Discuss about the Security Report for the Turkish Government.
Located South East of Europe and to the South West Asia, the modern Republic of Turkey was founded in 1923 after the fall of the Ottoman Empire. Upon its establishment, the republic of Turkey introduced the women political campaign and a new alphabetical system. The Turkish Government has experienced hardships with the Advent of the World War II where the Turkish government stated neutrality in the war. The Turkish government signed many treaties with other governments for assured protection and economic aid during the Second World War and the Cold war (GoÌˆcÌ§ek, 2011, p.3).
The political system is characterized by a single party which was followed by multi-party democracy system. The multi-party democracy system has been severally disrupted by a military coup d'état. The Republic of Turkey has established a political system where human rights and freedoms are recognized, there is a separation of religious activities and political affairs and the establishment of an education system. Turkey is a Muslim nation and has unparalleled westernization to other Muslim dominated countries (GoÌˆcÌ§ek, 2011, p.3).
Security Issues Facing the Turkish Government
Due to its geographical location, the Turkish nation has experienced the effect of neighbouring conflict and terrorism. The neighbouring Syria is constantly in a conflict which affects both the Turkish border security and internal security. Terrorism is an increasing global menace in all countries of the world. Turkey is no exception with major terror attacks in Istanbul and parts Ankara. International terrorist groups are responsible for these attacks with active involvement by local domesticated terror groups (Radu, 2003, p32). Terrorism has affected economic and social life in turkey with many terrorist attacks directed to government institutions and security institutions. A recent example of such attacks is the Istanbul Airport attack in June 2016 where there were loss of lives of Turkish nationals and foreign nationals. Some of the are local terrorist organizations present in turkey include Leftists, Kurdish Separatists, and Islamic Radicals.
The political stability of the Turkey has experienced instabilities over the years resulting in military coups, for instance, the recent coup d'état in July 2016. Coupled with political instabilities the nation has experienced civil unrests in its major cities (OÌˆzerdem & Ozerdem, 2013, p.3). These civil unrests and demonstrations have led to political violence and confrontation between the military and civilians. Civil unrest is also a result of religious conflicts between the dominant Muslim and the Christian few who are slowly in the entry level in Turkey.
Another security concern in turkey is the kidnapping of its nationals and foreigners by terrorist groups and neighbouring Syria groups. The most common trend in Turkey is politically motivated. In extreme cases, terrorist organizations have claimed responsibility for the kidnapping of victims, especially women.
There is also the issue of radical politics in Turkey which is a threat to the political stability of this nation. Small groups are involved in extreme political ideas forming a whole different idealism in the nation’s politics. The radicalization has extended to other non-political areas such as the press. The radicalization of the press and politics causes political and social unrest (Landau, 2016, p46). The issue of religion is another cause of radical behaviours especially between the secularists and the Muslims. This has affected the political views and decisions in the nation of Turkey
Means of Dealing with Security Issues
The Turkish nation has adopted a healthy civil society whereby NGOs and Human Rights Organizations have come together to strengthen the democratic processes of the nation and ensure that human rights are not violated especially during the heavy military presence due to civil unrests. The government has introduced civil control by the military where the armed force is used to curb civil unrests and demonstrations in some cities in Turkey (CÌ§aha, 2013, p.27).
The Turkish nation has adopted national counter-terrorism strategies to help combat terrorism. The power of diplomacy is one of these strategies, through the effective leaders and international relations between other nations. For instance, the Turkish government has undertaken diplomatic mediations in Syria and with other terrorist organizations to leave the country. The Turkey government has worked on its foreign policies where it seeks to improve its relations with the neighbouring countries (In Canan-Sokullu, 2013, p. 99).
Sokullu (2013) further notes that due to proper diplomatic relations with Syria, the two governments have a free trade agreement between them and this has led to improvement in the economic and social ties between Turkey and Syria. Internal conflict was also addressed through peaceful negotiations between the government and the internal warring groups like the PKK to reach a cease-fire. The Turkish Nation has also adopted a strong legal system and other institutions to deal with terror suspects and perpetrators.
The Turkish government has used the military in preventing external security threats in the country. Currently, a state of emergency has been issued in Turkey to help leverage the increasing threats from neighbouring Syria; a move meant to pave way for the implementation of new security strategies in the relevant institutions to curb the threat of terrorism and other internal security threats (Canan-Sokullu, 2013, p.99).
In conclusion, the security concerns in Turkey have left the nation in a volatile position both in economic and political sectors. These two are important in determining a nation’s well-being and thus international involvement is necessary through other governments and international organizations which promote peace and security. The international intervention will ensure sustainable security in Turkey.
CÌ§aha, O. (2013). Women and civil society in Turkey: Women's movements in a Muslim society.
Canan-Sokullu, E. (2013). Debating Security in Turkey: Challenges and Changes in the Twenty-First Century.
GoÌˆcÌ§ek, F. M. (2011). The transformation of Turkey: Redefining state and society from the Ottoman Empire to the modern era. London: I.B. Tauris.
Landau, J. M. (2016). Radical politics in modern Turkey. New York: Routledge.
OÌˆzerdem, A., & Ozerdem, F. (2013). Human security in Turkey: Challenges for the 21st century.
Radu, M. (2003). Dangerous neighborhood: Contemporary issues in Turkey's foreign relations. New Brunswick, N.J: Transaction Publishers.