All organizations are focused on the effectiveness and efficiency in their daily activities. As such, for the business of the organizations to be efficacious, the organization must adopt the usage of new technology. It is therefore notable that modern technology has been beneficial in corporations. The advanced technology has made significant changes in the manner in which activities are conducted therefore reducing workload in offices. As a result, this report proposes information technology IT infrastructure to the University of Wollongong, Australia. The University of Wollongong is a public research institution located in New South Wales coastal region. It has an international network of campuses and a regional learning center as well. Its parochial schools situated in New South Wales include Bega, Southern Sydney, Batemans Bay, Southern Highlands and Shoalhaven.

With the expansion of the network campuses of the organization, it is essential to establish a new network topology to facilitate the operation of the institution. The network must maintain reliable connectivity throughout the whole campus and maintain security by segregating the data between institution staffs and students.

The primary goals of the project will be to come up with a secured modern network that will aid in day to day business of the University. The system must be able to perform the following functionalities:

  1.    Must be flexible to meet the requirements of the organization
  2.    Enable IP address management.
  3.    Process information and respond at high speed.
  4.    Provide network security to ensure safety for the organization’s data.
  5.    IT infrastructure components
  6. Network media (wired network for PC connections and wireless network for library and hallways)

There will be connections in the school administration, library, faculty offices, laboratories, and student center. The network will use fiber as the means of transportation to the switches closets in administration, faculty offices, laboratories, and library. The connections in the remaining places will be made through CAT 6a to cut down the installation cost.

Business needs

The organization needs proper IT infrastructures to get connected to the outside internet enabling students and staffs to utilize the resources on the web at a reasonable speed without worrying about losing data, internet connection, security threats and being able to connect from any computer within the campus.

Justifications

The fibers will increase the required speed and ensure the security of specific access points. Using the CAT 6a will ensure that the internet speed is not degraded and save the installation cost.

The three layer hierarchal model  

Various organizations prefer flat network topology; it is easy to design and implement provided the network covers a small area (Becker, Klein & Wetzels, 2012). However, for more prominent institutions like the University of Wollongong, the extended system would be undesirable. As a result, this report proposes the three-layer hierarchical model for the project. The hierarchical model makes troubleshooting easier compared to other models because instead of concentrating the troubleshooting efforts in one region of a network, it would be desirable to inspect the whole system and the hierarchical model would aid in such circumstances (Lin, 2010).

In the hierarchical design model, the design is divided into three modular groups or layers. This enables the layers to focus on a given function thus simplifying the design hence providing simplified management and deployment of the network (Kawato, Uno, Isobe, & Suzuki, 1998). Additionally, changes involved in flat network topology usually tend to cause effects to the system. The hierarchical model, however, restrain operational changes to network subsets making it easy to manage and improve resiliency (Guha, Meyerson & Munagala, 2000). Figure 1 shows the proposed hierarchical diagram for the University of Wollongong.

Network Design for the University of Wollongong

 The hierarchical model is consist of the following three layers (Guha et al. 2000).

  1.    The Core layer:Through this layer, the connections between the distribution layers of sizeable local area networks LAN environments are made. The core layer reduces network complexity in the case where the switches of distribution layers are nearby.
  2.    The Distribution layer:This layer aggregates the access layer and offers connectivity to services within the campus. The distribution layer also offers connectivity in networks where connectivity traverses from end to end of a local area network.
  3.    Access layer:This is where user access devices are linked to the network. This allows user/workgroup access to the system. The layer offers wired as well as wireless connectivity with security services thus ensuring security for the entire network.

Connection devices  

Business needs

The campus has four computer labs that are used for teaching computer courses. Every computer lab will house a closet and 32 devices including 30 student computers, one server, and one instructor computer for instructional purposes. Students will be expected to consider high traffic areas for the Wi-Fi-like student center and other sitting areas and not computer labs. The student center and the other access points which are preserved for high traffic areas can accommodate up to 250 hosts with two servers.

Additionally, a separate computer lab that will offer computer services to students will be required. The lab will house one server and 40 computers in a closet for accessing library resources, one server and 15 machines will be allocated to the library also, 10 computers for public use and the remaining 5 for staffs in the library.

Lastly, the campus has offices. 50 computers will be accommodated in the organization’s faculty offices for staff except for the administration office which will have 10 computers. Four rooms will be dedicated for servers, one room will be within the administration block, and the other three rooms will be assigned for various faculty offices.

Apart from the initially mentioned devices, CISCO 3925 is recommended for two main routers and the main switch for the faculty offices. I propose CISCO SG550XG-24F for the administration block’s main switch and CISCO SG 550X-48P switches for computer lab and library.

Justification

In high speed (350 Mbps) wireless network, the CISCO 3925 will sustain a deployment. CISCO SG550XG-24F, however, will continue with the speed from support fibers and routers. CISCO SG 550X-48P, on the other hand, enables the need for expansion of CPs in the computer lab and library and even extension to a VoIP system since they get powered over Ethernet cables instead of buying power supplies for the VoIP phones, thus reducing the installation cost.

Logical network topology

Logical network topology will be the priority in the logical design phase. For the system to satisfy its users’ needs of adaptability and scalability, it is essential that a logical topology is designed before selecting the required network devices (Angskun, Bosilca, & Dongarra, 2007). During the topology design process, the network devices and interconnection points, the types of networking devices and network size and scope are majored on and not the actual devices (Kulkarni & Hsu ,1998). The diagram in figure 2 represents the advanced hierarchical based logical network topology design for the University of Wollongong.

Justification

Many routers are added to ensure that on the off chance that one fails, the remaining routers will keep running and serve the network. Therefore, the logical model shown above will create link and device redundancy thus making the system scalable.Network Addresses.

Sub-netting

Sub-netting refers to the process of fragmenting a large system into smaller networks called subnets. It occurs when the default boundary of subnet masks are extended. Frequently, it involves borrowing host bits to create the sub-nets (Rekhter, & Li, 1993). There are three main classes supported by IP addressing; the categories include the classes shown in table 1.  

IP Address Class

Range

 A

1 - 126

 B

128 - 191

 C

192 - 223

Three-Layer Hierarchical Model

Table 1: Address classes and their respective decimal range

The classes have their predefined subnet mask showing the octets which are part of the portion of the network and the bits which are available for hosts (McPherson, & Dykes 2001). The subnet mask of Class A is 255.0.0.0, meaning that the first octet has all on (denoted by 1) bits represented by /8 in slash notation. Class B, however, has 255.255.0.0 as a default subnet mask. This implies that there are all on bits in the first two octets of the subnet mask meaning that the address has 16 on bits. The subnet mask of class C is 255.255.255.0, meaning that the first three octets have all on bits.

Scenario

As aforementioned in the business needs of the current IT infrastructure components required, the organization has four computer labs each housing 31 computers and a server with a separate computer lab for research having 40 computers with one server. There is also a student center and some sitting areas for high traffic. These areas will have a server and 250 hosts, the organization’s Library will also have one server and 15 computers. The institution also has faculty offices and administration which are expected to house four servers and 60 computers. This network will be assigned 174.16.5.0 IP address and create a total of six subnets as table 2 shows.

IP Addresses

The system will use the wireless network in the student center and sitting position thus IP addresses will get changed from the wired network to wireless network using DHCP set up of the primary router. Table 2 shows the proposed subnet addresses for the organization. All the subnet masks will be Class C including the public network in the student center and sitting areas.

Subnet description

Number of Computers/hosts

Subnet Mask

IP Address

Computer Labs

124

255.255.255.128

174.16.5.0/25

A separate Computer Lab

40

255.255.255.192

174.16.5.32/26

Library

15

255.255.255.240

174.16.5.64/28

Faculty offices

50

255.255.255.192

174.16.5.96/26

Administration

10

255.255.255.240

174.16.5.128/28

Student center and Sitting positions

250

255.255.255.255

174.16.5.160/32

Table 2: IP Addresses list

  1.    Cloud-based design proposal

The University of Wollongong needs to adopt virtualization and cloud computing to host some of their applications. Cloud storage solution allows facilities to expand enabling organizations to scale their infrastructures and save the space for hosting physical servers (Stergiou, Psannis, Kim, & Gupta, 2018). This report proposes two good cloud data storage companies that would meet the organization’s needs based on the experience of various users.

Microsoft Azure is one of the reputable cloud host service providers. The range of integrated cloud services provided by the organization offers a solution to various organizations ranging from big data and analytics to the internet of things (Rimal, Choi & Lumb, 2009). Moreover, Microsoft Azure offers one consistent platform for infrastructures, applications as well as data that can span various data centers including Microsoft public cloud, and other service provider data centers.

Another widely used cloud host service provider that would be proposed to the University of Wollongong is Google Cloud. Google Cloud offers enterprise solutions to organizations. The cloud platform enables organizations to design and build various applications and websites. It additionally provides data analytics applications for its users. Aside from this, it offers Google Apps for business which is currently expanding (Zhang, Cheng, & Boutaba, 2010). For the most, the organization also provide the Software as a Service (SaaS), Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) and Platform as a Service (PaaS) for its users (Bhardwaj, Jain, & Jain, 2010). Moreover, Google has recently unveiled one of its patent pledge that will shield big data developers and cloud software from litigation, therefore, it would be the most preferable for the organization’s data storage.

  1.    Virtualization

Connection Devices

The service virtualizations techniques

Virtualization involves creating virtual devices, servers, infrastructures, and many more computer resources. It changes the relationship between hardware and software. It is one of the foundational elements of cloud computing technology that aid in the utilization of the capabilities of the cloud to the fullest (Menascé 2005). Various techniques of using service virtualization include the following: Storage virtualization, Network virtualization, desktop virtualization, server virtualization, data virtualization and application virtualization (Sun, Chang, Guo, Wang, & Wang, 2010).

Among the virtualization services, SaaS would be better for the organization’s project. Despite the fact that SaaS limits its users when it comes to accessing, monitoring and managing applications compared to IaaS and PaaS, it is the most cost effective thus it would be most preferably used during the project (Bhardwaj et al. 2010).

  1. Network simulation

Figure 3 shows the proposed access layer diagram where the user accessible or user controlled services will get connected to the network (Angskun et al. 2007).

DHCP configuration

The DHCP protocol will get configured to provide quick, automatic and central management of the IP addresses within the network as well as configuring DNS. In the proposed network for the University of Wollongong, the routers will act as the DHCP servers. The configuration will work in a manner that client device will request an IP address from the router after which the router will assign the IP address to enable the client to communicate through the network.

DNS and web server configuration

Keeping the IP addresses of the network in mind is quite hectic. Words can be easily remembered by human beings compared to strings of numbers, and that is where the domain name service DNS comes in.

In the proposed DNS and web server configurations, the organization’s clients will dynamically obtain network configuration and access web server with the organization’s domain, “uow.edu.au” by typing the domain name i.e. uow.edu.au, into the web browser. The web browser will first of all find the IP address for the domain name “uow.edu.au” and then contact the DNS server to query the server’s location where the organization’s web pages are stored. The DNS server will therefore act as a directory service of the IP addresses of the organization’s URL.

  1. Scaling applications in a virtual cloud computing environment

Cloud computing and virtualization offers new compelling techniques for dealing with scalable applications (Armbrust et al. 2010). Even though certain applications differ in how they perform, there are various scaling points where resources get constrained. For instance, there are low chances that web applications can meet business needs of an organization in one server, but sometimes, more server can be added to meet the increasing demand for quality service purposes, this go in line with scaling applications.

The scaling the organization’s applications in virtual cloud computing would involve the use of scaling indicators (Foster, Zhao, Raicu, & Lu, 2008). The scaling indicators are the number of active connections, amount of the current users, the amount of request per second and the average time of response per request. After selecting the scaling indicator for scaling the application, samplings are collected for calculation, this happens periodically.  

  1. Conclusion and recommendation

The design and implementation of the proposed network will be successful since it will meet the objectives and satisfy the clients’ needs and specifications. The system will also update the University of Wollongong’s network brand in the modern technology. The researcher therefore recommend that the University of Wollongong should increase the number of access points and hosts in order to facilitate the availability of the network.

References

Angskun, T., Bosilca, G., & Dongarra, J. (2007, August). Binomial graph: A scalable and fault-tolerant logical network topology. In International Symposium on Parallel and Distributed Processing and Applications (pp. 471-482). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Armbrust, M., Fox, A., Griffith, R., Joseph, A. D., Katz, R., Konwinski, A., & Zaharia, M. (2010). A view of cloud computing. Communications of the ACM, 53(4), 50-58.

Becker, J. M., Klein, K., & Wetzels, M. (2012). Hierarchical latent variable models in PLS-SEM: guidelines for using reflective-formative type models. Long Range Planning, 45(5-6), 359-394.

Bhardwaj, S., Jain, L., & Jain, S. (2010). Cloud computing: A study of infrastructure as a service (IAAS). International Journal of engineering and information Technology, 2(1), 60-63. Retrieved from: https://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/7299777/cloud%20computing%20a%20study%20of.pdf?AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAIWOWYYGZ2Y53UL3A&Expires=1534782188&Signature=cgoGckXhHBbLGxjOH7dhrJArXvY%3D&response-content-disposition=inline%3B%20filename%3DCloud_computing_A_study_of_infrastructur.pdf   [Accessed on 16th August 2018]

Foster, I., Zhao, Y., Raicu, I., & Lu, S. (2008, November). Cloud computing and grid computing 360-degree compared. In Grid Computing Environments Workshop, 2008. GCE'08(pp. 1-10). Ieee.

Guha, S., Meyerson, A., & Munagala, K. (2000). Hierarchical placement and network design problems. In Foundations of Computer Science, 2000. Proceedings. 41st Annual Symposium on (pp. 603-612). IEEE.

Kawato, M., Uno, Y., Isobe, M., & Suzuki, R. (1998). A Hierachical Model for Voluntary Movement and Its Application to Robotics. IEEE Control System Magazine, 4, 8-17.

Kulkarni, A. S., & Hsu, W. (1998). U.S. Patent No. 5,848,243. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Retrieved from: https://patents.google.com/patent/US5848243

Lin, C. C. (2010). The integrated secondary route network design model in the hierarchical hub-and-spoke network for dual express services. International Journal of Production Economics, 123(1), 20-30. Retrieved from: https://researchoutput.ncku.edu.tw/zh/publications/the-integrated-secondary-route-network-design-model-in-the-hierar

McPherson, D., & Dykes, B. (2001). VLAN Aggregation for Efficient IP Address Allocation (No. RFC 3069). Eretrieved from: https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/pdfrfc/rfc3069.txt.pdf [Accessed on 16th August 2018]

Menascé, D. A. (2005, December). Virtualization: Concepts, applications, and performance modeling. In Int. CMG Conference (pp. 407-414). Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/290761034_Impacts_of_application_usage_and_local_hardware_on_the_throughput_of_computer_networks_with_desktop_virtualization [Accessed on 16th August 2018]

Rekhter, Y., & Li, T. (1993). An architecture for IP address allocation with CIDR (No. RFC 1518). Retrieved from: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1518

Rimal, B. P., Choi, E., & Lumb, I. (2009, August). A taxonomy and survey of cloud computing systems. In INC, IMS and IDC, 2009. NCM'09. Fifth International Joint Conference on (pp. 44-51). Ieee.

Stergiou, C., Psannis, K. E., Kim, B. G., & Gupta, B. (2018). Secure integration of IoT and cloud computing. Future Generation Computer Systems, 78, 964-975.

Sun, D., Chang, G., Guo, Q., Wang, C., & Wang, X. (2010, September). A dependability model to enhance security of cloud environment using system-level virtualization techniques. In Pervasive Computing Signal Processing and Applications (PCSPA), 2010 First International Conference on (pp. 305-310). IEEE.

Zhang, Q., Cheng, L., & Boutaba, R. (2010). Cloud computing: state-of-the-art and research challenges. Journal of internet services and applications, 1(1), 7-18. Retrieved from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13174-010-0007-6 [Accessed on 16th August 2018]

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