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Question:

What should be the scope of sex education and what are cultural barriers preventing the practice of sex education in london?

 

Answer:

Introduction

Sex education has been introduced as a means of providing training to the teenagers and provides effective knowledge to the teenager on the various aspects of safe sex and young sex activities (Beshers, 2007). The major motive of the education is to make the young generation aware of the negative sides of sex like making them aware of the sexually transmitted diseases, unwanted pregnancy and other problems, which are related, with the practise of young age sex. As per the legislations of UK, Sex and relationship, Education (SRE) has been made compulsory for all children above the age of 11 years. As per the National curriculum of science, sex education has been introduced as a compulsory curriculum in social science for the promotion of the unknown facts (Millett et al. 2010).

However, at present, the parents of the teenagers in UK feel that introduction of sex education in academic curriculum makes the issue socially visible and the culture barriers prevent the parents from discussing the issues with their children. Thus, implementation of sex education is becoming difficult especially in the suburban regions of London (Weeks, 2012).

Thesis statement of the research

What should be the scope of sex education and what are cultural barriers preventing the practice of sex education in London?      

Research Question

The researcher in this project has concentrated on the following research questions

  • What is the present scope of sex education in London?
     
  • What are the major barriers that are faced with respect to the implementation of sex education in London?
     
  • What are the major cultural barriers that prevent the practice of sex education in London?
     
  • What are the sexual health issues that the teenagers may face in case of absence of sex education in London?

Aim of the research

The researcher in this project aims to study the effect of the different barriers, which have reduced the scope of the sex education in UK. The research will identify the cultural barriers, which influences the scope and growth of sex education in UK.

Objectives of research

  • To evaluate the present scope of sex education in UK
     
  • To identify the major challenges that are present in implementation of sex education policies in UK
     
  • To identify the cultural barriers present in the implementation of the sex education in UK
     
  • To assess the impact of sexual health issues in lack of sex education in UK

Rational of the research

As per the Public Health England (PHE), the rate of sexually transmitted infections rose to almost half a million in the year 2014. The majority of the sexually transmitted diseases are diagnosed within the age group less than 25 years. Thus, as per the data, it can be confirmed that majority of the teenagers and young professionals are practising unsafe sex (Blake, 2008). Around 64% of the population in the age group of 25 years have been diagnosed with Chlamydia and around 56% has been diagnosed with genital warts. Thus, the researcher selected the following topic to evaluate the scope and importance of sex education among the youths of UK. The major intention behind the research is to analyse the barriers, which are making the implementation of sex education difficult in UK (Verbrugge, 2012).

Research methodology

According to Taylor, (2012) research methodology is the process of providing ideas on the methods that would be used by the researcher in identification of research findings and overall analysis of the research findings. The research methodology provides an in-depth knowledge of the process in which the data has been collected and the tools which have been used for the analysis of the data. In this research the major focus of the researcher is on conducting of secondary research using internet databases like EBSCO, CINAHL, PubMed, Sage Pub, Science Direct, Wiley, and Google. The Boolean was also used in order to conduct a keyword research.

 

Keyword search strategy

Keyword search strategy is the majorly used in the case of SEO searching strategy and helps the researchers to use the common search terms that the respondents will use to identify the necessary information about the research problem. In this research, the researcher has adopted the keyword search strategy because the researcher aimed to shortlist the relevant articles from among the major articles related to sex education. Some of the major key terms that the researcher has used in this project are namely sex education, cultural barriers, STDs, sexually transmitted diseases and barriers in sex education (Lynch, Grummell and Devine, 2012).

Steinbach, (2012) stated that choice of correct and appropriate keywords would help the researcher to identify the relevant journals and articles and continue with the research process accordingly. The researcher used different search engines for identifying the relevant literature review journals. The use of the Ebsco search engine helped the researcher to successfully filter the search for the journals using the above-mentioned keywords. Using the Ebsco gave the researcher the option to filter the search for journals as per the date ranging from 2006 to 2015.  This helped the researcher to identify relevant journals as per the research problem and the research question. Boolean search engine was also favourable in case of the particular research because with the help of Boolean, the researcher was able to identify the healthcare and medical journals that focused on the sex in the lives of the teenagers.

Inclusion-Exclusion criteria

According to Ropers-Huilman, (2003) inclusion criteria are the specific characteristics that the prospective respondents and the articles must have to qualify as a part of the research study. Exclusion criteria, on the contrary, specify the different criteria that make the perspective articles and the respondents inappropriate for the overall research study. Inclusion and exclusion criteria include the common factors in the determination of the age, sex, race and ethnicity in the case of qualifying a particular respondent. In case of journal and articles, the researcher uses the keyword and the presence of the research question to apply the inclusion and exclusion criteria (Coleman and Testa, 2007).

The researcher for this project took the help of the different available search engines and used the inclusion-exclusion criteria for identifying the relevant journals and articles that will act as a source of secondary data for the research problem. Apart from the Ebsco and Boolean search, the researcher also used the keyword search strategy in Pubmed, Pastor, Sage and Emerald sight to find the major relevant articles that were based on the importance and barriers related to sex education in London (Emmerson, 2008). Using the inclusion criteria, the researcher tried to include the relevant articles within the 1, 00, 000 articles that were found by the researcher within the keyword search strategy. The inclusion criteria adopted by the researcher included the following conditions:

  • Selection of qualitative research papers on sex educations and their implications for the teenagers and society (Lynch, Grummell and Devine, 2012)
     
  • Government reports along with statistical data on the use of information related to sex education among the youths and the teenagers.
     
  • Statistical reports on the number of health concerns due to lack of the sex education among the different teenagers
     
  • Selection of journals and articles within the period ranging from 2009 to 2015
     
  • Selection of articles and journals that are based on research studies on sex education in London
     
  • Selection of articles and journals where the researchers have used English as their primary for m of communication
     
  • Selection of statistical reports that are dated back to the year 2013 and 2014 (Okello Agina, Kimani and Kiumbuku, 2012)

Literature review

This chapter focuses on the supportive themes and concepts that will help the researcher to evaluate the findings collected from the research articles and the website journals. According to Magoon, (2010) literature, the review is the method of collecting the published data and analyse the findings based on the concepts. It acts as the base for the research project and provides the researcher with the idea about the research problems.

Sex education

The education that is imparted in educational institutions to make the young generation aware of sexual relationships and sexual activity is termed as sex education. It is a value-based education that teaches the students that sex is normal and can healthy (Barnes, 2014). It helps the students to value their individual being as well as families and communities. It does not teach the student with a list of do’s and don’ts but gives actual information about pregnancy, abortion and sexual orientation. Apart from teaching about sexual intercourse and orientation, it also informs the students about exact facts about Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) and HIV. The education makes the students well aware of the unintended pregnancy and how it could be avoided by using the contraceptive, condoms and other methods. It educates the students that unintended pregnancy does not degrade the woman, and the woman can either keep or raise the baby or can give the baby for adoption (Koppelman, 2011).

Teachers of Sex Education

The topic of sex education is generally related to the biological basic science modules, which are taught within the academic curriculum of all study packages.  However, their family should incorporate the practical importance of the subject along with the moral and ethical values within the teenagers. The majority of the public opinion surveys shows that the teenagers within the age group of 13 to 22 years in different parts of UK are highly interested in gaining knowledge on the subject of sex. However, National Surveys shows that parental support is necessary by all the schools implementing sex education within the curriculum of academic education. Parental surveys in different schools of UK show that around 93% of the parents feel that sex education programs are stressful for their child’s development and thus restrain from making any support over the matter (Lynch, Grummell and Devine, 2012).

The teachers and the parents feel uncomfortable in discussing different issues like oral sex, anal sex, gay issues, and lesbian issues with the children and the students. Thus, Lynch, Grummell and Devine, (2012) stated that the teachers and the parents tend to avoid attending to the issues. Apart from these two categories of people, the volunteers are also a part of the overall sex education program. The Planned Parenthood League offers a Sexuality Education Certificate Series and provides training to the young healthcare professionals and social service worker on the basics of sex education, diseases, details on transgender groups and issues dealing with HIV/AIDS.

 

Advantages and disadvantages of sex education

Arnab et al. (2013) stated that adoption of sex education has both pros and cons among the youths and their families. Evans and Tripp (2006) stated that educating the student about sex is very important when they are attaining puberty because; it is this stage when a human being makes the maximum mistakes. Educating the young generation beforehand will prevent them from doing the mistakes and will know the advantages and disadvantages of any action. The most significant problem that the young generation faces is untimed pregnancy. Sex education helps the students by giving them accurate information regarding pros and cons of sex, occurrence of unsafe sex and diseases caused by getting involved in unsafe sex practices. However, Halpern (2013) argued that sex education in the school takes the student’s attention away from studies, as sex education is completely a different topic for them. Moreover Lord, (2010) added that at times, teachers are not experts in this matter, and they end up teaching their personal experiences that may be wrong than the facts. This is even more harmful, as individual experiences may differ in such experiences.

However, Magoon, (2010) argued that sex education is important majorly because the knowledge of sex education gives the students the option to learn about the body and the demands of the body. Imparting sex education makes the student mature enough to decide to have sex or not have sex. It prevents the students from submitting to peer pressure that already had sex and insisted others on having sex. Moreover, it educates the students about HIV because HIV is nowadays the most significant problem that people are facing (Koppelman, 2011). However, McAnulty and Burnette (2006) further opposed the point stating that the failure in the implementation process is major because most schools do not take sex education seriously. Majority of the academic institutions regard it as extra-curricular activities, at times teachers are not paid separately for these classes and hence neither the students nor the teacher will seriously take this topic (Jayasuriya and Dennick, 2011).

Barriers in implementation of sex education

Sex education is a controversial topic in the majority of the countries. The majority of the schools and the educators of sex and relationship faces barriers in respect to culture, religion, individual control, political and event legal prospects. According to Gerouki (2013) culture barriers arises majorly due to the age difference between the older and young generation making the situation uneasy to talk about sex and condoms. Further Magoon, (2010) opined that in the majority of the developing countries, the difference in views, that is traditional and modern, and their approaches to sexual behaviour make the situation difficult for sex education. For instance in case of countries like USA, majority of the population supports open culture where sex and relationships are a part of their daily life and they do not feel it necessary to take any precaution while entering into such physical relationships. Thus, in such open cultures it becomes difficult to implement the process of sex education. In the semi, urban people are not ready to accept that sex as a part of life and hence avoid introducing the subject in school or societal discussions (Jayasuriya and Dennick, 2011). The cultural barriers force the teachers in the schools from refraining from the subject due to fear criticism from colleagues and family of the student. In case of African countries, the family structure has changed from being nuclear to joint family in recent times. Thus, in such circumstances the families are culturally bound from discussing such issues with their children.

Barnes (2014) stated that the second most relevant barrier is in the form of the religious concepts and prospects. Thus, it becomes very difficult for the adopters of the SRE to adopt the policies and educate the people about the safe and unsafe prospects of sex and relationship. For instance in Korean religion there are no provisions for allowing sex education among the society. There are many religious leaders according to them they are given the responsibility to preserve the tradition and culture. Hence they stop imparting sex education as for them it is against culture and traditions (Barnes, 2014).

Politics is also a major barrier in case of implementation of the SRE program. According to Lord, (2010) whenever a new subject is introduced in schools, it requires political support. At times in many countries, the political authorities do not support sex education. Sex education mainly comprises of young generation, these young generation mostly do not get access to political authorities (Kendall, 2013). In case of many countries, certain sexual orientation and behaviour are considered illegal. Moreover, there are certain sexual minorities, which the law denies recognizing (Kendall, 2013).

Jayasuriya and Dennick (2011) commented that educational materials are often highly developed and are made of contents which become difficult for the children and the teenagers to understand. Especially in case of SRE program the educational materials should be simplified to make the students aware of the basic concepts of sex and relationship. According to Halpern, (2012) individual barriers are also a part of the problems faced in sex education implementation. Due to the advancement of medical treatment, the young generation is not serious regarding the problems of STD and HIV and do not pay attention to sex education. Teachers, either male or female find it difficult to teach sex education in Co-educational schools. Teachers as an independent individual, shy away from talking about sex, leave aside teaching the students (Gerouki, 2013).

Government policy in UK about sex education

As per the guidelines of UK legislations, effective sex and relationship education is necessary to give the young population of UK the opportunity to take well-informed decisions about their personal lives. Based on the recent problems faced by the majority of the teenagers of UK, the development of SRE program was initiated. Fpa.org.uk, (2015) stated that SRE (Sex and Relationship Education) is a permanent educational program incorporated within all academic curriculums providing knowledge and training about the physical, moral and emotional development. The major aim of the program is to the develop a sense of moral understanding within the teenagers and develop their sense of responsibility towards their health and body. The program also intends to create the importance of marriage, family, love, relationships and respect for the society. However, Lord, (2010) argued that SRE program does not deal with the transgender issues and sexual orientations. Thus, the alarming rise of these issues remains unnoticed and unattended by the schools and even the families.

According to Jackson, Paechter and Renold, (2010) the three major elements of the SRE program are developing attitude and values related to marriage, life and love, development of the personal and social skills and development of knowledge and understanding of the physical orientation of the individuals. A teenage survey in UK shows that the introduction of the SRE program has reduced the overall sexual disease rate by 12%.  SRE provides different acting guidance to the schools like providing clarification on the types of sex education courses that should be implemented within the curriculum. The legislations also provide guidance on the development of the sex policy and address issues related to confidentiality of the sexually abused students (Sexeducationforum.org.uk, 2015).

 

Henry, (2010) stated that to develop a flexible policy of sex education under the SRE program. Firstly, schools operating under the SRE legislations make it mandatory to have an up-to-date policy on the sex education curriculum. The policy must provide the definition for the sex and relationship education, describe the process of imparting the sex education and provide information on the process of monitoring of the sex education process. The SRE program also demands that the teachers and the students should be continuously monitored and reviewed to check the efficiency of the sex education process. As per section 10 of Schools Inspections Act 1996 all schools under the SRE program should evaluate the moral, social and cultural development of the students and should make the students aware od the negative consequences of engaging in sexual activity (www.gov.uk, 2015).

Findings

This chapter primarily focuses detailing the findings that the researcher has collected from the secondary research on the journals and the articles with the help of the inclusion-exclusion criteria. The major focus of the researcher was in determining the responses of the parents and the teachers of the different primary and secondary schools in UK regarding the importance and the barriers in sex education. Depending on the research questions framed by the researcher, the researcher obtained the following findings.

Question 1: What is the present scope of sex education in London?

As per the reports of a survey conducted by the Sex Education Forum, UK, the scope of sex education in UK is high. Around 66% of the total schools present in UK has adopted and implemented the SRE program within their primary and national curriculum. Moreover, the legal framework is also suitable for the adoption of the SRE policies in UK. The Education Act 1996 made inclusion of sex education mandatory in both primary and secondary levels. Further as per the Learning Skills Act 2000, the young age population are required to acquire knowledge about the key social concepts like marriage, family life and sex (Legislation.gov.uk, 2015). In order to help the school management with the implementation of the SRE policies, the Qualifications and Curriculum Development Agency (QCDA) has set out the guidelines for the major portions of sex education that should be incorporated within the curriculum of the schools. Thus, the researcher in this respect has been able to gain sufficient knowledge over the scope of Sex education in UK (Koppelman, 2011). The secondary data from the various relevant journals shows that the government legislations are supportive in the matter of the management of sex education in UK (the Guardian, 2015).

62% of the females in UK confirmed that they have received formal education about sex and issues related to contraception. UK has been one of the leading countries in recording teen pregnancy cases. Thus, the awareness of sexual diseases and problems require high attention in different parts of London.

Question 2: What are the major barriers that are faced with respect to the implementation of sex education in London?

Determination of the barriers to sex education is of utmost important for the researcher in this study. Since 2008, it was made mandatory for all schools in UK to adopt the SRE program and policies within their educational curriculum. However, the teachers and the school management are facing different barriers with respect to the implementation of the program. Different online surveys conducted by the teachers of the primary and the national level schools shows that lack of recognition of the SRE program is a barrier in sex education implementation. Around 95% of the teachers feel that inclusion of SRE within the national curriculum will raise the value of SRE and make the SRE program an important program among the students and their families (Legislation.gov.uk, 2015).

Further 88% of the teachers stated that age barrier is a major problem faced while implementing the SRE program. Kendall (2013) opposed that adoption of the SRE program for the primary school education is not suitable of the age limit of the students attending primary schools. Thus, SRE has only been adopted in the higher secondary curriculum within the age group of 16 to 19 years. Apart from this around 44% of the teachers all over UK opined that lack of time is another barrier that hinders the growth of the SRE program in UK. The lengthy curriculum and the inclusion of different varied subjects within the curriculum are making it difficult for the teachers to find the appropriate time for delivering their knowledge on the facts of sex education (the Guardian, 2015).

Further, 24% of the teachers in online surveys suggested that there is the high degree of confusion related to the topics that should be included within the study structure of SRE. The SRE curriculums are not always clear, and thus this makes it is difficult for the teachers to frame their course structure. Around 32% of the teachers are of the opinion that, SRE adoption is becoming a problem due to the non-participation of the teachers and lack of volunteers in this matter. However, a minor group of respondents consisting of around 13% of the teachers suggests that the SRE policy of the school is not flexible. However, the major hindrances faced by the schools are from the negative reactions of the parents of the children (Henry, 2010).

Question 3: What are the major cultural barriers that prevent the practice of sex education in London?

Apart from the major barriers faced by the teachers in the implementation of sex education in primary and secondary schools of UK, the major barrier and opposition is faced in terms of the cultural and societal norms. As per the news reports of Telegraph around 80% of the Catholic bishops, parish priests, councillors, doctors and even renowned university professors had expressed their views regarding introduction of SRE program as a part of the national curriculum (Henry, 2010). As per the opinion of the religious heads and the educational patrons, the introduction of the sex education will encourage the children and the teenagers further to engage into sexual experimentation leading to destruction of the society and culture. Although, SRE program has been implemented in different schools all over London, however, the majority of the schools are not able to move forward with the program since the Catholic churches oppose the program content. According to the Catholic heads, it is the duty of the parents of the families to introduce the concept of sex and relationship to their children privately rather than making a public issue of the same. The news article shows that the opposition made by the Catholic heads were also supported by around 90% of the families residing in UK (Sexeducationforum.org.uk, 2015).

As per the census report 2011, around 80% of the families in UK have dependent members within the age range of 70 to 85 years (Mail Online, 2015). Hence, the cultural dimensions of the families in UK are centred on the decisions of the parents as well as the grandparents of the individuals. Unlike the US culture, UK has a compact family culture, which makes it difficult for the SRE program to become successful within the members of the family. Thus, the decision of the grandparents and the parents in the family gives rise to the cultural barrier for the implementation of the SRE program (Henry, 2010).

Further, minor surveys conducted by the BabyChild website shows that around 60% of the parents of child ranging between the age group of 5 to 11 years have opposed the introduction of SRE within the primary curriculum segment of education. Around 41% of the parents suggested that it is inappropriate to teach the children about sex in early stages of their life (Mail Online, 2015). In addition to this around 34% suggested that it should be a personal choice of the parents to make the children aware of the consequences of sex and relationship. 36% of the parents stated that they feel embarrassed in discussing such topics with their children, and this hampers their family culture. Further, a minor group of 13% suggested that inclusion of this program tends to divert the attention of the child from the mainstream education (https://www.bbc.com/news/education-13292133).

Question 4: What are the sexual health issues that the teenagers may face in case of absence of sex education in London?

For determining the sexual diseases that are faced by the teenagers in UK, the researcher obtained different data from the WHO websites and the health journals which focuses on the statistical data related to the type of diseases faced by the teenagers in UK. As per the WHO around 2, 00,000 UK citizens within the age group of 15 to 40 years are currently facing the threat of HIV/AIDS (Who.int, 2015). Further, data shows that around 2500 children below the age group of 15 years are also suffering from the same disease. As per the reports of the Centre for Diseases Control around 8, 00,000 adults and teenagers are affected with different physical issues and infection that are transmitted through unsafe sexual practices. WHO reports on the world data shows that every year nearly 7,00,000 females all over the world are reported to be a victim of teenage pregnancy (Who.int, 2015). In parts of London, especially in the semi-urban and the rural areas, 1 out of 9 babies born per year are born to females teenagers below the age limit of 19 years. The records of the Health Care Department UK and NHS shows that around 46% of the teenagers and the young population suffers from sexual diseases like genital warts and Chlamydia. Lynch, Grummell and Devine, (2012) stated that majority of the people under the age of 25 years are the people affected with the STIs in London. Apart from the STIs, around 66% of the male population of London are seen to encounter different physical diseases like Syphilis, Genital Herpes and Gonorrhoea (Channel 4 News, 2015). 

 

However, the reports of Health Promotion Agency, 2011 shows that the introduction of the SRE program from 2008 has helped to reduce the percentage of sexually transmitted infections in London by 1% (BBC News, 2011). The NHS data records show that every year around 60% of the female population of UK are admitted or visits the physician due to problems related to Chlamydia. Thus, Chlamydia is the most common form of sexually transmitted disease faced by the female population of London and the problem is resulting in high degree of infertility among the teenagers in future. On the contrary, in case of the male population around 56% are reported to suffer from Genital warts. According to Okello Agina, Kimani and Kiumbuku, (2012) genital warts are fleshy bumps ad growth in the genial and anal areas of the individual resulting in excessive pain for the individual at the time of sexual intercourse. Around 30% of the males reports problems related o Genital herpes, this is similar to genital warts. However, Magoon, (2010) stated that majority of the teenagers and the adults suffer highly due to the Gonorrhoea which is passed on during the sexual practice and around 50% of the women and 10% of the men confirmed that the symptoms of this disease is not visible unless it is detected. However, the management at NHS reported that the major negative effect of lack of sex education is seen through the HIV infection and the growing rate of HIV in London (Nhs.uk, 2015).

Discussion

The overall findings from the different journals and the official websites have helped the researcher to evaluate the research objective and research questions (Lord, 2010). The evaluation of the current scope of sex education in London shows that the legal policies and the co-operation from the different bodies like the Healthcare UK, QCDA and NHS are helpful in implementation of SRE program in the National and primary curriculum of UK. More that two third of the female respondents have received formal education in sex and relationships which is a positive sign in case of development of the overall program (Ogden, 2012).

However, analysis of the barriers occurring in case of schools implementing the SRE policies, it has been found that majority of schools are facing problems with respect to the availability of support from the families of the students (the Guardian, 2015). Further, the lack of effective trainers and teachers is also posing a problem for the schools. Since the content of SRE is uncertain, and the policies related to sex education are not very clear in all schools, hence the teachers are unaware of the topics they should discuss with the students. In some cases, the participating faculties are also uncomfortable discussing such topics and issues with the students (Magoon, 2010). In some of the context, the school management has proposed to increase the level of the SRE program and included the program within the National Curriculum of the country. However, the high range of cultural barriers and opposition from the religious heads of London is making it difficult for the management of the schools and the UK government to introduce the SRE program in the National level curriculum (Ropers-Huilman, 2003).

The age barrier is also becoming a difficulty in the path of success of the plan. The families of the children within the age group below 15 years are not comfortable with the idea of introduction of the concepts of sex and relationship for their children at such early stage (Channel 4 News, 2015). However, this prohibition is resulting in ignorance on the part of the children and the teenagers about the unsafe circumstances of involving in sexual relationships. The high growth in the rate of teenage pregnancy is a proof of the same situation. Further, the majority of the molestations take place with the children within the age group of 5 to 10 years, and the children are completely not aware of the molestations happening to them (Nhs.uk, 2015). Thus, basic knowledge about sex and relationships should be imparted to the children of their younger age so that they can protect their virtue from the abuses. Thus the right age as decided by the UK government for the implementation of the sex education is ranged above the age of 15 years (Sexeducationforum.org.uk, 2015).

In case of discussion related to the assessment of cultural barriers, the researcher focus that the major cultural barrier is in the form of the elderly members of the family and the Catholic heads of UK (www.fpa.org.uk, 2015). The final research question was framed to identify the various STIs that are occurring in the case of infection from the unsafe sexual practices. The findings showed that majority of the female population are suffering from Chlamydia and majority of the male population are suffering from either Genital warts or Genital Herpes. However, the major societal threat is from the infection caused by the HIV/AIDS. The lack of sex education and lack of knowledge about practising safe sex is raising the level of HIV infection in London (Verbrugge, 2012). Thus, the researcher confirms with the help of the relevant findings that in order to maintain health and social care within the overall population of London, it is highly essential to introduce awareness about sex and relationships in UK (www.gov.uk, 2015). The analysis of the results shows that majorly the students are made aware of the diseases caused due to unsafe sex and awareness programs are installed to make them aware of practising safe sex. However, no detailed curriculum is present within the SRE module to guide the schools and the teachers specifically about the topics that should be incorporated within the study material (Steinbach, 2012).

Conclusion

The overall research shows that sex education is of utmost important among the different levels of teenagers in not only UK and London but also in all countries over the world. The ignorance and lack of knowledge about the different consequences of unsafe sexual practices are putting majority of the teenagers and even the young professionals in danger. However, from the results of the research report, it may be further concluded that, due to the varied number of barriers with respect to the implementation and adoption of sex education, the government of London has not been successful in implementing the SRE program.

The religious interventions and the cultural framework of the families and the societies of London are preventing the families and the teachers from engaging in free discussion about these topics with their children. The other problems highlighted within the research report shows that majority of the schools have no clear instruction on the SRE programs and their policies are not effective enough to implement the sex education classes. Thus, implementation of sex education has become a major problem within the schools of UK. However, in order to reduce the number of STDs and teen pregnancy rates and to provide assurance to the teenagers on their physical health, the government should take immediate stringent actions.

Recommendation

The researcher after the evaluation of findings collected from the secondary sources has framed the following set of recommendations about the research topic that would be helpful for future research possibilities over the same research problem.

Firstly, it may be recommended that sex education should be made compulsory within the National Curriculum so that all schools in UK can adopt that SRE program. Health cares Department of UK should make it mandatory for all schools to adopt and implement the SRE program within their educational curriculum.

Secondly, to reduce the situation of discomfort among the teachers and the families of the children, the social service organisations of UK should organise different sex awareness campaigns in schools. The introduction of roadside campaigns showcasing the importance of sex education, highlighting the issues related to unsafe sex and the problems that the teenagers are facing due to involvement in sexual relationships will make the fact culturally adaptable by the families and the teachers.

Thirdly, formal training should be given to the volunteers and the teachers who are appointed by the schools to adopt and implement the SRE program. The faculty should be made clear about the topics they are required to make the students aware about. Further, the faculties should also given guidance on handling of severe issues, psychological problems and maintain dignity and privacy in case of discussing such issues with the family and the students.

The schools can also organize external visitors like doctors and healthcare experts from reputed hospitals and healthcare organizations to increase the awareness of the students. This initiative will also help the schools who are facing the lack of participation faculties with respect to adoption of the SRE program.

 

Reference list

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Barnes, H. (2014). Arts Activism, Education, and Therapies. Amsterdam: Editions Rodopi.

BBC News, (2011). Drop in sex diseases in England. [online] Available at: https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-13764817 [Accessed 29 Jul. 2015].

Carrera, M. V., DePalma, R., and Lameiras, M. (2012). Sex/gender identity: Moving beyond fixed and ‘natural’categories. Sexualities, 15(8), 995-1016.

Channel 4 News, (2015). Sex education: how it is taught here and abroad. [online] Available at: https://www.channel4.com/news/sex-education-schools-england-world [Accessed 30 Jul. 2015].

Coleman, L.M. and Testa, A. (2007). Sexual health knowledge, attitudes and behaviours among an ethnically diverse sample of young people in the UK. HealthEducation Journal, 66 (1), 68-81.

Evans, D. and Tripp, J. (2006). Sex education: The case for primary prevention and peer education. Current Pediatrics, 16(2), pp.95-99.

Fields, J. (2012). Sexuality Education in the United States: Shared Cultural Ideas across a Political Divide. Sociology Compass, 6(1), pp.1-14.

Gerouki, M. (2013). Border sexualities, border families in schools. Sex Education, 13(2), pp.243-245.

Halpern, D. (2012). Sex differences in cognitive abilities. New York: Psychology Press.

Henry, J. (2010). Hundreds of heads and church leaders oppose sex lessons for seven-year-olds. [online] Telegraph.co.uk. Available at: https://www.telegraph.co.uk/education/educationnews/7530563/Hundreds-of-heads-and-church-leaders-oppose-sex-lessons-for-seven-year-olds.html [Accessed 29 Jul. 2015].

Jackson, C., Paechter, C. and Renold, E. (2010). Girls and education 3-16. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill/Open University Press.

Jayasuriya, A. and Dennick, R. (2011). Sexual history-taking: using educational interventions to overcome barriers to learning. Sex Education, 11(1), pp.99-112.

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