Discuss about the Small For Gestational Age Babies.
Possible causes of small for gestational age babies
Small for gestation age is a word used to describe babies whose birth weight is less than the 10th percentile (Veglia, Cavallaro, Papageorghiou, Black & Impey, 2017).This implies that, the babies are smaller than the normal babies who weigh above13 ounces, 5 pounds by the 36h week of pregnancy, thus, babies weighing below 8 ounces, 5 pounds are assumed to be low birth weight(Gupta, Naert, Rachlin, Saltzman & Fox, 2017).
In small for gestational age (SGA) babies are smaller in size than expected, most generally characterized as a weight beneath the tenth percentile for the gestational age (Veglia, Cavallaro, Papageorghiou, Black & Impey, 2017).. Gestational age is the word used to illustrate time that has passed since the start of the ladies last menstrual period which is typically tallied in weeks since it does not depend on the actual time of fertilization, which is hard to indicate unless vitro insemination is done (Gupta, Naert, Rachlin, Saltzman & Fox, 2017).. Gestational age is the essential because it is the one that determines organ development, thus the causes of small for gestational babies (SGA) are due to several factors which include;
Maternal factors; this include heart or respiratory disease, malnourishment, anemia high blood pressure, chronic kidney disease advanced diabetes substance use where by nicotine is involved (Veglia, Cavallaro, Papageorghiou, Black & Impey, 2017)..
Variables that involve or affect the uterus and placenta; Decreased blood stream in the uterus and placenta orsuddenness (where by the placenta separates from uterus), placenta joins to low in the uterus (placenta Previa), soft tissue is infected surrounding the fetus (Veglia, Cavallaro, Papageorghiou, Black & Impey, 2017).
And issues that are related the development of the unborn baby ; Multiple gestation;cases where the more babies one carries increase the chance of more factors related with growth issues in the first place) birth defects, and chromosomal irregularity (Kvalvik, Haug & Skjærven, 2017)..
In addition, factors like high blood pressure, diabetes, infections, drug abuse, anemia, kidney diseases, and cigarette smoking can contribute to this condition (Kvalvik, Haug&Skjærven, 2017).
Difference between small for gestational age and intrauterine growth restriction
Intrauterine growth restriction is when there is a low birth weight and the unborn baby is smaller than it should be because the baby is not growing at a normal rate inside the womb. While in cases of small for gestation age, the baby does not receive enough blood flow, thus the baby does not receive enough oxygen and nutrients because of placenta problems such as pre-eclampsia, affecting the growth of the baby (Gupta, Naert, Rachlin, Saltzman & Fox, 2017).
The second difference is noted during the first trimester whereby the uterine artery Doppler is greater for small gestational babies who have preeclampsia than it is the case of intrauterine growth restricted babies, this difference is eminent as a result of basic placental anomalies that are spotted sporadically on first trimester uterine Doppler evaluation (Kvalvik, Haug & Skjærven, 2017).
Gupta, S., Naert, M., Lam-Rachlin, Saltzman, D., & Fox, N. (2017). 250: Outcomes in patients with early onset intrauterine growth restriction and a normal workup. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 216(1), S155.
Lebrun, J. (2017). Chylothorax and intrauterine growth restriction following in utero exposure: case report. Reactions, 1640, 330-25.
Kvalvik, L. G., Haug, &Skjærven, R. (2017).Maternal Smoking Status in Successive Pregnancies and Risk of Having a Small for Gestational Age Infant. Paediatric and perinatal epidemiology, 31(1), 21-28.
Veglia, M., Cavallaro, A., Papageorghiou, A., Black, R., &Impey, L. (2017). Small for Gestational Age Babies After 37 Weeks: An Impact Study of a Risk Stratification Protocol. Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology 3(5) 34- 56