A large number of initiatives can be taken by an organization to improve communication. The first one would be creating an environment marked by open communication in which all the members of the organization are given liberty to share their feedback as well as any criticisms against particular concerns and issues. They should also be allowed to share interesting creative and innovative ideas which often lead to successful outcome. Such an open communication environment will help in building trust and relationship. For example, if there is a conflict, the manager would call a meeting and ask all of them to clear their views, so a matter of transparency is maintained (Higg et al., 2016). Secondly, the organizations can also employ an inclusive communication strategy where all members are advised to take part in decision making process. This encourages them to deliver more productivity. Further, introducing a two-way communication is very important which will work both vertically and horizontally. Not only seniors but also junior levels employees should have the authority to pass on information to their respective seniors. Moreover, they should make sure that the business communication has to be result oriented which will focus on acquiring fruitful results of the organization. Lastly, the organization should make use of several channels to make sure that information reached to every individual employee perfectly. These would include making proper channels like face to face conversations, meetings, posting of memos, interacting via telephones, faxes, emails, social networking sites and others. The other important strategy would be to conduct proper training where the individuals would be taught of the advantages of effective listening, delivering messages actively and honestly in an open yet gracious manners (Bunting, 2016). Being undemanding and clear-cut without being rude is very important. Communicating objectives and goal, making internal communication friendly are very important strategies. Other includes conducting virtual meetings and managing any communication issues with proper guidance and training are important. For example, global organizational are extensively using virtual meeting over the internet in the maintenance of the work flow, taking decisions and others.
There are certain differences which can be noted by the leaders and managers. Leaders are individuals who create visions, but managers are those who create goals. Leaders inspire and engage team members in turning visions into reality providing them with enthusiasm to think of and be a part of something challenging and new. Managers focus on setting goals and thereby help in measuring and achieving the goals. Secondly, when managers are considered to be the status quo, where they try to maintain the natural flow of work in the present status keeping the flow disinterested, the leaders mainly act as change agents where they embrace the strategy of innovation. Moreover, leaders are unique where they are self-aware and work actively to build their unique and unique and differentiated personal brands. They maintain transparency and are authentic. Managers are mainly seen to mimic the competencies as well as various behaviours which they learn from different individuals and thereby adopt their style of working accordingly (Bolman & Deal, 2014). When leaders are known to take risks, managers are known to control risks. When leaders build relationships and mainly coach, managers build systems and processes and thereby direct the employees.
Leadership mainly incorporates the attributes of change and leading people with followers. Management mainly maintains the stability of work and helps in managing work with subordinates. Leadership has long-term horizons where visions are set along a setting of direction. Management usually follows short team procedures with objectives where planning of details is done. Researchers suggest that leadership is a passion having personal charisma where cultures are shaped, and working style is proactive. Management, on the other hand, is more controlling with the exhibition of formal authority and enacting the culture with reactive work output (Long, 2017).
Researchers are of the opinion that executive leadership and their support are exclusively essential for success and committing to do their part to stabilize the followers in the new organizational changed setup. Organizational changes lead to the development of a complex and dynamic environment which often becomes difficult and sudden for the employees to get adapt to it. Therefore, leaders play an important role in these situations. The first role played by them is sponsoring. They serve the role of advocates for the modifications and changes at their level in the organization. These individuals mainly take the role of representatives who kept the change in form to the team members (Jordan, 2015). While acting as sponsor, he would not let the initiatives die from lack of attention. He is always showing eagerness to make use of the political capital in order to make the change happen. In addition, a leader acts as a role model and demonstrates behaviors and attitudes which are expected from everyone else. By observing his ways of adaptability and the developed working styles, the employees will gradually adapt themselves and follow his footsteps for developing success and higher productivity. Employees observe the leaders for consistency between words and actions to see if the changing of their style is really providing them with benefits. Leaders hold important positions in managing and controlling resources, budgets and equipments and others. Using organizational change, leaders must influence their decision making authority and thereby choose options which will support initiatives. They are decisive and thereby can set properties that support change. Further, it is to be noted that leaders become the face as well as the voice of change participating in the effective communication. They communicate with the employees to share new information about the changes in the organization and keep people updated and offer encouragement. During the organizational change, different rumors and wrong information start circulating that may make the morale of the employees down. Therefore leaders play an important role in communicating the main working styles required, new initiatives, the way they would be benefitted and solve their concerns. At the end, it is to be highlighted that leaders also provide the motivation of the employees to change their mind set, develop now mindset and perspectives and get involved in the organization.
Servant leadership is mainly described as the leadership of philosophy and is believed to be extremely impactful for the present generations. Unlike the traditional leadership where the main leaders experience the power by being at the top of the pyramid, servant leadership mainly believes of sharing the power and thereby putting the needs of the others first and helping individuals in developing their capabilities as high as possible. The main motive of the leadership is to serve the employees where the other leadership styles encourage the workers to serve the leader. As in this type of leadership, leaders are found to shift their mindset and serve first; they help in unlocking purpose and ingenuity in those around them (Liden et al., 2014). This results in higher performance and engaged and also fulfils the expectations of the employees. The important trait of servant leadership is listening, empathy as well as healing. They perfume awareness and persuasion along with conceptualization and foresight. Besides, stewardship, commitment to growth of people and building community is also important.
They are relevant as it states putting aside ego and helps in focusing on the needs of the employees without promoting self. Others are unity over divisions, power form paradox, listening and learning and spreading and sharing power which develops a working environment where each employees’ potential is expressed.
Leadership can be defined as the capability of individuals to guide other individuals, teams and other organizations helping the team to achieve certain objectives and goals by providing the best strategies to follow and overcome barriers, reaching high potential. Autocratic leadership style believes practising complete authority over the employees without making employees participate in different decision making process (McClesky, 2014). Leaders take their own decisions and do not believe in developing a relationship with the employees. The next is a democratic relationship where leaders encourage subordinates contributions in decision making process and also believe in providing authority to responsible employees. Here communication is active, downward and upward. Transformational leadership helps in initiating change by motivating employees and empowers them in such a way that they get boosted to work beyond their capabilities and potential. Cross-cultural leadership mainly causes the leaders to maintain a working environment by developing strong bonds within employees of a different culture without the raise of any conflicts and encouraging all to input their own working styles according to their transitions. Laissez-faire leadership allows the employees to work as they choose to work with minimal or no interference. Transactional leadership involves an exchange process where employees are published or rewarded as they perform.
Employs rewards and punishments for motivating workers
Employs charisma and enthusiasm to inspire his followers
Puts importance on relationship with followers (Dumdum et al., 2013)
Puts emphasis on values, ideals, morals and needs of followers
Environment is settled
Environment is turbulent
The main similarity between the two leadership styles is their importance on motivating employees. Although their ways to motivate employees are different, but motivation is a component found in both the styles.
Four important features of bureaucracy can be observed. The first one is a division of labor. Each and every organization should have different sets of people doing different sets of a job with proper role clarity so that there is no overlapping of work or missing out of jobs. The second aspect is a hierarchal authority. A true bureaucracy will need to have a proper chain of demands where set lines of authority should be present. Here each person in the bureaucracy should know whom to report and whose commands they should maintain. In this respect it is to be stated that there should be rules and regulations. There should be a set of rules which is needed to be followed. Managers can never make up rules and change them form one day to another. Bureaucracy is also impersonal (Dunleavy, 2014). This means rules and regulations as well as the disciplines and work cultures are needed to be followed by everyone on a similar rate and should not be violated by anyone due to having relationships with any higher authority. Similarly, penalties and punishments should be equal for all. Another is competence and qualification. Here the employees will be hired or promoted based solely on what they know their performance.
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is a motivational theory which mainly comprises of five important tiers of human needs. These needs need to be fulfilled by an individual to be motivated to accomplish tasks in lives. These are the biological needs which involve biological and physiological needs like air, food, warmth, sex and sleep (Niemela & Kim, 2014). Secondly is the safety needs of protection form elements, security, order, law. Third is love and belongingness. The fourth is esteem needs and the self actualization needs.
Bolman, L., & Deal, T. (2014). Leadership and management. Christian Youth Work in Theory and Practice: A Handbook, 245.
Bunting, M. (2016). The Mindful Leader: 7 Practices for Transforming Your Leadership, Your Organisation and Your Life. John Wiley & Sons.
Dumdum, U. R., Lowe, K. B., & Avolio, B. J. (2013). A meta-analysis of transformational and transactional leadership correlates of effectiveness and satisfaction: An update and extension. In Transformational and Charismatic Leadership: The Road Ahead 10th Anniversary Edition (pp. 39-70). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Dunleavy, P. (2014). Democracy, bureaucracy and public choice: Economic approaches in political science. Routledge.
Higgs, M., & Dulewicz, V. (2016). Leading with Emotional Intelligence. Springer International Publishing, 75-103.
Jordan, P. J. (2015). The relationship between organisational culture, transformational leadership and organisational change outcomes in private intensive care units. SA Journal of Human Resource Management, 13(1).
Liden, R. C., Wayne, S. J., Liao, C., & Meuser, J. D. (2014). Servant leadership and serving culture: Influence on individual and unit performance. Academy of Management Journal, 57(5), 1434-1452.
Long, A. (2017). Leadership and management. ABC of Clinical Leadership, 5.
McCleskey, J. A. (2014). Situational, transformational, and transactional leadership and leadership development. Journal of Business Studies Quarterly, 5(4), 117.
Niemela, P. and Kim, S., 2014. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. In Encyclopedia of Quality of Life and Well-Being Research(pp. 3843-3846). Springer Netherlands.
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