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Energy Sustainability Factors You are allowed to present the main element of the report in any way you would prefer, but please do so with a coherent and logical progression to the factors presented. A good format would be to examine how energy production has been implemented historically, how it has evolved with our changing urban demands and technological innovations (e.g. electric cars, increasing electronics devices, etc). Comment on where we may be heading in the future as a global society and explore our necessity to address challenges such as global warming, peak oil production, depleting natural resources, etc. 
Critical elements to consider in your report are the diversity of energy production and what it is used for, for instance we need energy to power our homes and businesses, how is this done? What are the challenges to maintain a consistent supply? What are the governance and legislative issues? Remember energy is used in areas beyond electricity generation, and is a necessary requirement for transportation (combustion engine), in our ability to communicate (sensor systems, etc) and when operating in a national and global environment, please expand on these themes. 

With respect to sustainable practise, please examine how our global energy usage currently is and strategise how new technologies, in particular energy efficient devices and renewables, could be implemented in its various forms. Please consider the suitability of particular technologies such as environmental factors/suitability, production capacity to meet current demands, how infrastructure in cities will need to evolve to manage the transition. Also consider how each renewable technology is produced (e.g. rare earth metals required for manufacture photovoltaic/turbines, etc). Comment or consider how, if we evolve to a more electricity driven society, this will impact the requirements of current infrastructure and the implications for long haul transportation/goods distribution. 

Scenarios of future global electricity generation (TWH-Tera Watt Hour)

In engineering,  sustainability incorporation into technology schemes, products, and amenities usually give the meaning of incorporating ecological, social, and economic aspects in the valuation of projects. Rising population and privileged circumstances, around the sphere, have put increased stress on air, water, raw materials, and arable land conservation. Concern on the capability of natural assets and ecological structures to care the desires and desires of worldwide people, nowadays and in upcoming era, is measure of a developing responsiveness of the thought of sustainable engineering.

During past twenty years, built-up areas have showed intense growth. Presently, more than 3.5 billion individuals live in urban zones (around half global inhabitants). Developing nations in certain are undertaking rapid revolution from non-urban to urban-markets as their urbanizing populations transform them. Overall, Universal population has become twice ever since 1960 and is probable to exceed nine billion by era 2050. In developing countries, 99 percent of this inhabitants growth, along with fifty per cent of urban progress, is probable to take place. The international energy emergency, combined with the risk of weather change, strictly needs invention in the energy segments, and quantified intake for both developing and developed nations. It was specified that, international energy requirements are likely to increase by sixty to eighty-five percent in Urban Energy Transition: Fossil Fuels to Renewable energy by 2030 (The Magazine of United Nations, 2015).

Therefore, Enormous-scale non-conventional energy utilization in urban environs is of great prominence as a forthcoming sustainable power generation choice in fulfilling increased urban area energy requirements as well as reducing environmental emissions. When technology endures to more advance, renewable energy sources will develop ever much efficient, accessible, profitable, and sustainable. Sustainability is an authoritative, yet essential concept because Natural resources and Ecological problems have obtained growing fame in the latter half of 20th era and the starting of 21st era.


                                                      Source: (Waterford Institute of Technology, 2017)

                                  Scenarios of future global electricity generation (TWH-Tera Watt Hour)


                                                       Source: (World energy issues monitor, 2017)

Research methodology is a precise procedure used to define the problem, identify, choice, method, evaluate and analyse detailed information about any subject. There are many methods to do research; some key methodologies of them are as follows:

  • Quantitative Research
  • Descriptive Research
  • Conceptual Research
  • Qualitative Research

Out of all above main research methodologies, I have used Qualitative Research Methodology. Qualitative research is a technical way to observe and gather non-mathematical database or information from researched journals, books, and online sources.

Research Methodology

Fulfilling the requirements of the today’s age group without negotiating the skill of future cohorts to fulfil their requirements is the real sustainability in engineering (World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987). In whole we can say that Sustainable engineering is a procedure of designing and operating organisms in a way that they utilize energy sources and assets sustainably, in other form, at a frequency that does not co-operate the regular atmosphere, or the capability of forthcoming groups to fulfil their own desires.

Introducing sustainable engineering claims that there must be minimum three technologies experiments those should be successfully performed to yield future sustainability. Out of those technological challenges, escaping critical ecological impacts linked with large level production of non-conventional energy, substituting non-renewable resources with renewable alternatives, and totally recycling conventional fuels and leftovers to ensure better efficiency (Foley, 2018).

Before establishing an investigation of engineering theories and tools to build energy efficient globe, it is beneficial to first analyse all of the depths of the natural resource kinds and environmental encounters that occur in front of our qualified engineers during designing, planning for sustainable engineering. These common engineering focuses will be covered in the below sections:                                               


  • Scheduling missions to decrease environmental and communal influences
  • Re-establishing natural locations such as marshlands, forests, and lakes, streams
  • Diminishing and sensibly organizing of unwanted to profit everyone
  • Cultivating industrial procedures to remove waste
  • Endorsing the suitable and advanced usage of expertise

Engineering is being utilized in all aspects of daily life and in all nations, and making promising the presence of social cultures. Diverse states and cultures adjust to their surroundings and regulate their identifiable capitals as well as usages for engineering. The values of life attained in different countries are habitually a purpose of engineering-associated factors. In recent times, struggles have enlarged to make industrial accomplishments further sustainable and, at the same time, more attempts have been prepared to describe the term engineering sustainability and the requirements of it (Rosen, 2012).

Energy is one of the greatest important assets for the sustainable growth of humankind. We all are answerable for the cost-effective usage of the accessible and for the search of new energy sources, which are environmentally responsive and economically achievable. Sustainability concept now days, particularly welcome articles, education, research and efforts in the area of novel energies. We are mainly focussing in research that reports complex problems with innovation prospective at the edge of society, atmosphere, science, and technology. We are also considering articles that focus on technological inventions and key innovations in the emerging area of energy. Therefore, following factors explained below are the key points that look into the combination of environmental and communal requirements with future finances, and investigation dealing with environmentally pleasant energies rather than only concentrating specially on renewable energies (Springer Link, 2018).

Every engineering activity utilizes energy resources that are drawn from nature. These resources contain water (fresh and salinized), materials (previously unused raw material and recycled), and energy.

The amount to which assets are sustainable depends upon various factors, including their scarcity and prominence to ecosystems. Various conventional and non-conventional energy sources are listed below:

1.Renewable/ Non-conventional

2.Non-renewable/ Conventional

Solar energy ( solar pond, Photovoltaic cells, solar power plant)

Biomass (when usage rate > replenishment rate)

Water-based energy, such as hydro, wave, tidal,(from temperature change between earth surface and depth of waters)

other hydrocarbons

Wind turbine energy

Uranium fission ( Nuclear Fission)

Geothermal energy (core temperature of earth energy)

Oil, Firewood

Bio-Gas, Biomass and Bio-Fuel energy (when usage rate ≤ replenishment rate)

Fossil fuels (natural gas, petroleum, coal)

Wastes (when use rate ≤ generation rate)

Hydel Power

Nuclear energy, hydrogen energy

Fusion material (hydrogen, deuterium)

Technological Challenges in Sustainable Engineering

Combustion engines and biofuels research is a Nobel idea as bio fuels which are used are Clean (from the pollution perspective), Sustainable (Long-term availability), and compatible (with present and upcoming combustion engine designing) (Breeze, 2014).


                                                                             Source: (Georgia, 2016)

Various environmental effects related with engineering procedures are of great worry and essentially be taken into energies to obtain engineering sustainability. These mainly contain impacts on environment, on the lithosphere and on the hydrosphere (Mihelcic, Zimmerman and Auer M.T., 2014). Further, these can be liberated in various practices such as harm to the ecology, health. Some environmental impacts related with engineering procedures of concerning engineering sustainability are as follows:

  • Radiological Impacts: ill health caused by internal and external radiation contact
  • Peak Oil Production: Statistical data showed in World Energy report, 2017 states that global oil is producing at 0.5% raised rate.
  • Ozone Depletion: damage of the ozone layer and successive increment in UV-rays (referred as Ultraviolet rays) reaching to the earth's surface. Results can be radiogenic cancer death  
  • Global climate change: is mainly caused by greenhouse gas radiations which create global warming)
  • Acidification: caused by acidic discharges
  • Eco toxicity: caused by exposure to toxic materials that leads to health issues (Mihelcic, Zimmerman and Auer M.T., 2014).

Worldwide, more than 34 billion containers of oil are utilizing every year. If production and consumption of oil at this rate will be continuing in future, then we will be having no crude oil left to use after thirty years or more. The Group for Petroleum Distributing Countries gave information regarding crude oil reserves left in the biosphere. According to that report we humankind should minimize the usage of crude oil because for Universal oil production is declining drastically (Foley, 2018).Thus, Sustainable Environment and energy development can be achieved by reducing these all-environmental emissions through improvement of regional and native Air quality, Water quality carefully and in time.


                                                        Source: (Illinois Institute of Technology, 2018)


Arizona State University (2018) Sustainable Engineering Research, [Online], Available: [27 Aug 2018].

Breeze, P. (2014) Power Generation Technologies, 2nd edition, Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Fedkin, (2008) Principles of Sustainable Engineering, [Online], Available: [17 Aug 2018].

Foley, A.M. (2018) Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, Aug, [Online], Available: [17 Aug 2018].

Georgia (2016) Sustainable Engineering, 31 Mar, [Online], Available: [27 Aug 2018].

Huesemann, M.H. and Joyce, A.H. (2011) Technofix: Why Technology won't save us or the environment , 0865717044th edition, Gabriola: New Society Publishers.

ICE Virtual Library (2018) 'Engineering Sustainability', Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, vol. 171, no. 6, Sep, pp. 275–326.

Illinois Institute of Technology (2018) Introduction to Environmental Engineering and Sustainable Engineering, 28 Jun, [Online], Available: [27 Aug 2018].

Kettering University (2016) The Importance of Sustainability in Engineering Management, 07 Jul, [Online], Available: [17 Aug 2018].

Mihelcic, J.R., Zimmerman, J.B. and Auer M.T. (2014) Environmental engineering:Fundamentals,sustainability, design, 1st edition, Hoboken: Wiley.

Navarro, (2014) Purdue University, Dec, [Online], Available: [17 Aug 2018].

Owusu, P.A., Sarkodie, S.A. and Dubey, (2016) 'A review of renewable energy sources, sustainability issues and climate change mitigation', Cogent Engineering, vol. 3, no. 1.

Penn State Institute (2018) Principles of Sustainable Engineering, [Online], Available: [27 Aug 2018].

Rosen, M.A. (2009) 'Energy Sustainability: A Pragmatic approach and illustrations', Sustainability, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 55-80.

Rosen, M.A. (2012) 'Engineering sustainability: A technical approach to sustainability', Sustainability, vol. 4, no. 9, pp. 2270-2292.

Simon Fraser University (2018) Sustainable Energy Engineering (SEE), [Online], Available: [27 Aug 2018].

Springer Link (2018) Energy , Sustainability and society, [Online], Available: [17 Aug 2018].

The Magazine of United Nations (2015) Sustainable Urban Energy Is the Future, Dec, [Online], Available: [20 Aug 2018].

U.S.Energy Information Administration (2018) How much energy does the world consume by each energy end-use sector?, 24 Jul, [Online], Available: [17 Aug 2018].

UNSW Sydney (2014) Sustainable engineering, [Online], Available: [17 Aug 2018].

Vanegas, J. (2004) Sustainable Engineering Practice-An Introduction, ASCE publishing.

Waterford Institute of Technology (2017) Sustainable energy engineering, [Online], Available: [27 Aug 2018].

World Energy Issues Monitor 2017 (2017) Exposing the new energy realities, [Online], Available: file:///C:/Users/System04087/Desktop/Task%201/mtech/1.-World-Energy-Issues-Monitor-2017-Full-Report.pdf [27 Aug 2018].

World Nuclear Association (2013) Sustainable Energy, Jun, [Online], Available: [17 Aug 2018].

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