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Seven Reasons For IT Projects Fail

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Question:

Discuss about the Seven Reasons for IT Projects Fail?

 

Answer:

Executive summary

The aim of this paper is to uphold the current system of the institution, which is a manual procedure of chronicling logout and login time, deliberate over its disadvantages and analyze the requirement for introducing an automatic swipe card practice in the office in order to eradicate the origins of misperception and misconducts. The brand new swipe card system aims to eliminate the error prone human-centric procedure and guarantee the precision of stored data so that the workers do not misunderstand the intents of the higher administration. The automatic swipe card scheme intends to initiate transparency in the practice and inspire the employees to show discipline in their behavior and exhibit professionalism. The paper gives attention to the discussion around comprehending the ambiguities in the manual system, upholding the pros of the automated swipe card system, outlining objectives of the venture and displaying the related risk factors.

Project justification  

The purpose of the venture is to put together a scheme for TargMart which will substitute the already present error prone, manual practice of confirming the employee’s login and logout instances for the day. It wants to not only mechanize the entire procedure and in turn making it more efficient and precise, but also compelling it to get rid of all the ambiguities involved in the current system. This is an essential change due to the fact that more than twice of the full-time workers are part-time and they arrive and depart at altered times throughout the course of a day, so a precise and accurate mechanism is required to be installed to keep an account of their chargeable hours.

Background

Tagamet, a mid-market trader dealing with attired and house merchandise from Victoria has a deeply concentrated occurrence in the area with limited spread across the country. It mainly serves the middle class populace of Australia. The company also has a website on which workers of the company can pursue if they register needs a substitute.

Issues

All the workers are required to manually log out and log in on a piece of paper document and this information is later entered in the computerized systems. This procedure claims to do the same thing again and again and also it is susceptible to errors.
 
The existing system has many gaps such as because of manual process there is a chance of one worker making false attendance claims for some other worker.
 
The current system has a predilection for many errors and there are often complaints from the staff about incorrect entries stored in the computer.

 

Objectives

Staff misinterpretation: The aim is to precisely record the working or chargeable hours of the recruits in order to make sure that the reasonable amount of pay is given to them to evade any kind of circumstance that can cause confusion and grievances between the workers and the administrators.
 
Expansion: The existing system requests to get respite from all the gaps and chances of making mistakes in order to shape an error free scheme in place which will be able to withstand the additional expansion, otherwise the existing practice will bring down the association if they ever make a move for expansion.
 
Automation: The current system requires a mechanisation to decrease the superfluous double work which is due to the occurrence of a manual processes in order to keep a record of all seventeen hundred recruits.

Project Scope

The scope of the project includes introducing an automatic system in TargMart in order to electronically keep a track of the login and logout time of all the recruits making sure that they are precise and authentic. An electronic swipe card will be given which would be connected t the central system in order to keep a track of the login and logout time of workers so that their aggregate working time can be electronically calculated. It will also cite causes for the breaks. The automatic system would be able to dodge any unauthorised entry in the office and would also be able to check the activities which are uncommon such as intervals at short timespans, absence, or long duration breaks. The scope also accounts for the development of the electronic system as per the allowed budget, and time span allowed to finish this. The software interfaces would also be developed in keeping with the project plans and budget.

Following are not included in the development of the project:

Making a budget for the project and look after the marketing.

Buying the system of swipe cards.

Carry on constant negotiation with vendors.

Make the payments to the vendors.

Possible areas of scope creep include:

Proposed designs of the swipe systems.
 
Tender opening and closing.

 

Project methodology

The system will adhere by the principles of smooth methodology. In this process, a specific component is created within two to four days. The customer is involved throughout the installation process of the system. And the feedback is taken note of wherever and whenever is needed.

Project milestone and deliverables

Following are the milestones and corresponding deliverable of the projects:

Project Milestone

Deliverable

Approval from CEO

on project objectives

The project aims, which uphold the outline of the swipe system and its advantages, has to get sanctioned by the administration to introduce it.

Get approval for project plan & WBS

WBS i.e. work breakdown structure show detail of all the work that is essential to assert before assigning a timeline to all of them.

Get approval for other needs

The other needs are also essential and need to be looked after in order to locate the workable way outs to stop any makeover.

Approval on the precise equipment and plans

To give trainings to the workers, it is essential to have the things handy, and the plan would uphold the detailing of time and cost outlined for the project.

Sanction on the swipe system

The suggested system pattern needs to be sanctioned by the higher authorities.

Take opinions and feedback

Once the prototype is introduced, it will be very important to receive opinions in order to make it suitable for everyone.

Get approval on the Database

The database design, which aims to preserve all the required data, needs approval before the coding is initiated.

Get a approval in the coded system

The system needs to associate with the database and this needs suitable coding. The standards and conventional levels need to be sanctioned before initiating it.

Swipe-card systems introduced

The swipe card system initiation is essential for the plan to go on.

Get sanction on the coding system (after testing)

This is essential to make sure of the efficiency of the practice and test it to make sure there are no bugs in the developed system.

Take feedback

(after final demo)

It is essential to take feedbacks in order to make sure that all the required functionalities in the developed system.


Project team

Following are the associated team member and their respective work profile:

Role

Assigned work

Project sponsor

Sign-off project charter; keep a steady communication with stakeholders.

Project manager

·         Ensure that the deliverables are finished within the deadline;

·         Updates the timely project status;

·         Find and deals with the potential risk factors of the project;

·         Coordinate and lead project teams

Quality manager

Check the quality of every deliverable object

Human resource manager

Recruit new resources;

Finance consultant

Prepare and present a budget estimate

Risk manager

Locate the project risks and come up with solution plans.

Developer head

Develop the business logic code

Testing head

Check the code


Communication plan

In order to satiate the communication needs and requirements amongst the project team, the authorities and the stakeholder, a detailed plan is developed. This plan outlines: means of communication, meetings, forms and any other essential activity of communication and interconnectivity.

All the project teams will use following resources for communication:

  • Meetings
  • E-mails
  • Face-to-Face conversations
  • Conference calls.
  • Phone

Following table shows the communication process among different stakeholders:

What is to be done

Who

Purpose of task

How often

Method

Project Initial meeting

All stakeholders

Collect information for the project plan

Before initial date of project

Meeting

Project initiation plan’s distribution

All stakeholders

To inform and include all stakeholders regarding the scope of the project

Before initiating kick-start meeting

Sent over the web

Project kick-off meeting

All stakeholders

Allotting of work to stakeholders.

Before initial date of project

Meeting

Project Team meetings

Team meetings, functional team meetings and modules meetings.

To see all the in-depth plans and check on the updates

Regularly planned

Meeting

Review after project

Project managers, main stakeholders, sponsor

Outline the improvements in projects, lessons learnt, Analyze the accomplishments

On completion of  the project

 

 

 

Risk Analysis Checklist

Following risks are prominently associated with the swipe-card installation project:

Resources not available i.e. non-availability of project manger, design engineer and other key resources.

System security i.e. System should be secured from hackers and other intrusions.

Increase in cost of the system i.e. any delay in project may lead to increase in the project cost.

Project deadline i.e. Milestones should be achieved as per the defined deadlines.

Risk

Probability

[High,

Medium, Low]

Consequence

[High,

Medium, Low]

Impact

[High,

Medium, Low]

Proposed Mitigation Action

Resources not available

Medium

High

High

Accept. Hire other resources

Increase in cost of the system

Low

High

High

Accept. Get the increased budget approved by project sponsor

System security

Medium

High

High

Avoid.

The design of the proposed swipe card should be get approved from the industry experts.

Missing milestone deadlines

Low

Medium

Medium

Avoid. Assign more resources to avoid delay.

 

 

Stakeholder management

Stakeholder matrix – Following matrix depicts the key stakeholders of the Targmart – Swipe card installation project:

Stakeholder

Stake in the project

Potential impact on Project

What does the Project expect the Stakeholder to provide?

Perceived attitudes and/or risks

Stakeholder Management Strategy

Responsibility

Management executives

Provides specifications which define the project’s objectives.

High

Assign resources which includes budget, hardware, software and budget..

Cordination issue because there can be a problem which may arise from mis-understanding technicalities of project.

Involvement in hihg-level meetinfs and high level card design and contract sign-off

Project Manager

Project team

Project team

High

Must be well-acquainted with the alloted tasks, cordinate with each other.

Procrastination and ego problems

Participation in meetings and workshops.

Project sponsor/developer

Support staff

Maintenance

High

Facilitate in system designing, know-how of the processes, suggesting key changes in the system.

Issue in adapting the new system

Participation in user training and requirement analysis and gathering

Project Team

Employee

Employees

Low

Valuable feedback, input and usage pattern

Unable to let employees make out its full utility.

Feedback

Marketing


Work Breakdown Structure

WBS

Task Name

1

TargMart Swipe System

1.1

   Project initiation

1.1.1

      Finalize project charter

1.1.2

      Approve charter

1.2

   Project planning

1.2.1

      Scope identificaiton

1.2.2

      Schedule management

1.2.3

      Budget cration

1.2.4

      Define roles and responsibilities

1.2.5

      Hiring

1.2.6

      WBS creation

1.2.7

      Project plan finalization

1.2.8

      Approve WBS

1.3

   Requirement analysis

1.3.1

      Current system analysis

1.3.2

      Gap Analysis

1.3.3

      Define High level requirements

1.3.4

      Define Low level requirements

1.3.5

      Analysis of cost-benefit

1.3.6

      Proposal creation

1.3.7

      Approve requirements

1.4

   Vendor selection

1.4.1

      Open tender

1.4.2

      Finalize selection criteria

1.4.3

      Finalize vendor

1.5

   System design

1.5.1

      Finalize data model

1.5.2

      Finalize system flow

1.5.3

      Create prototype

1.5.4

      Finalize data set

1.5.5

      Approve swipe card design

1.6

   Acceptance of prototype

1.6.1

      Finalize date

1.6.2

      Send inivation to management

1.6.3

      Finalize demo room

1.6.4

      Demo

1.7

   System database

1.7.1

      Finalize data model

1.7.2

      Finalize SQL scripts

1.7.3

      Execute scripts

1.7.4

      Finalize sample queries

1.7.5

      Approve database

1.8

   Coding

1.8.1

      Frame code

1.8.2

      Database integration

1.8.3

      Approve coded system

1.9

   Installation

1.9.1

      Installation

1.9.2

      Swipe card installed

1.1

   Testing

1.10.1

      Finalize system test cases

1.10.2

      Finalize application test cases

1.10.3

      Create bugs summary

1.10.4

      Send bugs to developers

1.10.5

      Resolve bugs

1.10.6

      Approve tested system

1.11

   Final demonstration

1.11.1

      Finalize room

1.11.2

      Invite users

1.11.3

      Demo

1.11.4

      Take feedback

1.12

   Go-Live

Swipe and Installation

Lessons learnt

Following are some of the lessons learnt from post-completion of the project:

Milestones are required to be monitored 6 days before the assigned deadline to ensure quality.

Team members are required to be consulted on regular basis so as to avoid any conflicts.

Vendor is required to be communicated about timely delivery on regular basis.

 

References:

Gulla, J. (2012, Feb). Seven Reasons IT Projects Fail. Retrieved from https://www.ibmsystemsmag.com: https://www.ibmsystemsmag.com/power/Systems-Management/Workload-Management/project_pitfalls/?page=2


Organizing for Project Management. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://pmbook.ce.cmu.edu: https://pmbook.ce.cmu.edu/02_Organizing_for_Project_Management.html

Duncan, W.R. (n.d) A guide to Project Management Body of Knowledge, Available: https://www.unipi.gr/akad_tmhm/biom_dioik_tech/files/pmbok.pdf.

Hamilton, G. (n.d.). Risk management and project management go hand in hand. Retrieved from https://www.cio.com.au: https://www.cio.com.au/article/385084/risk_management_project_management_go_hand_hand/

HubPages. (n.d.). Project Management Time & Cost Estimation Techniques: An Overview. Retrieved from https://hubpages.com: https://hubpages.com/hub/Project-Management-Time-Cost-Estimation-Techniques-An-Overvie

PMI. (2010). A guide to the project management body of knowledge (PMBOK® guide). USA.

Omidvar, H. (2008) Project Budget & cost management, [Online], Available: https://www.montgomerycountymd.gov/OMB/Resources/Files/omb/pdfs/costestimation/presentation1.pdf

PMI (2010) A guide to the project management body of knowledge (PMBOK® guide), USA.

Schwalbe, K. (2013) INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY PROJECT MANAGEMENT.

Umich.edu (2002) ME450: Gantt Chart Handout, [Online], Available: https://www-personal.umich.edu/~bobden/me450_gantt_chart_handout.pdf.

University of Ucglary Work Breakdown Structure & Schedules, [Online], Available: https://people.ucalgary.ca/~design/engg251/First%20Year%20Files/wbss.pdf.
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