Understand the anthropology of hospitality and philosophy of hospitableness.
Identify the social history and gender issues surrounding hospitality trades.
Apply extended knowledge and holistic understanding to meanings of hospitality in the media and across a range of traditional and non-traditional areas.
The Indian Hospitality Industry
Hospitality refers to as the relationship between the guest and a host, where the host receives the guest with the goodwill. The hospitality industry is a wide category of fields surrounded by a service industry that consists of lodging, theme parks, planning, cruise line, transportation. The hospitality management is defined as the management of the resorts, bed and breakfast and hotels along with the other hotel services (Symons, 2013). On the other hand, the gastronomy is the study of the relationship between food and culture, it is an art of serving and preparing rich or delicate an appetizing food. In simple words, gastronomy is the response to the urgent requirement for the study that helps the company in evaluating the performances (Bosio, 2013).
The hospitality industry management is bringing the evolution of the communities socially and economically by preserving an eco-nutritional obligation to the finest health associated with the community and the environmental sustainability. This is the reason it is said that the gastronomy is associated with the fulfillment of the quality drink and the hospitality management can establish food (Richards, 2015). The implementation of the hospitality management and gastronomy together is going to help the managers of the companies involved in the sector to fulfill and satisfy the needs and demands of the customers. This research essay is formed with the objective of analyzing the concept of the gastronomy and hospitality along with issues and theories. Moreover, there is a presence of critical analysis of alternative hospitality paradigms and their impact on future construct development and practical implications (Yen, & Teng, 2013).
The country selected for the analysis in India, a country in South Asia. The Indian hospitality industry plays a vital role in the growth of the services sector of the country. The tourism is India has important perspective considering the historical and rich cultural heritage, terrains and place of natural beauty, variety in ecology (IBEF, 2017). The world travel and tourism council estimated the growth of the sector by the rate of 7% over the coming ten years. The hospitality and tourism industry sector are having directly contribution in the GDP was the US $71.53 billion in the year 2016. The hospitality industry in India is strong, with a warm welcome and smile on the face (IBEF, 2017). Along with this the Indians like to service different types of tasty mouth-watering cuisines to their customers. This shows the gastronomy in India, the place is well known for its food and culture.
The culture of the India is not recent but it is in existence from the time of human civilization. The culture of the country is the mixture of the long richness and the foreign influences. The culture of the India plays a vital role in attracting the travelers and visitors along with the hospitality and values of the country. The people of India welcome the tourist with the warm nature which is not possible in any other country (Indian Holiday, 2017). This shows the true picture of the culture of the country. The culture of the country is available in all the cuisines, monuments, dresses, dance, music, literature, old building, and forts.
Culture and Food in India
Food is the major part that is included in the gastronomy, Indian cuisine is well-known across the world and the food aficionados from all over the world flock here to taste all type of dishes. Different regions of the country have their own style of cooking the food, every state of India is known for one unique Indian cuisine. Talking about North India, there is an availability of the finest Kashmiri and Mughlai cuisine. Uttar Pradesh offers Awadhi cuisine, for sweet cravings the tourist likes to visit eastwards side so that they can have Bengali sweets. Similarly, there are in total 29 states and each of the states of India is specialized in particular cuisine (Experience India, 2017). The Indian cuisine is the combination of the various types of spices and these spices have nutritional as well as medicinal value.
The peak season for the travel and hospitality companies begins in the month of October and ends till March, the season is important for the tourist because this season includes Diwali, Dussehra and Guru Nanak Jayanti (Srivastava, 2012). The festival of the Guru Nanak Jayanti is the occasion of the birthday of the Sikhs Guru Nanak Dev and this festival is followed by Dussehra and Diwali. This festival is the mark of the occasion by remembering teachings shared by the Guru of Sikh, Guru Nanak Dev (Fairs and festivals, 2017). Most of the tourists arrive at the time of Diwali, the festivals of light which are most popular festival across the world. This festival is celebrated in India on the occasion of the Victory of the righteous god over a demon king. Tourists mostly visit because wants to enjoy this festival with their family or some tourist visit because they want to experience the personalized experience of the culture of India. This festive season begins with Dusshera, this festival shows the victory of Lord Rama over Ravana (Tour My India, 2017). These festivals reflect the culture of the country, these festivals increase the revenues for the companies involved in the hospitality industry. India is consists of a numerous number of religious with various faiths of the people and this is the reason it is considered as the spiritually diverse nation across the world.
The new concept of the gastronomy is emerging that replaces the discipline over food and society, food and marketing. The study of the gastronomy shows the determination of inadequacies and development in the future. There are many theories on the hospitality and gastronomy that helps in understanding the concept more clearly (Yadav, Dokania, & Pathak, 2016). The hospitality industry is consisting of theories which show the traditional management practice for the best industry-specific experience. Considering the current trends of the business the theories of hospitality is focusing on the benefits such as promoting the employee productivity along with the improvement in the quality and branding apart from this these theories of the hospitality through light on the social and economic trends.
- Unique selling elements: - This particular theory shows the true picture regarding the fact of the unique selling elements for making the restaurant or hotel standing out from a crowd (Raub, & Robert, 2013). Each business running in the hospitality industry is having a unique selling element which makes the company stand out from the crowd. Indian hotels or restaurants or the service companies involved in the category of the hospitality industry have a unique identity which is related to the food or cuisine that they are offering to the customers along with that there is a difference in the services that they are offering. The Indian festival helps the hospitality industry to generate the unique selling elements for the companies involved in the hospitality.
- Company culture: - The formation of the opportunity for the successful hospitality management is totally depended on the healthy organizational culture. Along with that, there is need of the involvement in the formation of the productive corporate culture such as coaching, fostering communication, cooperation, and compromise. These attributes are going to help the organization in motivating employees to bring the innovative or creative ways of working that helps the company in enhancing the productivity (Mok, Sparks, & Kadampully, 2013). The culture of the company in India is traditional and now there is a fusion of the traditional with innovation culture. The India still celebrates their festivals which reflect the culture of the country and the food offered to the customers at the time of the festivals attract tourist.
- New Media: - Many management theorists try to paying attention to various ways in which the hospitality industry can make use of new media, new media helps in forming quality control. This media helps the companies in allocating public relations staff member or recruiting the new hiring specialized firm. This specialized help in monitoring and controlling business in social media sites (Prud’homme, & Raymond, 2013). The new media help the companies in India to make use of the Facebook to understand the needs and requirements of the customers which helps the company in bringing the improvement in the services.
- Green Initiatives: - There are most of the managers and leaders in India who believes in making the use of the theory of the green initiatives which helps the company in creating the goodwill, saving the money and enhancing the experiences of the customers. The cost of the traditional products is more than the green cleaning products. Through this, the company can trigger allergies and chemical sensitiveness in the guest and the employees (Law, Leung, & Au, 2013).The hotels or restaurants need to ensure that they are making use of the green initiative products because most of the places of India are full of the dirt particle that can create an impact on the health of the tourists especially at the time of festivals when there is a high possibility of tourist arrivals.
- Gastronomy in Food services: - Gastronomy is having the relationship with the science of the flavor along with the tasting. The gastronomy is associated with the culinary enjoyments along with the practice of art in making food and consuming quality food. Gastronomy is updates and qualified food professional related to the flavor and tasting (Kim, Vogt, & Knutson, 2015). The food service in India is updating with the new spices and even the use of the traditional species is making the cuisine of the country different from the other countries. At the time of the Indian festivals, there in addition to the Indian sweet dishes that reflects towards the culture of the India.
The Gastronomy is well thought-out as the comprehensive theory pass to form practice. It totally relies on the thinking of the people and the way, through which they access, there are certain parameters that include flavor richness to provide the original description. The people of India have faith in the use of traditional spices that add to the flavor of the dish that they are going to offer (Kandampully, Zhang, & Bilgihan, 2015).
Festivals and Hospitality in India
The Indian business involved in the gastronomy need to understand the fact related to the essence of gastronomy particularly for luxury restaurants which include food pairing, wine, and other products. The concept of the theories on gastronomy is linked with the hospitality industry that indicates towards the high expectations for offering excellent hotel and dining services at the time of the Indian festivals. The welcoming and food offering services are unique and attractive in India for tourists. The tradition of the India is followed by many hotels and restaurant is able to meet the high expectation.
It consists of the modern professionals particularly in the hospitality industry and having the association with Gastronomy. It is depended upon the understanding the value of the various flavors and tasty features in relation to society. In the society, one of the important issues consists of health, food, and other food-related issues. These issues directly relate to the issues on food production, sustainability and the environmental issues (Boella, & Goss-Turner, 2013). The theory of the gastronomy also included the marketing and the packaging of the food products. The environmental and sustainability issues might arise in India because in traditional cooking there is need of the spices which can be obtained from natural habitats. As the marketing and packaging are also included in gastronomy so these factors can lead to the environmental issues.
Interdisciplinary is all about the creating something new by thinking across boundaries. Both hospitality and gastronomy are interdisciplinary activities; there is a relationship between the gastronomy studies and hospitality. Basically, the wise concept of hospitality is linked with the gastronomy studies (Bharwani, & Jauhari, 2013). It is a focused hospitality management that enables different ways of overcoming the unsustainable Darwinian context. This is related to the hospitality industry, particularly by unsound HRM. This specific study is mostly responsive to the issues like the Darwinian context of industry along with the worker's treatment such as strangers. These different attributes are tough in a devaluation of cooks. Most of the people travel across the world as well as possess the experience related to the taste and foods from the different cultures. In India, the tourist likes to visit because of the taste of the foods at the time of the festival. It indicates towards the guests and evaluates the hotel and their dining services for the future analysis purpose. The study of the gastronomy needs the approaches that are required for the critical and multi-perspective mainly in the cultural studies (Bendoly, 2013).
Gastronomy plays a role as an ingredient in Tourism production and consumption. The regional culture of India is emerging as a valuable source as it helps the country to attract and to entertain the tourism with the new and innovative activities; this is possible due to increase in the competition among the tourism designation. There are certain impacts of gastronomy on hospitality. Some of the issues which are faced by the hospitality and gastronomy are: - changing customer food habits; the changes in the habits of the customers might lead to the issues for the companies involved in the hospitality industry. Over here, the food habits indicate towards the changes in the buying pattern of food or drink or accommodation (Sloan, Legrand, & Chen, 2013). Not only changes in the buying pattern of the food products but there are many other issues which are related to the practice and study of the preparation, production, and services of the numerous food and beverages in India. Different cuisines of India attract the tourism which impacts the buying pattern and decision-making ability of the tourist or customers.
Theories on Gastronomy and Hospitality in India
This is a fact that the companies involved in the hospitality industry in India work for the customer delight and to meet the expectation of the customers. But it has been always difficult for the hotels or restaurants to provide the beverages and foods considering the preference of the customers (Hall, & Gossling, 2013). In India, most of the tourism visit for the regional and local which is notable across the world, but in India, they also find the fusion in foods. Most of the tourist in India also demands the fusion food this is the reason gastronomy of India is developing considering the needs and demand of the customers (Mak, Lumbers, Eves & Chang, 2012). This shows that it is becoming a challenging task for the companies to satisfy the expectations of the customers.
The hospitality industry is focusing on broadening its limits while flowing the gastronomy field, though there are some of the problems raised because of conventional assumptions and social histological perceptions. For instance, the sacredness highly influences the study of gastronomy. Due to an emission of the social commitments service industry in India has gone through huge loses because large communities rejected the various food items and even their preparations styles due to cultural constraints. In addition, the hospitality is taken as a community and cultural industry along with the viewpoint of the gastronomy which leads to the social commitments (Gordin, Trabskaya, & Zelenskaya, 2016).
The tourist nowadays maintains their mobility along with the habits of food. These all situation leads to the challenge or issues that is the lack of sufficient and contented link of certain foods with particular regions by enhancing the mobility of food, increasing de-differentiation of dishes and cuisine and the various gastronomic styles. The gastronomic culture and food is different from each and every country, for example, the way of European gastronomy is different from the Asian gastronomy cultures, and these differences include the production of food, style of consumption, customer and traditions, and physiological effects of foods in terms of preferences (Osman, Johns, & Lugosi, 2014).
Considering the issued faced by the hospitality and gastronomy industry in India, there are certain resolutions that are recommended to bring the improvement in the current condition of the industry in India. It is recommended to the professional chief to experiencing their opinion towards the sustainability, environment as well as a social improvement (Molina, Molina, Campos, & Oña, 2016). The use of the herbs and spices in the Indian cuisine reflect the gastronomy of country but on the other hand, it is creating an impact so the chef should find different ways to grow these herbs and species again for the future generation, and this also helps in maintaining the Indian cuisine flavour and preparation style for future. This is the fact that in India the designer chefs are away back from taking the role of mothers as well as the grandmothers. The past activities of mother and grandmother show knowledge they have which is required in a chef for making the fine cuisine and producing good ingredients (Verma, Stock, & McCarthy, 2012).
In India, the restaurants and hotels operation has particular values to deal in the new future. The restaurant is the organization whereby group labor gets involved in forming physical along with the cultural objects, and these restaurants include all food consists of aesthetic and sensory dimension. According to hospitality, the restaurants of the India act as the provider of the cultural feature related to the cultural industries. In simple words, the restaurants of the country are associated with the gastronomy (food and culture).
The hospitality management is different or unique and linking it with gastronomy is a new trend in matters relating to dining out, culture and food attributes (Bharwani and Jauhari, 2013). Earlier, the gastronomy was related to the advice of the people, the type of food they should consume and where to consume. The gastronomy considers the art of living, improvement of skills and the knowledge in relation to drinking and food. These features offer extreme pleasure to the tourist at the time of the festival in India and make them enjoy the eating and drinking at the same time (Kang, Lee, & Yoo, 2016). These pleasures are central in the direction of the extreme gastronomic tourism whose objective is developing a subset of the cultural tourism, where the tourism participates in the unique culture in the most suitable way. Hence, the hospitality industry and the alternative hospitality paradigms play a vital role in the case of provision of these sorts of experiences that supports in improving such information (Verma, Stock, & McCarthy, 2012). It is very important to keep in mind the fact that hospitality education along with the training turn around gastronomy components for providing the student a broad understanding of the history of drink and food in India.
Tourism is required for gathering the fact related to both developed and developing countries for the sake of economic well-being, especially in India. It is very clear from the fact that the tourism industry is having a potential growth for the upcoming growth. State of the tourism in India defines the growth development opportunity. In India, the linkage of hospitality with the gastronomy shows that there is a usage of the high-quality material while providing the services to the customers. The top restaurants of India are a feature with the creative ideas along with the combination of the high quality of services and the technical expertise at the time of festivals like Diwali, Dusshera and Guru Nanak Jayanti (Ward, 2016).
There is a presence of broad impact on hospitality paradigms and gastronomy concept. The opportunity for the talented candidates is high in the hospitality industry. These potential candidates have keen interest and desire in doing the work in hospitality industry along with that they work with the passion and love for the cooking. Hence, this shows that it is important for the hospitality industry to bring the real talent from the world (NS Robinson & Getz, 2014). The alternative hospitality paradigms have the visibility to bring the individuals who have the ability to work as an asset for the organization.
The overall analysis shows that the hospitality and the gastronomy are having the bright future in India. The development is taking place and this development leads to the changes in the way of the performing the activity of hospitality and gastronomy. There is development in the hospitality from past few decades; similarly, there are changes in the food and the culture of the country (Cook, 2017). For instance, talking about the changes in the festivals like Diwali, one of the ancient festival which is celebrated by most of the people across the world. Diwali now is not only a festival to be celebrated but it is a way through which people are able to meet their loved ones and their friends. There is shifting of the ritualistic to more commercial approach in Diwali and the reason being the busy life of the people. Moreover, the children’s don’t know much about the rituals because of the working class life in India. But on the other hand, there are many hotels and restaurants that believe to make the tourist aware about the rituals and the tradition of India (Cook, 2017).
This is also a fact that some of the traditional things are still there on the festival of Diwali, the decoration of the places, the lighting of lamps or diyas across India, firework at places, a prayer of God, preparation of different sweets and desserts. These features of the festivals attract the tourism and talking about the other festivals, there are some of the changes in the past and the present of the festivals but the matter of fact is that similarly into the rituals, religion, feelings of the people and the traditional way of celebrating the festival. The gastronomy of the India creates the positive impact on the hospitality industry (Tour My India, 2017). Many tourists visit the place because of the food and culture of the country, the gesture they get from the people of India and the warm welcome. These few things make the tourist to visits the place again and again.
At the end of the research or study, it is clear and simple to relate the fact of hospitality with gastronomy. Most of the researchers create the evolution and interaction with urban governments and societies for the purpose of future analysis. The study of the gastronomy begins with the initial step planning and ends at the final step execution. The concept of the gastronomy shows the direct relation with the transdisciplinary collaboration. In the situation of gastronomy hospitality industry, the research shows an active trans-disciplinary approach that involves the important discipline in a suitable way. The above research or case shows the proper explanation of the concept of the hospitality and gastronomy and their theories. There are some of the issues that can impact the working of the hospitality and gastronomy. Though, these issues can be a deal by the companies involved in the hospitality.
The report mainly shows the role of Indian festival in hospitality and gastronomy, the gastronomy shows the food and culture and the culture of the country is clearly visible from the Indian festivals. The Indian festivals not only represent the culture of the country but it also shows the food at the time of the Indian festival. Most of the tourist plan for the tour at the time of the festival so that they can enjoy the gastronomy along with the hospitality services of the country. There is a presence of the bright future of the hostility industry in the developing counties and one of the developing countries is India.
Bendoly, E. (2013). Real-time feedback and booking behavior in the hospitality industry: Moderating the balance between imperfect judgment and imperfect prescription. Journal of Operations Management, 31(1), 62-71.
Bharwani, S., & Jauhari, V. (2013). An exploratory study of competencies required to co-create memorable customer experiences in the hospitality industry. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 25(6), 823-843.
Bosio, A. (2013). Food places through the visual media: Building gastronomic cartographies between Italy and Australia.
Cook, S. (2017). How and Where to Best Enjoy the Festival of Lights. Viewed on 8th December 2017, https://www.tripsavvy.com/ways-and-places-to-celebrate-diwali-in-india-1539267
Experience India. (2017). Gastronomy. Viewed on 8th December 2017, https://www.experienceindia.co.in/gastronomy.php
Fairs and festivals. (2017). About Guru Nanak Jayanti. Viewed on 8th December 2017, https://www.mapsofindia.com/fairs-and-festivals/guru-nanak-jayanti/
Gordin, V., Trabskaya, J., & Zelenskaya, E. (2016). The role of hotel restaurants in gastronomic place branding. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 10(1), 81-90.
Hall, C. M., & Gössling, S. (2013). Sustainable culinary systems: Local foods, innovation, and tourism & hospitality. Routledge.
IBEF. (2017). Indian Tourism and Hospitality Industry Analysis. Viewed on 8th December 2017, https://www.ibef.org/industry/indian-tourism-and-hospitality-industry-analysis-presentation
IBEF. (2017). Tourism & Hospitality Industry in India. Viewed on 8th December 2017, https://www.ibef.org/industry/tourism-hospitality-india.aspx
Indian Holiday. (2017). Culture in India. Viewed on 8th December 2017, https://www.indianholiday.com/travel-guide/culture/
Kandampully, J., Zhang, T., & Bilgihan, A. (2015). Customer loyalty: a review and future directions with a special focus on the hospitality industry. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 27(3), 379-414.
Kang, K. H., Lee, S., & Yoo, C. (2016). The effect of national culture on corporate social responsibility in the hospitality industry. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 28(8).
Kim, M., Vogt, C. A., & Knutson, B. J. (2015). Relationships among customer satisfaction, delight, and loyalty in the hospitality industry. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 39(2), 170-197.
Law, R., Leung, D., & Au, N. (2013). Progress and development of information technology in the hospitality industry evidence from Cornell Hospitality Quarterly. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 54(1), 10-24.
Mak, A. H., Lumbers, M., Eves, A., & Chang, R. C. (2012). Factors influencing tourist food consumption. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31(3), 928-936.
Mok, C., Sparks, B., & Kadampully, J. (2013). Service quality management in hospitality, tourism, and leisure. Routledge.
NS Robinson, R., & Getz, D. (2014). Profiling potential food tourists: An Australian study. British Food Journal, 116(4), 690-706.
Osman, H., Johns, N., & Lugosi, P. (2014). Commercial hospitality in destination experiences: McDonald's and tourists' consumption of space. Tourism Management, 42, 238-247.
Prud’homme, B., & Raymond, L. (2013). Sustainable development practices in the hospitality industry: An empirical study of their impact on customer satisfaction and intentions. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 34, 116-126.
Raub, S., & Robert, C. (2013). Empowerment, organizational commitment, and voice behavior in the hospitality industry evidence from a multinational sample. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 54(2), 136-148.
Richards, G. (2015). Evolving gastronomic experiences: From food to foodies to foodscapes. Journal of Gastronomy and Tourism, 1(1), 5-17.
Sloan, P., Legrand, W., & Chen, J. S. (2013). Sustainability in the Hospitality Industry 2nd Ed: Principles of Sustainable Operations. Routledge.
Srivastava, M. (2012). Travel, hospitality see flat demand in peak season. Viewed on 8th December 2017, https://www.livemint.com/Industry/XsnJ6xw1OrF3ZLfswbB4hM/Travel--hospitality-see-flat-demand-in-peak-season.html
Symons, M. (2013). The rise of the restaurant and the fate of hospitality. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 25(2), 247-263.
Tour My India. (2017). Dussehra. Viewed on 8th December 2017, https://www.tourmyindia.com/genral_information/fair_festival/dussehra.html
Verma, R., Stock, D., & McCarthy, L. (2012). Customer preferences for online, social media, and mobile innovations in the hospitality industry. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 1938965512445161.
Ward, M. (2016). Top 5 festivals of India for foreign visitors. Viewed on 8th December 2017, https://breathedreamgo.com/top-5-festivals-of-india-for-foreign-visitors/
Yadav, R., Dokania, A. K., & Pathak, G. S. (2016). The influence of green marketing functions in building corporate image: evidences from hospitality industry in a developing nation. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 28(10).
Yen, C. H., & Teng, H. Y. (2013). The effect of centralization on organizational citizenship behavior and deviant workplace behavior in the hospitality industry. Tourism Management, 36, 401-410.