Surveillance is essentially perceptions directed to pick up data. This straightforward definition incorporates a plenty of strategies and techniques that can be viewed as a type of reconnaissance. A significant number of these are unmistakable through basic information delivered by pop culture. The most notable strategies incorporate stationary surveillance, specialized observation (regularly secret video or sound recordings), electronic surveillance (advanced perceptions, keystroke numbering), and some more. Almost anybody can take part in observation once legitimately prepared and taught. People utilizing the different procedures of reconnaissance run from government authorities attempting to spare lives from fear based oppressors and different offenders to private agents gathering proof for common court.
Techniques and Skills for Conducting Surveillance:
The most common techniques used by the surveyors in conducting surveillance is to follow and keep track of the person on whom the surveillance is made. The agents of the surveyors are required to sit before the house of the suspected individual and keep rack on the movement of the suspect. However, this form of surveillance is outdated and requires huge man power. Moreover, this technique is expensive and time consuming. From the recent trend of surveillance techniques it is found that the agents or the surveyor or investigators depend on technology rather than human agents to keep rack on the suspect or the object of surveillance. There are two other methods or techniques of conducting surveillance which are known as Pre-constructive surveillance and Reconstructive surveillance.
Pre-constructive Surveillance: In this method of surveillance the investigator or the surveyor keep track on the subject or the object of investigation through technology. In the recent trend the surveyors and investigators watch through closed circuit television cameras which help the investigators to collect data without wasting time in following the suspect or the object of investigation. Moreover, this method is less time consuming and less expensive than any other method. Offenders can be easily traced through the surveillance and can be used as evidence before the court.
Reconstructive Surveillance: In this method of surveillance the investigators start their investigation after the offence or the crime has been done. The investigator in such situation with the help of other tools and techniques collect data. The investigator uses external tools like the forensic tests to identify the suspect.
Typical forms of Surveillance:
There are various forms of surveillance depending on the nature of investigation. When the investigator is appointed to investigate into a criminal investigation, the investigators or the agencies use techniques such as physical observation or electronic monitoring.
Electronic monitoring: This refers to the monitoring the data and information through electronic modes. The investigators keep surveillance over the electronic system of the suspect to get information regarding the commission of offence. The investigator in this mode of surveillance keep track on the emails, internet and telephone of the suspect to keep track on the suspect and record information regarding the suspect’s movement.
Fixed Surveillance: The investigators in this mode of investigation use such technique which will help them to spot the suspect easily. This technique is also known as the two-person approach and it is considered more desirable most of the investigation agencies of the world. In this method the investigators move and shift their position so as not to get spotted by the suspect and the suspect can be easily trapped.
Stationary Technical Surveillance: In this method of the investigator uses electronic devices to track the suspect. The investigator uses hidden camera and recording equipment to rack the suspect. The recordings are kept as an evidence to be presented before the court.
Three-person Surveillance: In this method of surveillance the investigators are divided into 3 persons and they keep rack on the movement of the suspect from three different direction. The suspect could not detect the investigators and get into the trap of the investigators.
Undercover operation: In the method the investigator actively play a role with the suspect and tracks his movement while working with him. The undercover agent does not use his actual identity while working with the suspect.
However, other than the criminal cases the investigation is done using the Passive or active forms of surveillance.
Passive Surveillance: This surveillance is used for detecting health problems. In this method the health investigator through external means detect the diseases or they enquire into the health related problems.
Active Surveillance: In this method the investigators move to different areas and investigate into the health problems of a mass of people in a particular area and track the disease prevalent in that area.
Most Commonly Used Surveillance Technique:
One procedure that manages the investigator with the best measure of insight with the minimum exertion is the utilization of stationary technical surveillance. Another expression for this might be "unmanned" surveillance. This sort of surveillance must be made from places where the investigator can easily keep eye on the suspect and the suspect will not have any doubt upon him, for example, the road or walkway and don't do anything remarkable that would make a specific observation strategy emerge in court. The idea is more in fact required than putting an examiner into a setting with binoculars and cameras and a scratch pad. The stationary specialized observation includes three parts: an observation stage, a power source, and a camera/recording gadget. The least demanding what's more, slightest debilitating observation stage for the stationary specialized reconnaissance is a vehicle, be that as it may, not a similar vehicle utilized as a part of a general observation circumstance. Rental autos function admirably for the observation stage and, with a rental, there is the capacity to ask for particular vehicles and to change vehicles to address particular issues. It is critical to pick a rental organization that won't recognize the specialist and will permit some of their identifiable rental auto window stickers to peel off and vanish. A mobile phone number ought to dependably be the essential contact number on a rental application, on the off chance that any issues emerge over the span of the stationary specialized reconnaissance. Finally, the additional protection scope for if the vehicle is vandalized or stolen is exceptionally suggested.
Therefore, it can be concluded that the secret surveillance is an impressive and highly recommended method of surveillance which helps to keep tract on the suspect or the object of such investigation and record the relevant information that comes up during the information.
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M Lowenthal, Intelligence.
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Hugh B Urban, "“Secrets, Secrets, SECRETS!” Concealment, Surveillance, And Information-Control In The Church Of Scientology." (Handbook of Scientology, 2017).