Discuss about the Science In Early Childhood Education.
In today’s fast-moving world, scientific literacy among the individuals has become extremely important. It becomes necessary to focus on the spreading the scientific literacy itself in the childhood. Several types of research have stated that children have the greatest potential to learn new things. Therefore, the ways in which education is provided to the children must be given proper emphasis. The early childhood setting must ensure that it provides richer learning environments (Spodek & Saracho, 2014). It is necessary that in the early childhood, the children are guided by knowledgeable and skilful teachers. The experiences of the children in their early childhood years are considered to be highly significant in their future learning. Proper education in the early childhood is essential as it helps in building the skills and attitudes of the children for learning.
How children learn science:
In the early childhood, children are usually experimental while they develop their understanding of science. Several concepts of science are taught to the children at their early age, however; they develop the ability to use the knowledge and concepts after a certain period of time. It is necessary that the children are made observed their surroundings so that they can relate their theoretical knowledge with the practical objects (Campbell et al., 2014). Children deemed to understand scientific facts well when they are able to link the theories with the surroundings. Understanding science differs from one child to another depending upon the methods in which they are taught. Proper investigation and explanation are necessary for enhancing the understanding of the children especially in their early ages (Bredekamp, 2016).
Scientific facts on solubility:
Solubility refers to the capability of a substance in to mix into a solvent or liquid. Solubility measures the maximum quantity of a substance that can be mixed in a solvent or liquid when the substance and solvent are in the same amount. The substance that dissolves in a solvent is known as a solute (Roskos, 2017). In case of a situation when both the solute and the solvent get completely mixed together, it is known as a saturated solution. Solubility is not dependent upon the size of the solute instead; the largest sized particles also get dissolved in solvents. A few characteristics of a solution are as follows:
- Solution is uniform or homogeneous
- Solution is stable and does not settle over time
- The solute cannot be separated from the solution by filtration process
- The molecules of solute and solvent is not visible through naked eyes
- Solution is incapable of scattering light beam
Solubility refers to the chemical property wherein the capability of a substance is measured when it dissolves in a solvent. The maximum amount of solute that gets dissolved in a solvent at equilibrium is referred to as solubility (Maloney et al., 2015). The resultant is termed as a saturated solution. The level of solubility of a substance differs from the others. A few substances are soluble in all proportions with a particular solvent. For instance, ethanol is soluble in all proportions in water (Allen & Cowdery, 2014). Under a few circumstances, the equilibrium solubility might increase, which results in a supersaturated solution. There are certain substances that are poorly soluble such as silver chloride in water. Insolubility refers to the situation wherein the solute does not get dissolved in a solvent (Morrison, 2013).
Children misconception on solubility:
Misguided judgments are not exclusively to be seen in the present youngsters or understudies– even researchers and savants created and lived with numerous misinterpretations previously. Recorded ideas and their progressions are extremely intriguing on the grounds that comparative thoughts can help our students today: simply like early researchers did they build up their own particular ideas by comparable perceptions e.g., with respect to ignition (James & Prout, 2015). Thoughts that are created without having any earlier information of the subject are not really wrong but rather can be depicted as an option, unique or pre-concepts. Each science instructor should know these pre-concepts for his or her lessons – this is the reason numerous observational analysts are working everywhere throughout the world (Gonzalez-Mena, 2013). Progressively, in any case, scientists are likewise discovering synthetic misguided judgments in cutting-edge courses. Since they can't be just credited to the understudies yet for the most part caused by improper showing strategies and materials, they can be called school-made misguided judgments. They are plainly not quite the same as pre-concepts that have a tendency to be unavoidable. Wrong showing strategies can be halted by staying up with the latest in their subject through cutting edge training. One should endeavour to discover the same number of pre-concepts and school-made misguided judgments and talk about them with pre-benefit and in-benefit educators (Lee et al., 2014). Another essential errand is to make recommendations of instructional systems to enhance lessons, which will prompt test previously established inclinations and school-made confusions: prescribing elective techniques to the customary methodologies, setting up persuading research centre examinations, utilizing more basic models or new innovation-based strategies and so on (Wasserman & Zambo, 2013).
Self-created ideas made by students do not regularly coordinate with the present logical ideas. One neglect to consider that these youthful people have frequently, through perception, thought of their own for the most part canny thoughts of the world. In this sense, they are following after some admirable people considering that old researchers and normal savants likewise utilized their energy of perception and rationale fit as a fiddle their thoughts (Blackwell, Lauricella & Wartella, 2014). Regularly, these researchers and scholars did not utilize extra investigations to move down their speculations. At the point when understudies discuss burning, saying that ''something'' vanishes and watch that the rest of the slag is lighter than the first segment of fuel, at that point, they have done their perception well and have thought of legitimate conclusions. At the point when understudies get associated with a topic that is more troublesome, an alternate sort of issue emerges: school-made misinterpretations. Because of their intricacy, it isn't frequently conceivable to address certain topics in a straightforward way (Haskins & Brooks-Gunn, 2016). In spite of equipped and qualified educators, infrequently addresses stay open and issues are not by any stretch of the imagination settled for a full understanding: school-influenced confusions to create. A couple of cases ought to show this. The composition of Salts, an acclaimed case of school-made confusions of our understudies emerges from the Dissociation Theory of Arrhenius. In 1884, he proposed that ''salt atoms are found in strong salts as the littlest particles and disintegrate into particles by dissolving in water''. Afterward, with the idea of electrons, the misguided judgment that ''particles of salt atoms frame particles through electron trade'' was conceived. Today, specialists perceive that there are no salt atoms, that particles exist all the time – even in the strong salt. By dissolving the strong salt, water particles encompass the particles, and hydrated particles are not associated, they move openly in the salt arrangement (Gomez, Kagan & Fox, 2015). Incredibly one can watch that even today the memorable misinterpretations are very normal: ''Sodium chloride comprises of sodium and chlorine particles. Every chlorine molecule takes an electron from the sodium particle so the chlorine iota will have a negative electrical charge, the sodium iota a positive one'' (Hamre et al., 2014).
It has been observed that students usually do not realize that gases dissolve in cold water more easily than they do in hot water. The students usually expect all substances to dissolve in a better manner as the temperature gets increased. This misconception can be easily cleared by a simple example. When a vessel is filled with tap water, initially it appears to be cloudy, however; later on, it clears. Usually, it clears from bottom to top as the gases escape from the solution when the room temperature warms the water (Hedefalk, Almqvist & Östman, 2015). Usually, students get confused between melting and dissolving. The following table explains the difference between the two concepts:
Example: Butter in a frying pan
· Heat is required; melting occurs at one specific temperature only (melting point)
· Only one substance is involved
· Can be undone by freezing
Example: Drink crystals in water
· Can occur over a range of temperatures
· One substance dissolves in another
· Can be undone by evaporating
Usually, it has been observed that students misunderstand and believe that constant stirring a solution or increasing the surface area of the solute increases the solubility in a solution (Batchelor et al., 2014). However, this is a misconception as this only dissolves the solution faster but does not enhance the solubility of the solute. On the other hand, heating the solution can increase the solubility as solubility is affected by temperature.
Five Lesson plans on solubility:
- Mineral water
- Tap water
- Milo powder
- Coffee powder
- Chalk powder
- Black pepper
- Milk powder
- Turmeric powder
- White pepper
- Worksheets for group work
Content: Soluble and insoluble substances
Major science ideas:
- Meaning of soluble substances
- Meaning of insoluble substances
- Meaning of dissolution
- Meaning of solution
- Water is a great solvent
- To provide the basic understandings of the concepts of soluble and insoluble
- To ensure that the students enjoy the scientific facts and gain interest in the subject
After imparting the lessons, the students must be able to:
- Explain the concepts of solubility and insolubility
- Properly identify soluble and insoluble substances
- Answer a minimum of eight out of ten questions correctly in the worksheets that shall be provided
- No student tastes any solution
- Students handle the glasses carefully
- Students do not play with the substances
- Clean up all the materials after experiment
Engage: The subject is introduced in this step. Connections are made with the past learning and experience. In this case, an interest of the students needs to be developed in order to attract the students to undertake the project. It has already been established that the students are aware of the concept of solid, liquid and gases. Hence, the aim is to ensure that the students can identify the differences that exist between soluble and insoluble substances. In order to do so demonstration of the components carrying both characteristics need to be presented in front of the student. The questions asked by the students also need to be answered in order to create the interests of the students. This can also help the students to take active participation in the project.
Explore: Theoretical knowledge in science is not enough to provide learners with the experience that is required to understand a subject (Duncan & Magnuson, 2013). Hence, a practical demonstration and experience need to be conducted in order to increase the knowledge of the students. In this regard, the students need to conduct the experiment on the solvency test by practically weighing the materials provided to them. In this step, questions and communications among fellow students and teachers need to be encouraged. It is also the duty of the teachers to ensure that proper safety measures are taken in order to avoid any physical risk of the students. This experience can help in the proper analyzing of the substances and understand its characteristics.
Explain: This is an important phrase during the demonstration of the project. This is mainly due to the fact that the students are newly introduced to the concepts and the reactions that are developed as a result of the experiments need to be explained thoroughly (Eriksson Lindstrand et al., 2016). In this case, it can be said that the teachers need to ensure that the students are given a proper analysis of the reasons behind the solvency of some items. This can help after a proper communication between the learners and the students. The teachers need to introduce the topic and explain the reasons behind the quick solvency of sugar in water as compared to white pepper. A Proper explanation of the reasons behind the occurrence of the events can help students to elaborate on the matter in the future.
Elaborate: Based on the understanding of the topic students can conceptualize their understanding which allows them to practice the skills and behaviours. The new knowledge gained can encourage the students to expand further into the matter. In this case, the knowledge gained about the solvency ability of various materials can help students to make deductions and inferences about the characteristics of the natural elements. The further topic can be researched that outline the chemical components required for manufacturing the materials. For example, students may develop an interest in order to understand the chemical formula required to make milk powder that makes it an easy solvent in water. This stage develops the interests of the students in pursuing science in the future.
Evaluate: This is another important stage for students as well as teachers, as in this stage, both needs to evaluate one another. The evaluation needs to be done on a regular basis in order to understand the knowledge gained by the student (Perlman et al., 2017). The evaluation can be done by conducting tests either on a weekly basis or after the completion of a project. In the case of solvency of materials, the evaluation tools that can be used include checklists, interviews and observation. Students displaying further interest in the concept can be aided and encouraged to conduct further studies into the matter. The evaluation process can also be useful in order to formulate interrelated concepts and develop the interests of the students following a similar manner.
Hence, it can be concluded that in order to understand the manner in which students’ pursue learning science, the instructors need to apply strategies in order to help students gain interest in the subject. The common misconceptions that arise in regard to testing the solvency rates of the materials are the rate at which these materials dissolve in water. The application of theoretical knowledge is one of the ways in which students can be made to clear the misconceptions that exist. However, a practical approach involving systematic approach can also be used to clear the misconception. Students need to be encouraged in order to take up participation in the practical fields in order to enhance their knowledge. Apart from this students need to take up active lessons to ensure that the concepts related to solvency are clear before applying it in the practical field. For this, the support of the teachers is required in order to clear the misconception of the students.
Allen, E. K., & Cowdery, G. E. (2014). The exceptional child: Inclusion in early childhood education. Nelson Education.
Batchelor, K. E., Morgan, D. N., Kidder-Brown, M. K., & Zimmerman, B. S. (2014). Investigating the unit of study approach as a way to teach writing to early childhood education preservice teachers. Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education, 35(3), 276-289.
Blackwell, C. K., Lauricella, A. R., & Wartella, E. (2014). Factors influencing digital technology use in early childhood education. Computers & Education, 77, 82-90.
Bredekamp, S. (2016). Effective practices in early childhood education: Building a foundation. Boston: Pearson.
Campbell, F., Conti, G., Heckman, J. J., Moon, S. H., Pinto, R., Pungello, E., & Pan, Y. (2014). Early childhood investments substantially boost adult health. Science, 343(6178), 1478-1485.
Duncan, G. J., & Magnuson, K. (2013). Investing in preschool programs. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 27(2), 109-132.
Eriksson Lindstrand, A., Hansson, L., Olsson, R., & Ljung-Djärf, A. (2016). Playful learning about light and shadow: a learning study project in early childhood education. Creative Education, 7(2), 333-348.
Gomez, R. E., Kagan, S. L., & Fox, E. A. (2015). Professional development of the early childhood education teaching workforce in the United States: An overview. Professional Development in Education, 41(2), 169-186.
Gonzalez-Mena, J. (2013). Foundations of early childhood education: Teaching children in a diverse society. McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
Hamre, B., Hatfield, B., Pianta, R., & Jamil, F. (2014). Evidence for general and domain?specific elements of teacher–child interactions: Associations with preschool children's development. Child development, 85(3), 1257-1274.
Haskins, R., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2016). Trouble in the Land of Early Childhood Education?. Future of Children.
Hedefalk, M., Almqvist, J., & Östman, L. (2015). Education for sustainable development in early childhood education: a review of the research literature. Environmental Education Research, 21(7), 975-990.
James, A., & Prout, A. (Eds.). (2015). Constructing and reconstructing childhood: Contemporary issues in the sociological study of childhood. Routledge.
Lee, R., Zhai, F., Brooks-Gunn, J., Han, W. J., & Waldfogel, J. (2014). Head start participation and school readiness: Evidence from the early childhood longitudinal study–birth cohort. Developmental psychology, 50(1), 202.
Maloney, E. A., Converse, B. A., Gibbs, C. R., Levine, S. C., & Beilock, S. L. (2015). Jump-starting early childhood education at home: Early learning, parent motivation, and public policy. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 10(6), 727-732.
Morrison, G. S. (2013). Fundamentals of early childhood education. Pearson Higher Ed.
Perlman, M., Fletcher, B., Falenchuk, O., Brunsek, A., McMullen, E., & Shah, P. S. (2017). Child-Staff Ratios in Early Childhood Education and Care Settings and Child Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. PloS one, 12(1), e0170256.
Roskos, K. A. (Ed.). (2017). Play and literacy in early childhood: Research from multiple perspectives. Routledge.
Spodek, B., & Saracho, O. N. (2014). Handbook of research on the education of young children. Routledge.
Wasserman, L. H., & Zambo, D. (2013). Introduction. In Early Childhood and Neuroscience-Links to Development and Learning(pp. 1-5). Springer Netherlands.