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SEE711 Sensor Networks

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  • Course Code: SEE711
  • University: Deakin University
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  • Country: Australia

Answer:

1. Introduction

The wireless sensor network plays an important role in data communication systems like commercial application, industrial application and many real time applications. The large number of sensor node devices are spread in multiple fields. The sensor nodes are low power devices and it can be in the order of hundred or it may be thousand. Sensor nodes are mainly used to Comprises a large number of distribution in Wireless sensor network. The sensor nodes are performing many tasks like smart sensing, target tracking, data aggregation, neighbor node discovery in single hop and Multihop communication system. Current advances in semiconductor, materials science and networking technologies are motivating the ubiquitous distribution of large-scale WSNs (Wireless Sensor Networks).

In single hop communication to use the channel coding in WSNs with a star molded single-hop structure, which is similar to the current cellular telephony networks. The single hop sensor network have one common node with appropriate sufficient energy and computational power resources to achieve the difficult channel decoding for entering packets. The larger networks of numerous number of nodes will nearly does not have single hop connectivity for multiple reasons. It may be more energy effective to communicate a message through the multi-hop communications over small distances in its place of a single hop extensive distance communication to the Base Station. A protocol for energy efficient both the single-hop and multi-hop communications in WSNs is presented and it will be discussed. In the existing approach, SNs form supportive clusters. Within each and every cluster, SNs can easily communicate with each other with the help of multi-hop links, and these SN at the most recent hop communicates with the Base Station by communicating the grouped multi-hop data.

The main objective of this project is to provide the solution for tasks like Binary counter, single hop communication, Single hop communication with acknowledgement and Multihop communication. The lab setup will be provided in detailed manner. The task’s requirements will be provided for each and every tasks. The Micaz board and led's will be discussed in all the requirements. The ActiveMessageC, AMReceiverC and AMSenderC components will be used for transmission and receive the data. The tasks will be implemented by using Micaz board and led’s.

2. Lab Setup 

VirtualBox is much capable of x86 and AMD64/Intel64 virtualization item for big business and in addition home utilize. It is not exclusively that a VirtualBox is to a greater degree which includes rich, superior item for big business clients, it is additionally the main expert arrangement that is uninhibitedly accessible as Open Source Software under the terms of the GNU General Public License (GPL) rendition (Bakshi, 2017)

Virtual Machine

VM (Virtual machines) are based on the computer architecture. The virtual machine is a simulation of a computer system. It provides the functionality of a physical computer (Bourennane, n.d.). The implementation may contains the specialized software and hardware. The various types of virtual machines are used and each machine have the numerous functions. There are given below,

  • Process VM
  • System VM

The SVM (System Virtual Machine) also called as the full virtualization VM. The system VM provides an additional substitute for a real or physical machine. It offers the functionality desired to perform complete operating system. A hypervisor is used for the native execution in virtual machine. It share and manage hardware, permitting for more number of environments which are isolated from one another. The modern hypervisor is used for the hardware helped virtualization.

The process VM (Virtual Machine) are intended to perform computer programs in an independent platform environment (Hac?, 2003).

Ubuntu

It is an open source OS (Operating system) software for computers. Ubuntu software is based on the debain architecture. Ubuntu is distribution systems of Linux and it is usually run on PC (Personal Computers). It is widely used for network server. Ubuntu software also runs on the popular architecture and it including ARM machine, AMD and Intel.

In Ubuntu, user program run by very low privileges. The advantage of the Ubuntu is cannot smash the user program files or other files. It cannot corrupt the OS. The sudo command is used to allocate temporary rights and privileges for executing administrative responsibilities. It allows the root version account to continue protected and services to check inexperienced operators from inadvertently building catastrophic changes in system or opening safety holes in Ubuntu. The system requests and requirements differ among Ubuntu products (Lo?pez and Zhou, 2008).

VirtualBox keeps successively running on Linux, Windows and Solaris and it has bolsters a considerable number of visitor working frameworks. However it is not restricted to Windows Similarly, NT 4.0, 2000

  1. XP, Server 2003,
  2. Vista,
  3. Windows 7,
  4. Windows 8,
  5. Windows 10.

VirtualBox is large effectively created with visit discharges and has  regularly developing rundown of highlights, upheld visitor working frameworks for the stages it keeps running on. VirtualBox is a group exertion sponsored by a devoted organization. Everybody is urged to contribute. But in case of Oracle, it guarantees the item which dependably meets the proficient quality criteria (Kamila, n.d.).

VirtualBox is a unrestricted, it is open source and is  a cross-stage application for creating, overseeing and running VM virtual machines.  PCs equipment parts are imitated by the host PC, mainly the PC that runs the program. VirtualBox keep running on the OS such as Linux, Solaris and so on.

It depends on the OS adaptation, however it means that it pays little mind to the host working framework (Cichon?, Ge?bala and Klonowski, 2013).

The need of VM

Utilization of virtual machines is greatly helpful for various reasons. For instance, user might need to run a virtual machine to experiment with programming that user think may be perilous, or user might need to experiment with another working framework without changing the way user PC is now set up.

User may likewise need to utilize it for security purposes; for instance, user might need to make a virtual machine only for web based managing account so user can make sure that there are no spyware or trojans getting at user valuable information (Das and Stephen, 2012).

At long last, user might need to get it since user can. VirtualBox is totally free – there's no reason not to download

The way to get

The most straightforward approach to get the most recent rendition of VB VirtualBox is downloaded from the downloading page of VirtualBox site (Hashish, 2011)

There user can download the right form for user stage, or in case user are utilizing Linux user can navigate to discover a rundown of guidelines for different Linux dispersions.

In case user don't know which rendition of the working framework user are utilizing user are probably utilizing the 32 bit form, thus user need to download the "i386" variant of VirtualBox.

Introducing VirtualBox is much as same as introducing some additional program on user stage, so user shouldn't have any issue with establishment. On the off chance that user do stall out however, user can read the establishment control on the VirtualBox site (Karl, Willig and Wolisz, 2004).

Using Virtual Box

Instructions to utilize VirtualBox

When started up VirtualBox interestingly VirtualBox Manager welcome the user. This is the place user can make virtual machines, go on or off and roll out improvements to virtual equipment accessible.

1. Clearly, VirtualBox making virtual machines for Windows XP
2. Windows 7 and

Ubuntu, as these are the no doubt contender for a VM (Profheath.org, 2017) these are the main choices that VM(virtual machines )bring to the table. In case user feeling bold, user might need to attempt one of the other Linux circulations,

  1. Puppy Linux,
  2. Arch Linux,
  3. Linux Mint,
  4. CentOS,

In the accompanying segments user will figure out how to make

  1. Windows XP,
  2. Windows 7 and
  3. Ubuntu virtual machines. Each well-ordered area is trailed by numbered screenshots of the means portrayed. Don't hesitate to counsel both the directions and the photos as user fabricate user machines (Chandra, 2017).
3. Making a WinXP Virtual Machine

Stage 1 – The initial step to making any virtual machine is to tap on the "New" catch in the upper left hand corner of the VirtualBox Manager window – it's a major blue star that is really difficult (Meghji and Habibi, 2017).

Step by step instructions to utilize VirtualBox

This begins a New Virtual Machine Wizard which is helpful. The aim is to get another virtual machine.

Stage 2 – Fill name of VM (Virtual Machine). What user ring it is completely to user – it's truly so user can locate a particular VM (Virtual Machine) effectively when user have a wide range of VMs in the administrator (SingleHop, 2017).

VirtualBox Manual

VirtualBox will attempt to make sense of what OS user intend to keep running on the VM in view of what and so on. On the off chance that the name of the VM in it some place it expect that user will be introducing Windows XP and then it will alter itself as needs be. On the off chance that user have an enigmatic name for it, however, don't stress. User can physically pick the OS sort starting from the drop boxes beneath.

Once user have done that, tap on "Proceed" to go to the following stage.

Stage 3 – User will be solicited to choose the sum from RAM that user need to designate to the virtual machine. The more user give the VM the smoother it'll run, yet be cautioned; memory apportioned to the VM is memory that the host OS (that is, the PC user have introduced VirtualBox on) won't have the capacity to utilize.

Things being what they are, the amount RAM would it be advisable for user to assign to the VM? It relies upon various things. In case user are wanting to utilize just the Virtual Machine user bear to give RAM since user won't request that the host Operating System is multitasking. In event that, then again, user will be utilizing the VM in the meantime as doing bunches of different stuffs on the host OS, user will need to be more moderate with the sums that user give out. In any case, a great general dependable guideline is to distribute. To the extent hard statistics Windows XP can run well on 513 MB of Random Access Memory(RAM) or in case user are feeling liberal user can drive the watercraft and  an entire 1024MB (1GB), so I'd suggest allotting between numbers.

Stage 4 – The following stage is to make a VHD. This makes a record on user hard drive is utilized by VB to act similar to its own particular separate hard drive, enabling user to introduce a working framework without stressing over wiping over user current information.

Ensure that

  1. Boot Hard Disk
  2. Make new hard plate

 are select, at that point click "Proceed". It will begin and create New Virtual Disk Wizard. Snap "Proceed with" again to continue.

VirtualBox manual

Next user will be inquired as to whether user need to make a "powerfully growing" circle (which it is active plate starting now and into the foreseeable future) or a "settled size" plate. It has own particular advantages. The colossal thing about a active plate is just as vast as the information user can allot it a lot of room without worrying about if user will utilize it or user will come up short on space. They're likewise a considerable measure speedier to make than a settled plate of any huge size.

VirtualBox client manual

In any case, user will have to watch out for it, since its adaptability can likewise be its defeat. Let's assume user make a dynamic plate and allot it 50 GB, at that point put around more than 20GB of information on it. The active circle record will appear as taking just 20GB of space on the hard drive as indicated by user host OS. Extraordinary. User top off whatever is left over space on user physical device in hard drive

Thing is, whether user start up the VM and attempt to add more information to the dynamic circle, user will keep running into inconvenience – the virtual plate says that it's still got 30GB free, however there's no place to really put that 30GB of information. The VM goes crazy, suspecting that the hard drive is flopping, yet that is not valid. It simply needs some all the more living room on bodily drive to store the information exposed to it's ready to spare.

This is the upside of the settled extent circle. Without a doubt, it's badly designed when users are attempting to make sense space to give it, however it made user won't need to stress over it until the end of time.

In this case we'll be utilizing dynamic circles, yet settled plates will work similarly too. Ensure that "Progressively extending capacity" is chosen, at that point tap on "Proceed" once more.

Next users are made a request to pick name, For most of the user won't have to alterate the name or the area, yet by tapping on the envelope symbol by the content box (ElProCus - Electronic Projects for Engineering Students, 2017.

VirtualBox client manual

The size user should make the VHD relies upon and should say how much stuff user intend to put in it, yet in the event that users are utilizing a dynamic plate it doesn't generally make a difference on the off chance that user dispense it heaps of room. In case users are simply utilizing it to run a couple of projects, the proposed size of 10GB ought to be bounty. It ensures the settings are correct at that point click Proceed with, at that point Done (Mouser.in, 2017).

VirtualBox client manual

Stage 5 – At this point user should simply check over everything and ensure every one of the settings are as user anticipate that them will be. At that point user simply need to click "Done" and the VM will be made, prepared for user to introduce Windows.

Setup 1: Direct to direct Communication Setup is clearly illustrated in the following

In this system arrangement, NCA is relaxed through the RSSI worth of finally received packet, it helps in approximating radial distance which is between the nodes (Ahlawat and Mittal, 2015). To start the whole process, one of the devices needs the NCA to allow a single link to the other device which is present in same cell. The NCA is morally founded on localization substance of point to point system communication within the cell in which it resolves whether it is going to be a normal cellular message. In this, statistics being relayed over NCA or a D2D communication (Bhattacharyya, Kim and Pal, 2017).

 Once D2D communication message has been accepted, getting device is trained by the NCA to be in reception mode and transmitting device is trained to start the transmission. At end, both directs a data transfer accomplishment notification to NCA. The connection is now closed and the allocated resources are unrestricted.

Setup 2: Single Hop D2D Communication can be illustrated through the flow graph

In this lab setup, deployed a NCA, 2 duplex and 1 relay device. Also, all devices have relay. The NCA is processed via RSSI values of packets. It is then acknowledged from all other devices, it can estimate the location which is present inside the cell. To start the process, one of the devices asks NCA to permit a linking to additional device which is present within the cell. The NCA is purely based on the RSSI info and it infers the challenging devices are not in the variety of direct D2D communication. The NCA also differentiates that there is added device in the proximity, accomplished of acting as a relay to both devices which want to connect. The data packets are then received at the relay and it is directly forwarded directly to the endpoint (SearchEnterpriseWAN, 2017).

TinyOS

It is an operating system. It is a development of open source. It is mainly designed or created for wireless embedded sensor network. It has a feature of component rooted architecture. It supports platform which involves windows 2000 XP associated with Cygwin and Linux(Khemapech, 2017).

Installing TinyOS

First install the Ubuntu 12.04 or 13.04 or 14.04 or any other greater version. Then enables the root user. Next to install the TinyOS, switch to the root user. And then open terminal i.e. ctrl plus Alt plus T.

Procedure for the installation

First go to TinyProd and obey the following instructions

First step is to tell apt which is about the signing key for TinyProd.

It will release real code for TinyOs in a folder which is named by tinyOS-release-tinyOS-2_1_2 that is inside the directory command.

Then we will require to add variables to the shell. The required one is on the following file.

Replace place holder associated with path.

If we mention this file as tinyOS.env, at least 2 chances to possess accessible variables in the shell.

If the installation of TinyOS is done, then we able to verify whether it is successfully executing few of the commands which is as follows.

2.1 Task-1

Requirements

Generally the binary counter is a hardware circuit. In the binary counter the following requirements are to be used. The Micaz boards, tinyos operating system, LEDs, counters are to be used to make the binary counter(Han, 2013). The micas boards are the wireless measurement system  and it can be used for to make a binary counter system .This binary counter should be done based on the tinyos operating system. In the binary counter using the leds on the micaz board, current state of the system must be diplayed.There are three LEDs are to be used on the micaz board. The binary counter must be changed for every states of 0.5s.In the system that can be represented by the limited amount of states. The amount of state reached maximum means, then the counter must be reset (LI, 2008). In LED the yellow led must be represented by the least significant bit (LSB) and the red led must be represented by the most significant bit. The timer module should to be used to make the lights flash at 0.5seconds intervals. The LED modules to be used for to control the leds. The led0 is to be represented in red colour.Led1 is to be represented by green colour.and led2 is to be represented by yellow colour (Www3.nd.edu, 2017).  

Results

Results for single hop communication

With fresh batteries, entire sensors were produced. I tis significant to indicate that the power of battery decides the information receptions and transmissions strength (Dalton et al., 2009).

Query vs. Auto send plot for the collection of data (Wu et al., 2017)

The above graph illustrates that, for query and auto send plot of information collection, readings lost percentage because of an operation of enhancing amount of motes for every 3 mote spatial arrangements (Levis and Culler, n.d.). Generally, in entire network spatial arrangements, readings lost percentage enhances because of enhance in motes. .At the starting, reading lost percentage enhances gradually, but spikes enhances extremely because of enhancing number of motes. It is due to transmission number enhances constantly associated with motes number. The reading lost percentage in query plot is at least ten percentage greater than the percentage of reading lost in auto send plot (Levis and Gay, 2009).

2.2 Task 2 - Single hop communication

Requirements:

Single hop communication is a major part of communication in the computer networks  (Bourennane, n.d.). Single hop is communication between one nodes to another node. It is used to pass the information from one to another. The main requirement of the single hop communication is Micaz boards and leds.  The main purpose of the Micaz board is develop a program and that is used to perform wireless communication. The ActiveMessageC, AMReceiverC and AMSenderC components are used to transmit the data and receive data (Home.hib.no, 2017). The MICAZ board is a 2.4GHz and it is mainly used for enabling less-power and wireless sensor networks. The Micaz provides maximum data rate with 250kbps. And it utilize direct sequence that resistant to radio frequency (RF) and offers security with inherent data. The main purpose of the Micaz board is can perform a basic wireless communication in the sensor network. Normally single hop communication is transmit a data from node 1 to node 2. Node 1 is transmit a number within 0.5S. For every transition, transmission number is increased. Then node 2 is receive a number from node1 and the transmitted data is displayed on its led’s. The purpose of led is displaying a data from the nodes. The transmitted data is must able to display on two boards that is Micaz board and led. By using three bits maximum number can be transmitted from one node to another. If the maximum number is transmitted, then counter needs to be rest (Iyengar, 2011).  

2.3 Lab Task-3

Requirements

Single hop communication is more efficient than the muti hop communication. In the task of single hop communication with acknowledgement the following requirements are to be needed. In this type of communication system the micaz boards must be used. The micaz boards can perform the basic wireless communication system. The program should be developed on the micaz boards. In the single hop communication system two nodes are to be used. Node 1 is to be required to transmit the number and that can be displayed on the leds (Lo?pez and Zhou, 2008). Node 2 is to be used to receive a number and that can be displayed on the leds.Node 2 is send an acknowledgement once, if it is received the number. Node 1 must be used for to increment the number once and it should receive the acknowledgement message from node 2.The number transmitted in node 1, must be displayed on the micaz boards. If the maximum number is transmitted means, then the maximum number can be sent by using 3 bits. The counter must to be resetted for the maximum number transmission. The ActiveMessageC, AMSenderC, AMReceiverC components must be used for to transmit and receives the data (Bharathidasan, 2017). 

2.4 Task 4- Multihop communication

Requirements 

The Multihop communication is used for communicating from two or more nodes in the path. The information is passed from one or more nodes. The Micaz board is a main requirement to develop a program of wireless Multihop communication. Micaz board is used for indoor building and security purpose. In MHC the data is transmitted in loop form that one or more nodes. The main requirement of the MHC is led displaying components (Kanatas, Kalis and Efthymoglou, 2011). The number is transmitted and received from node1, node2, node3, node4. And once a node received a new number, the number is must added by 1.then only message is passing to another node. Hence, the received number of each node must display the current number on the Micaz board and led's. The maximum number that can transmitted by using # bits. The counter is reset when the maximum number has been transmitted (Khemapech, 2017)

3. Conclusion

Combining technologies, the new generations of wireless sensor networks which may varied from wireless networks are developed. The wireless networks of smooth sensor that includes the potential to modernize the collection of data and investigation for a host of applications are investigated. Generally this wireless network consists of multiple shared devices with the help of sensors to organize the environmental conditions. The mainstream of the already existing applications for “wireless” sensors based on a single-hop wireless network  in order to achieve the Base Station for additional processing of the dignified occurrences.

The solution is provided for tasks such as Binary counter, single hop communication, Single hop communication with acknowledgement and Multihop communication. The task’s requirements are provided for each and every tasks. The lab setup is provided in detailed manner. The Micaz board and led's are discussed in all the requirements. The ActiveMessageC, AMReceiverC and AMSenderC components are used for transmission and receive the data. The tasks are implemented by using Micaz board and led’s.

References

Ahlawat, M. and Mittal, A. (2015). Different Communication Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks: A Review. IJARCCE, pp.213-216.

Bakshi, A. (2017). [online] Available at: http://halcyon.usc.edu/~pk/prasannawebsite/papers/ewsn.pdf [Accessed 27 Sep. 2017].

Bharathidasan, A. (2017). [online] Available at: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.84.5089&rep=rep1&type=pdf [Accessed 27 Sep. 2017].

Bhattacharyya, D., Kim, T. and Pal, S. (2017). A Comparative Study of Wireless Sensor Networks and Their Routing Protocols.

Bourennane, S. (n.d.). Wireless communication and sensor network.

Bourennane, S. (n.d.). Wireless communication and sensor network.

Chandra, P. (2017). Securing wireless ad hoc networks: Part 1 - single and multi-hop ad hoc networks. [online] Embedded. Available at: https://www.embedded.com/design/connectivity/4007202/Securing-wireless-ad-hoc-networks-Part-1--single-and-multi-hop-ad-hoc-networks [Accessed 27 Sep. 2017].

Cichon?, J., Ge?bala, M. and Klonowski, M. (2013). Ad-hoc, Mobile, and Wireless Network. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Cichon?, J., Kubiak, P. and Kuty?owski, M. (2008). Algorithmic aspects of wireless sensor networks. Berlin [u.a.]: Springer.

Dalton, A., Wahba, S., Dandamudi, S. and Hallstrom, J. (2009). Visualizing the runtime behavior of embedded network systems: A toolkit for TinyOS. Science of Computer Programming, 74(7), pp.446-469.

Das, V. and Stephen, J. (2012). Advances in communication, network, and computing. Heidelberg: Springer.

ElProCus - Electronic Projects for Engineering Students. (2017). Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) Architecture And Applications. [online] Available at: https://www.elprocus.com/architecture-of-wireless-sensor-network-and-applications/ [Accessed 27 Sep. 2017].

Hac?, A. (2003). Wireless sensor network designs. Chichester: J. Wiley.

Hac?, A. (2003). Wireless sensor network designs. Chichester: J. Wiley.

Hac?, A. (2003). Wireless sensor network designs. Chichester: J. Wiley.

Han, Y. (2013). Multiple TinyOS Design for Managing Sensor Networks based the Virtual Machine. Korea Institute of Information Technology Review, 11(9).

Hashish, S. (2011). Efficient communication protocols for sensor network architecture with multiple mobile sinks. Ottawa: Library and Archives Canada = Bibliothe?que et Archives Canada.

Home.hib.no. (2017). TinyOS. [online] Available at: http://home.hib.no/ansatte/aaks/tinyosInstallation.html [Accessed 27 Sep. 2017].

Ieeexplore.ieee.org. (2017). On Direct Diffusion Routing for Wireless Sensor Networks - IEEE Conference Publication. [online] Available at: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7821862/ [Accessed 27 Sep. 2017].

Iyengar, S. (2011). Fundamentals of sensor network programming. Hoboken N.J.: Wiley-IEEE.

Kamila, N. (n.d.). Handbook of research on wireless sensor network trends, technologies, and applications.

Kanatas, A., Kalis, A. and Efthymoglou, G. (2011). A single hop architecture exploiting cooperative beamforming for wireless sensor networks. Physical Communication, 4(3), pp.237-243.

Karl, H., Willig, A. and Wolisz, A. (2004). Wireless sensor networks. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Khemapech, I. (2017). Feasibility Study of Direct Communication in Wireless Sensor Networks.

Khemapech, I. (2017). Feasibility Study of Direct Communication in Wireless Sensor Networks.

Levis, P. and Culler, D. (n.d.). A Tiny Virtual Machine for Sensor Networks. [online] Available at: https://sing.stanford.edu/site/publications/asplos02levis.pdf.

Levis, P. and Gay, D. (2009). TinyOS Programming. [online] Available at: http://csl.stanford.edu/~pal/pubs/tos-programming-web.pdf.

LI, X. (2008). A Node Scheduling Scheme Based on Virtual Coordinate in Sensor Networks. Journal of Software, 19(8), pp.2089-2101.

Lo?pez, J. and Zhou, J. (2008). Wireless sensor network security. Amsterdam: IOS Press.

Lo?pez, J. and Zhou, J. (2008). Wireless sensor network security. Amsterdam: IOS Press.

Meghji, M. and Habibi, D. (2017). Transmission Power Control in Single-Hop and Multi-hop Wireless Sensor Networks.

Mouser.in. (2017). Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks | Mouser. [online] Available at: http://www.mouser.in/applications/rf-sensor-networks/ [Accessed 27 Sep. 2017].

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Wu, D., Zhang, B., Li, H. and Cheng, X. (2017). Target Counting in Wireless Sensor Networks.

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