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Skills Training And Human Resource Development

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Discuss about the Skills Training and Human Resource Development.



Amazon is the first company in the world that started the online book retailing services. This name was termed as synonymous when it comes to ecommerce since it is one of the few internet brands that are recognized all around the world (Epstein, 2004). The superior customer service at amazon has been credited for its much celebrated success over the years. For some people, it can be seen that amazon had a first mover advantage, however, there is more to its success than this. According to ones of the company’s philosophy, expensive inventory and spending money on brick warehousing is not needed to serve the new age customer, is that is required is the management of a website which can take customer orders and a supply chains that can ensure these products reach the individual (Epstein, 2004).

Human Resource development at Amazon

According to Goodwin, et al., (2014), human resource development strategy plays a very important role in the success of amazon. The ability of the company to attract an maintain capable employees has seen the organisation grow in terms of market expansion and employee growth. One of amazon’s focus is on strengthening the management team whereby it has appointed  directors and senior managers in various workstations to ensure that customer order are taken and delivered within the scheduled time. Due to the fact that the company’s business human resources development strategy provides a significant effect on the performance of the organisation, the company is able to achieve high performance and proving a link between its online selling strategy and market expansion. One of the reasons this has been achieved is through continued training of their staff on various aspect of online retailing. This enables their employees to be  socially and technically competent to carry out responsibilities in the organisation (Wilson, 2014). This will also enable them become specialists in different departments and other managerial positions.

The other question that always comes up is why human resources development is always important in organisations. with regard to this, there are other factors involved in managing a firm and this includes its intellectual property where employees are supposed to be a good resource that enables the firm gain competitive advantage. In this manner, employee training programs are among the best ways that ensure intellectual property of the firm is maintained as employees become competent enough to do this and enable the organisation succeed. Also, Chen & Klimoski, (2007) adds that it is important for organisations to utilize and obtain effective human resources development. In this line, they need to be able to design the various areas in human resources management so that they can be able to fit in to the organisations goals and objectives. at this organisations need to be seen assisting the workforce to obtain the most important skills so as to increase their commitment to the organisation (Goodwin, et al., 2014). There is particular more challenge for human resources management of Small Medium enterprises since most of them have difficulty in establishing human resource development. One of the reasons could be economic manipulation by multinationals, bureaucracy, poor organisation structures, poor education and lack of purchasing power.


Even with the increasing effects of training or organisation employees by the online retailing company, there  is still limited literature on the Human resource development challenges that these organisations face. There is also a growing concern from customers and the globalized business community on the low quality of services that the online retailing platform offers. It is also important to realize that while there is a lot of knowledge on the cost of training employees in the online retailing business, various studies also indicate that there is little evidence of continued training among employees working in international amazon stations, which needs to change.  Kurosaki & Khan, (2016) calls for a great focus on the Human resources development programs for these enterprises by ensuring effective training to increase performance. This project thus is going to contribute highly in reducing the gap between performance of  the online company and other established multinationals with regard to training and human resources development.

With reference to the above introduction, the aim of this project is to assess the effects of training on employee performance among Small Medium Enterprises.

  1. To investigate existing training programs necessary for expansion of amazon business areas.
  2. To discuss training objectives and methodology
  3. Asses the performance of employee after training

Importance of Employee Training program

Employee training usually entails the training and development procedures for managers and employees in an organisation. Training programs are usually important for any organisation as they help in closing the gap  between the current employee performance and the future performance. In this regard, training and development is an important aspect of human resources development and contributes highly in the overall human resources management of online platforms. Some of the functions  activities that are entailed in training and development  include identifying the  training needs and development (Wilson, 2014). It will also entail the selection of the training methods and training programs that will go in line with the needs of the company. In the project it will also be important to come up with a plan of implementation to ensure that all aspect of a training project have been considered.

According to Heyes, (2009), training  and development policies of an organisation should be one that ensures the performance of employees is well evaluated. It should also be able to assure the management that the right training was offered to the right employees and department. One of the ways to ensure this is done is looking at organization’s performance appraisal reports  and organisation assessment findings  so as to come up with development needs of the organisation.  It is however important to also note that employees themselves will also provide much needed information to enable the human resourced department work on what needs to be improved as a result of the raised issues during the performance appraisal processes and the needs in career path.  According to Kurosaki & Khan (2016), such reports and assessments have been able to yield different aspects of organisation training. Wilson (2014) on the other side, looks at training as the systematic and planned modification of employee behavior through activities, learning events and their ability to carry out different work in a more effective manner.  In this line, it is also important to note that as various researchers continue to investigate in the training needs for organisations, they will also look at the importance of the selected training. 

According to some of these researchers, it is important for employees to firstly recognize the importance of training which is heavily influenced by the increased competition in the global business world. Meaning that training is very important as it provides organisations with the chance to compete effectively in organisations.  There is thus a great need to invest much on training program for the organisation, especially as it expands its business focus due to the developments in technologies and the cultural changes that they will face in other countries (Lagoudis, 2012). This has made organisations realize that their performance and success will be realized through increasing employee abilities and skills to work, thus a need for a continuous investment in training and development.


Employee Training Needs

According to Lewis (2007) the training and development of employees is usually done in three stages or organisations level. The first stage is the strategic level where the needs are determined by the top management  with reference to the organization’s mission and vision, problems and strategies to deal with the problem. In this manner, the organisation training needs are meant to  fix or resolve these challenges in organisations (Kurosaki & Khan, 2016). the other level is the tactical one where training needs will be determined  by the middle management as the organisation considers development  needs with regard to the coordination and cooperation between different organisation units (Goodwin, et al., 2014). Lastly is the operational level that looks at the lower level employees and management processes. This level will look at the challenges that employees face with regard to performance and individual employee relationship in the organisation. For an organisation to be in a better position of formulating the subject of training its human resource, they will need to consider the goals of training  and development methods and determine programs that will help in creating competitiveness and effectiveness of the program (Chen & Klimoski, 2007). It is also important to give consideration to the provision of proper employee coordination and incorporate all the needs in three levels. one of the places to begin is assessing the relevance of the training. According to Wilson (2014), the organisation can be able to do this in three categories by firstly identifying underlying issues in the organisation that will need training.

One of the main reason organisations training their employees is to resolve operational problems by improving performance of workers. The training is also important as it  improves the training practices in the organisation where this looks at the improvement even when there are still performance challenges in the organisation (Chen & Klimoski, 2007). Lastly training is meant to renew or change the operational strategy in the organisation by introducing new technologies and working conditions (Kurosaki & Khan, 2016). It is also important to remember that when an organisation conducts training needs, it is important to always develop, create and maintain and improved system which is relevant in ensuring availability of experts to implement the training needs program (Goodwin, et al., 2014). In addition, it is very important that all training programs are able to take care of different needs. Also the program and content of the trainer need to be chosen with regard to the training objectives and the training program.


Benefits of the program to employee Amazon

One of the major reasons Amazon decides to train their employees is to make them improve in the knowledge of their work, change work attitudes and increase skills towards work related duties (Chen & Klimoski, 2007). This means that training is one of the most important aspects of human resources development and it will enable the organisation meet both the short term and long term goals  and benefits for the organisation. With regard to this program, it is intended the employee will benefit in the following way:

Increased Morale at Work-  It is expected that after the end of the training program, employees morale toward work will be increased. In this manner they will be able to execute a lot of confidence when dealing with clients and be motivated to perform more.

Reduced cost of production -  Due to training, employee and work related risk is also reduced. This is because once employees are trained the are in a better position to make good use of materials and inventory that is at their disposal. They will know how to use machines and organisations will also spend less on other areas of work.

Reduced Employee Turnover-  Employee training is also a way of retaining them in the organisations. when employees realize that they can gain career wise while working in the organisation it will be difficult to move to another place of work (Lewis, 2007). In addition, well trained employees perform better than untrained ones, this means that the firm will not find need to employee  new staff. As they become more motivated to work, there will be a reduction of absenteeism and employee conflict which leads to turnover.

Managing Change-  training will be  an important aspect of implementing and managing change in an organisation. This is because it provides employees with an increased understanding of the online retailing business, understanding between themselves and they are able to adopt faster in to the new technologies as they are introduced by the organisation (Chen & Klimoski, 2007). Training will also provide employees with a chance to be recognized for both academic and professional achievements. They are given new responsibilities , increased wages and salaries and promotions opportunities come in offer. This also enables the availability of quality staff in the organisation.

Human resource development literature also suggests different approaches for identifying training needs, which include the profile comparison approaches and problem centered which tries to fill the performance gap.  In addition, several approaches to training of employee are used for analyzing the organisation needs with reference to new or current employees in the organisation. All in all, the basic and most important approaches are the problem centered and profile comparison approach (Goodwin, et al., 2014). The problem centered approach will mostly look in to difficulties in  service delivery and performance and analyze the firm on whether it has required skills to run an online retailing business like amazon. It will then determine what training needs are required by the employees  for the problem to be solved. The profile comparison approach on the other hand looks at the matching competences with the appointed job position (Lewis, 2007). For example, a supervisor in one of the collection centers will not fit to doing his work well if he does not have trained skills for the job. This is a case that mostly happen in family run businesses. thus there will be need for additional skills.

According to the Behaviorism theory, the trainer will assume that both the positive and negative factors will influence learning. During the training, the trainer is going to praise employees in the way the trainer feels they deserve, during the process the trainer will be able to influence  the employees towards a new set of behavior  and adopt new procedures and policies as required by the organisation (Heyes, 2009). For example, the trainer can give them a test on retention material and reward those that pass the exam and call for a retake to all that fail.  Also according to the  constructivism theory, employees will actively participate in their own type of development and learning (Chen & Klimoski, 2007). This is especially important for owners of SMEs who need to realize the need to appreciate the fact that their employees will incorporate past work experience and cultural background to the current roles in the organisation (Lagoudis, 2012). In this manner they will learn to take responsibility of their career development in the end be able to improve their morale and satisfaction at work.







Warehouse inventory management

3 Sessions running for 3 days

Lower level employees


Internet traffic management at call centers

2 sessions

All employees including supervisors


Networking online platforms and chartrooms

5 sessions including role play



Team Building

5 sessions including role play

Project managers, supervisors and employees


Strategic Planning and Implementation of Projects

8 sessions including drafting of company strategic plan for  2017-2018 financial year.

Managers and employees


Total costs


The following evaluation plan has been prepared to determine the effects of the Human resource development training so as to determine whether there is positive impact of the training or it will have to be conducted again. In this plan, the employee / trainee will be required to fill the questionnaire after completing all the sessions



Chen, G. & Klimoski, R., 2007. Training and development of human resources at work: Is the state of our science strong?. Human Resource Management Review, 17(2), pp. 180-190.

Epstein, M., 2004. Implementing e-commerce strategies: a guide to corporate success after the bust. Westport, Conn.: Praeger.

Goodwin, J., O’Connor, H. & Quinn, M., 2014. Training and labour needs of young workers in Vietnamese organisations. Education + Training, 56(1), pp. 35-46.

Heyes, J., 2009. Heyes, J. 2009, "Skills, Training and Human Resource Development A Critical Text By Irena Grugulis. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 47(3), pp. 610-611.

Kurosaki, T. & Khan, H., 2016. Impact of human resource development training on crop damages by wild animals in developing countries: experimental evidence from rural Pakistan. Journal of Development Effectiveness, 8(3), pp. 388-403.

Lagoudis, I. N., 2012. Decision support systems for human resource training and development. Development and Learning in Organizations: An International Journal, 26(3).

Lewis, P., 2007. Skills, Training and Human Resource Development: a Critical Text By Irena Grugulis. Human Resource Management Journal, 17(3), pp. 307-308.

Wilson, J., 2014. International Human Resource Development: Learning, Education and Training for Individuals and Organisations (3rd ed.). Development and Learning in Organizations, 28(2).


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