For this assignment, you will select a social problem that can be used as a basis to develop a proposal for advocating a policy and develop a 6- to 8-page paper on persuasive problem definition that can be used to garner support.
In your paper:
•Identify a social problem that can be used as a basis to develop a proposal for advocating a policy.
•Describe the background of the problem, the scope of the problem, the demographics of the population involved, and any supporting research data and statistics.
•Identify the stakeholders involved and availability and accessibility of necessary resources to solve the social problem.
•Explain the political climate relative to the issue and any ethical implications.
•Evaluate social policies and programs that are currently available and discuss their effectiveness in addressing your identified social problem.
•Discuss the levels of access you would need to pursue to advocate for your proposal.
Definition of Hate Crime
Hate crime is a social issue which affects a moderate number of individuals. It is generally defined as a vicious offence driven by hate based on national cause, shading, race among different components (Farivar, 2017). Ethno-violence is inspired by bias against individuals in view of race, religion, ethnicity, sex, sexual preference, infirmity, or different elements.
The term "hate crime" is derived from normal utilization in the U.S. during the 1980s, yet it is frequently utilized in retrospect to describe incidents which are occurring prior to that period. One of the previous cases is from the Roman Empire, which was notable for persecution of Christians in different religious groups. One of the most eminent is the Nazi’s butcher of the Jews, loathe wrongdoings were conferred by both people and governments some time before the term was ordinarily utilized. Hitler’s “Ultimate Solution” called for the aggregate obliteration of the Jews and led to full scale death camps. (Abramovitz, 2017).
Many of those hate incidents has target people of Jews, individual from the LGBTQ community, Muslim and others (Jazeera, 2017). It highlights loathe violations and racist harassment around the country.
Hate-motivated incident generally leave victims in increased violence and fear of loss, vulnerability, anger, future assaults and depression. This may bring their down confidence and dominance. They have more severe psychological consequences that experience a random crime of similar severity.
Victims of hate crimes experience more negative feelings than endured by causalities of other crimes. A stigmatizing or unhelpful reaction to victims can cause harm to traumatized people. This may also leads to even greater embarrassment, degradation and isolation. As a result, those stormed may encounter a feeling of extraordinary confinement and more noteworthy and longer enduring apprehension that has experience by other victims. (Cogan, 2016)
NGO start working with governments to enhance hate crime laws. They monitor and report incidents and act as a voice for victims, particularly by delivering as intermediate with the specialists. Ensuring remedial actions for victims, for example, counseling, legal advice and different administrations so that they can overcome from the trauma. (Ujazdowskie, 2009)
Government has enacted strong laws to prevent hate crimes. They have enabled community leaders to report hate incidents by sending “zero tolerance of hate crimes” messages to the general public. They also conducted awareness programs.
Accessibility of available resources to solve hate crime-
- Police should ensure the victim to avail the benefit of medical attention
- They conserve the crime scene and collect the physical evidence.
- They conduct a preliminary investigation and arrest the perpetrator.
- They should track the criminal activities of hate groups. (Saalt, 2005)
- Schools provide hate prevention training to all staff personnel.
- They develop ownership with community institution and law administration agencies.
- They provide a good sense of opportunity for amalgamation.
- They conduct employment programs for awareness of youth facing problem in respect of hate crime as victims.
- They prevent the victim to get offended.
- They also conduct curriculum programs to teach about equality and strategies for dispute resolution. (Shaw, 2002)
Psychologist and therapist-
- Victims face the psychology and mental disorder, stress, trauma and in these cases they strongly require the assistance of psychologist and other mental health practitioners.
- In most situations, victims are unable to cope with their experiences and resistance to change (Henderson& Sloan, 2006).
Impact of Hate Crime on Individuals
As per FBI data, majority of hate crime are based on Sexual orientation (against gay men) followed by either race (against African-Americans) or religion (against Jews).
Table 1-Average hate crimes per year from 1995-2005
Average number of hate crimes per year from 1995-2005
Politics on hate crime
It refers to politics in which an individual relates to one another based upon characteristics like race, religion, gender, sexuality etc. It extends the motives against prejudice of crime and punishment. It involves greater level of violence and emotional harm. As many people and groups expect mainly police protection and enact legal laws to racial and anti-discrimination legislation. This is because it is gradually increasing and it becomes extremely difficult to cope up with this problem. The laws of hate crime reduce the violence against Americans, African –Americans, Jews, Catholics, homosexuals and also white males which are offended and been the victims of racist violence.
They should provide more severe punishments for offenders of hate crime and such biasness should be demolished completely. Reporting on anti-gay crime to the police is similar as everyone has risen to issues of privacy. Victims may feel free as police perceive their problem very seriously so anti-Semitic violence should be removed (Jacobs & Potter, 2000)
It focuses on aspects in dangerous action motivated by biases for example physical assault, mental disorder etc. Hate crime laws limit the occurrence of these crimes, or to limit hate in general. Hate crime laws gives a societal implications of tolerance and equality. This method of conception of hate crime has influences both intergroup relations and victims. The offender cognitive prejudices include exaggerating the self’s esteem and inter-group reality to rationalize and justify the offence (Sun, 2006)
There are many policies which are initiated by government. Some policies are converted into legislation which is stated as:-
- Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of 2009 -established the act for control of equal pay proceeding. It also promotes voluntary compliance by employers.
- Matthew Shepard and James Byrd Jr. Hate crime Prevention Act (2009) - This Act makes it a societal crime to willfully produce substantial damage, or endeavor to do so utilizing a hazardous tool, due to the casualty genuine or perceived color, race, religion, etc. The Act also widen 1969 U.S. federal laws to incorporate wrongdoings inspired by a victim perceived sexual orientation, gender identity, gender, national origin, or infirmity of any individual.
- Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell Repeal Act of 2010-says that end the policy that intercepted gay and lesbian individuals from serving publicly in the U.S. Armed Forces. It has been maintained by certain times by Supreme Court. (Paul, 2017)
Why they are effective
It acknowledge to society, potential casualty to take this issue very seriously. It also develops awareness among individuals. It also enables victim to see that whether the law is properly implemented, and discuss with the authorities. These policies entail freedom of speech and break the silence upon putting individual thoughts, beliefs, and opinion on homosexual behavior. It ensures adequate protection and enforcement to address hate crime. There should be equal legislation for everyone and expanding on neighborhood organizations by recording and reacting to hate incidents.
Changes are required
There is a need to strengthen law implementation to gather statistics and make them accessible publicly. Proper steps to be taken to raise public awareness so that crime can be reduced. They should be more training sessions to be promoted in identifying crime and responding to police and prevent violence by their neighborhood government and sharing their thoughts
E.g. -1. The California State University studies about vicious revolt in Charlottesville illuminate a focus on discrimination. One individual was murdered and many others harmed after a man with known racial oppressor.
- Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein, speaking at the Birmingham Civil Rights Institute, doomed event in Charlottesville, where “individual straightforwardly commit terrible acts of violence.”
The aim of the study was to establish a robust overview about hate crime and to address a proposal to government.
It is a crime which occurs when an offender targets victim in a certain social group or race. The government should make their laws strong and implement changes so that it can be reduced.
- Ongoing police training should be conducted to deal with the victims.
- Police should investigate the criminal proceedings with more enhanced databases and electronic platforms.
- They should explore the use of justice interventions for serious hate crime offenders
Abramovitz,M.(2016).Hate Crimes in America.US:ABDO.
Cogan,J.(2016).Hate Crime as a Crime Category Worthy of Policy Attention. AMERICAN BEHAVIORAL SCIENTIST,46(1),173-185
Farivar,M. (2017).Hate Crimes Rise in Major US Cities in 2017.Retrieved from: https://www.voanews.com/a/hate-crimes-rising-in-us/4034719.html
Henderson,K.,Sloan,L.(2006).After the Hate: Helping Psychologists Help Victims of Racist Hate Crime.Clinical Psychology Science and practice,10(4),481-490
Jacobs,J.,Potter,K.(2000).Hate Crimes: Criminal Law and Identity Politics.Newyork: Oxford University Press.
Jazeera,A.(2017).Killed by hate: Victims of America's far-right violence.Retrieved from:https://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/2017/09/killed-hate-victims-america-violence-170924153101480.html
Paul,I.(2017).Barack Obama.Retrieved from:( https://slideplayer.com/slide/12620760/)
Saalt(2005).HATE CRIMES: A COMMUNITY-WIDE IMPACT.Retrieved from: https://saalt.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/Hate-Crimes-Community-Wide-Impact-Factsheet.pdf
Shaw,M.,Barchechat,O.(2002).Preventing Hate Crimes:International Strategies and Practice. Retrieved from: https://www.crime-prevention-intl.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Publications/2005-1999/2002.ENG.Preventing_Hate_Crimes_International_Strategies_and_Practice.pdf
Stotzer,R.(2007)Comparison of Hate Crime Rates Across Protected and Unprotected Groups. Retrieved from: https://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/wp-content/uploads/Stotzer-Comparison-Hate-Crime-June-2007.pdf
Sun,K.(2006).The Legal Definition Of Hate Crime And The Hate Offender’s Distorted Cognitions.Issues in Mental Health Nursing,27,597-604
Ujazdowskie,A.(2009).Preventing and responding to hate crime. Retrieved from: https://www.osce.org/odihr/39821?download=true