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Identification of student needs through the curriculum

Discuss about the Social Construction of Literacy in Primary School.

The identification of the needs of the organization to bring in continuous improvements is supported through the formulation of a curriculum that helps the organization in empowering the interests of the people concerned. I have been working in a school, in Australia for the past two years where I have been teaching English to the year 8 students. The curriculum that was set by the Australian School Curriculum and Standards Authority has helped in the evaluation of the healthy practices of the teachers and the manner they took steps to introduce the texts to the students (SCSA., 2018). The formulation of the curriculum for the pre-primary to year 12 has helped in segmentation of the study materials based on the identification of the capabilities of the students to adapt themselves to the topic. The major attributes of the change in the structure is based on the understanding of the needs of the students and the manner in which the teachers can take steps to enhance the understanding of the students (SCSA., 2018).

The key focus of the assessment is based on the understanding the language for interacting while identifying the different levels of conventions of speech adopted by communities (Khalid,   Ashraf  & Rehman,  2012). The curriculum outlines the different changes in the strategies undertaken by the teachers for making the students aware of the different conventions and the language that is used by the people in different communities. The identification of the languages of the communities through the activities of the teachers helps in facilitating the understanding of the students who face difficulty in understanding the English dialects (Gardner, 2014). The specific actions that are undertaken by the teachers as per the identification of the needs of the students are through providing examples of the social contexts to the students of the origin of the speeches (SCSA., 2018). The identification of the needs of the students is facilitated through the delineation of the Australian standards for bringing in changes in the systems and the processes of teaching. 

The report is aimed at evaluating the curriculum for the 8years of the in the light of CIPP evaluation model. It will help in identifying the different prospects of the success factors of the curriculum and the manner in which it will be fitting into the purpose of enriching the study experience for the students.

Assessment of language for interaction

The CIPP model is a program evaluation model, which helps in the identification of the varied aspects of the Context, Input, Process and Product. Daniel Stufflebeam developed the model in the year 1960, which is focused on understanding the different aspects of the value of a program that reflects integrated planning and execution of the ideas for positive outcomes. The model helps in designing the proper functioning of the programs and thereby predicts the outcomes of the activities that are undertaken by the authorities (Usmani et al., 2012). The proper design of the programs contributes to its success factors as per the needs of the authorities to derive the positive outcomes. The design of the programs and the manner in which the processes are framed helps in maintaining the understanding of the success factors of the outcome that is planned by the authorities through the event (SCSA., 2018). The model facilitates the utilization of the different sources of activities through systematic planning and execution that helps the authorities to bring out positive results of the program that is undertaken.

The identification of the context of the program helps in maintaining the similarity of the index of the functions that are required to be taken by the authorities as per the hosting objectives. On the other hand, the identification of the needs of the receivers of the information helps in framing the inputs and thereby facilitates the smooth functioning of the processes to derive the required results (Khalid,   Ashraf  & Rehman,  2012). The model is a result driven model, which illustrates and monitors over the systematic execution of the functions that are undertaken by the organizations to bring in changes in the system and the performance of the programs that are planned by the authorities. The identification of the processes that might be involved in the functioning of the processes is based on the understanding of the result that can be derived from the changes in the systems.  Setting the goal and planning for the events helps in the careful execution of the steps that might lead to the smooth functioning of the processes to bring out positive outcomes. The different aspects of the change in the approach are dependent on the understanding of needs of the organization to bring in changes in the systems and thereby determine the manner in which the program appeals to the receiver or audiences.

CIPP model and program evaluation

The selection of the models is based on the understanding of the needs of the teachers to assess the outcomes of the activities and the steps that are undertaken by the same to make the students understand the contexts. The central part of the curriculum stated by School Curriculum and Standards Authority is language for interacting, which facilitates the students with the understanding of the evolution of the language and the manner in which the dialect is nurtured through community involvement. The CIPP model will be helping to evaluate the different terms of actions and their individual outcomes, which would be helping the teachers to understand and plan their course of activities based on the identification of the needs of the students (Majdalawieh & Marks, 2018). The identification of the model will be helping the teachers to understand the needs of the students and thereby bring in changes in their techniques of teaching. It will be facilitating the needs of the students as per the Australian standards of education.

The implementation of the CIPP model on the current curriculum is facilitated through the understanding of the need of the students to identify the key resources that are delivered to them. The different steps that might be taken by the instructor are based on the understanding of the needs of the student based on the identification of their capabilities to get a grab on the topics (Khalid,   Ashraf  & Rehman,  2012). The identification of the needs of the students will be helping the teacher to bring in changes in their teaching styles through systematic planning and segmentation of the course materials. On the other hand, the identification of the understanding levels and the capabilities of the students help the instructors in planning their teaching process more effectively. It helps the instructors to adhere to the SCSA without compromising on the needs of the students to understand the topic. The identification of the needs of the students relating to the teaching of the English language based on the curriculum has helped in maintaining the paradox of the change as per the standards (SCSA., 2018). The proper design of the curriculum facilitates the understanding of the capabilities of the student and thereby assigning them with the required understanding of the data through different examples from the contemporary society. The major attributes of the change in the learning outcome is measured through the efficiency of the lesson planning that is undertaken by the teacher to suit the purpose of the student. Identifying the need of the individual students and making them understand the subject material of the Language structure and the dialects depends on the systematic functions of the teacher.

Importance of context and inputs in program design


The identification of the CIPP model and implementing the same while teaching the students will be helping the teacher to bring in changes in the outcome. The identification of Inputs or the context of the topic and assimilating the required information on the same will be helping the teacher to bring in changes in the systems of teaching the students as per the capabilities of the same (Khalid,   Ashraf  & Rehman,  2012). On the other hand, the identification of the inputs or the raw data on Language for Interaction helps in segmenting the information based on the topics that will be focused by the teacher while teaching the students on the topic. The identification of the context will be helping to enhance the structure and the functioning of the learning program and thereby yield to the requirements of understanding of the topic of the students. On the other hand, matching the context with the mental growth of the pupils will be helping the teacher to identify different procedures that might be taken by them to assert the information and make them applicable to the education needs of the student.

On the other hand, planning the context is an important step that must be undertaken by the instructor to bring in changes in the performance of the students through the facilitation of the understanding of the key concepts and theories that beholds the interaction objectives of the language. The teacher must take steps to plan their curriculum to suit the purpose of the students to bring in changes in the programs through the understanding of the capabilities of the students. Adherence to the SCSA standards that are enforced by the Australian government and the boards of the education has helped the teachers in undertaking segmentation of the topic after the identification of the mental capabilities of the students. Usmani et al. (2012) stated that the identification of the needs of the students helps in identifying the varied issues that are faced by the students while engulfing the topic.  Planning the curriculum has helped in detailing the actions that might be taken by the teacher while educating the students (Khalid,   Ashraf  & Rehman,  2012). The segmentation of the Language related topics to assimilate the outcome has helped in understanding the different levels of the change in the structure and the performance of students.  The identification of the capabilities of the students and the issues that might be faced by the same helps the teacher in undertaking the planning process. The teacher might take steps to create visual presentation to help the students to have a hold on the topics that are being taught as a part of the curriculum (Hafner, 2014). Identification of the issues that are faced by the students helps the teacher in asserting the best treatment to the pupils.

Identification of student capabilities and needs for teaching

The identification of the relevant process helps in bringing forth changes in the teaching profession. This stage helps the teacher in implementing the different aspects of the change in their initiatives to teach the students. The identification of the different issues that are faced by the student related to the understanding of the topic is facilitated through the planning of the processes and thereby implementing them while undertaking steps to bring in changes in the systems. The major issues that are faced by the students relating to the study of the language is based on the understanding of the origins of the language and the impacts of the invasions that modified the language (Henderson, Selwyn & Aston, 2017). The understanding of the simple linguistics and framing the same through simple examples will be helping the teacher to bring in changes in the systems of teaching as per the cognitive abilities of the students. The identification of the process and the systematic and controlled functioning of the teacher will be helping to enhance the learning experience of the students. Identification of the needs of the students and thereby deliberately bringing in changes in the systems of the learning is based on the understanding the mentality of the students of the year 8. SCSA standards asserted by the Australian Board of Education has clearly enumerated the functions of the teacher to bring forth changes in the systems and the functioning that the teacher is required to follow to bring in the changes in the learning attributes (SCSA., 2018). The identification of the standards and the norms that are imposed by the government has helped in assigning texts and sessions to improve the Language for interactions. The teacher must take steps to cite simple examples from different situations through interactive session based on the study of the origin of metaphors and other literary devices and the manner in which the elements came into existence. The emphasis on the different factors of the change is based on understanding of the needs of students to attain the education.   The key attributes for the change, as stated by Usmani et al. (2012), is dependent on the identification of the different issues that are faced by the students relating to their understanding of the topic. The major key elements of the change in the approach of the teachers are based on making the students aware of the lessons and thereby bring in improvements in the cognitive abilities (Vähäsantanen, 2015). The systematic functioning of the processes of the teacher helps in the proper assimilation of the ideas facilitates the needs of the students to bring in modifications in the learning process.

Planning curriculum to suit student needs


The product or the outcome of the processes that are planned and executed by the teacher is an important factor, which influences the applicability of the model on the situation. The model, being goal centric in nature has helped the teachers in bringing forth changes in the systems of teaching as per the identification of the issues faced by the students. The identification of the issues has helped in maintaining the different levels of improvements in the outcomes. The output helps in understanding the effectiveness of the processes that are planned by the teacher. The identification of the different elements of the change in the processes is facilitated through the understanding of different factors that affects the functioning of the teacher. Ahsan,   Sharma and Deppeler (2012) stated that the identification of the need of the students and resolving them through proper planning and implementation of the plans helps in yielding positive results. On the other hand, Luke (2018) stated that the application of the CIPP model helps in identifying the goals of the teacher to reach out to the students through the different processes that are applicable based on the varied mentality and the cognitive ability of the pupils. The identification of the psychological trends of the students helps the teachers in identifying the various issues that are faced by the student while taking the lessons. The identification of the psychological trends and the capabilities of the students have helped the teachers to maintain a balance in their functions and thereby focus on the goals.

As per the SCSA, year 8 students’ curriculum includes a total of nine courses – The Arts, Technologies, Humanities and Social Science, Health and Physical Education, English, Mathematics, Science, History and Languages. Now, associating the courses with the CIPP model it would be easy to justify the relevance of the model with the curriculum of year 8 students ("The CIPP evaluation model", 2018).

The Arts course has been designed to help students learn the rules and principles of common media type, its genre and style. Students are assessed based on their skills to work in a group and produce a media product like television commercial. Evaluating the Context of the course, it is related to other courses like the Humanities and Social Science, History and Language. on one hand, these courses help students learn about the culture of medieval Europe, learn different languages and have an understanding of the Japanese history and its culture and on the other hand, media studies helps them incorporate these knowledge into their production. Further, Technologies course help the students to develop skills to prepare plans and create projects, which is an essential part of media studies. The Arts course would be helpful for students establish their career in the field of media.

Identification of relevant processes in teaching

After the evaluation of the context, the inputs of the courses developed for year 8 students should also be analyzed. While developing the courses, the SCSA committee had scrutinized the ability of the students to understand the courses. In addition, the curriculum aims to understand the potential and progress of the students during the course. The students have developed capable learning skills after the year 7 and hence the year 8 curriculum aims to analyze further their competencies.

The next element of the CIPP model is the Process. This includes the workload of the students, their participation, and the problems they face and so on. In the SCSA curriculum for year 8, the students are involved not just in learning the theoretical aspects of the courses such as The Arts and others but also participating actively in activities that tests their theoretical knowledge and personal abilities. Students through real-time activities apply the knowledge gained in these courses. To provide an instance, in the Humanities and Social Sciences course, students first learn about the various facets of Medieval Europe life and then assume the role of a museum curator and explore the life in Medieval Europe.

The Product element of CIPP model refers to the knowledge gained by the students throughout the curriculum and its application. Year 8 students are assessed at the end of the year after they have successfully completed the tasks allotted to them during the course of the curriculum. Students are required to sit for an examination at the end of each semester and the results are reported by the schools to parents or carers. In addition to that, students of Year 8 are also assessed based on their practical ability to input knowledge they gained in given situations.

It can thus be seen that the CIPP model is aligned with the curriculum planning for the Year 8 students under the SCSA.


The identification of the different processes and the techniques by the teacher is dependent on the understanding of the needs of the students based on their cognitive abilities (Calvert & Sheen, 2015). The identification of the issues that are faced by the students has helped the teachers in bringing in changes in their teaching methodologies. The changes in the teaching attributes have helped the teachers in quantifying their goal to make the subject matter more valid to the student’s line of understanding.  The teacher utilizes the different sources of data and incorporates them with a picturesque example to create a visual impact at the mind of the students. Identification of the issues that are faced by the students and understanding the needs of the changes in the structure of the processes through proper planning has helped in enhancing the goal centric approach. CIPP model has helped in boosting the education systems as mentioned under SCSA. Identification of the needs of the students and thereby providing them with the knowledge of the vast linguistics will be helping the teacher to make the students aware of the changes in the structure of the language. On the other hand, the enumeration of the ideas after proper planning has helped in enhancing the learning experience of the students. The identification of the different issues that are faced by the students and the mitigation of the same through the proper planning of the strategies like undertaking interactions has helped in enhancing the functions of the teachers.

The curriculum stated that the teachers are required to cite examples of the society to enhance the proper understanding of the students relating to the subject. Therefore, the proper planning attribute of the CIPP model is achieved. On the other hand, implementation of the plans while educating the students has helped in enhancing the outcomes. The utilization of the goal centric model, which emphasizes on the functions and their planning to achieve the objective, has helped in bringing forth modifications in the systems of the teaching profession (SCSA., 2018). The adherence to the   SCSA criteria will be helping the teachers to bring in changes in the education systems through the identification of the issues that are faced by the students and thereby planning the teaching streams to suit the cognitive abilities of the students. On the other hand, the identification of the needs of the students and the young learners is facilitated by the changes in the systems and the functioning of the teaching systems. The idea of the changes in the curriculum is supported through the different initiatives that are undertaken by the teacher based on the understanding of the needs of the students. The identification of the different factors that governs the applicability of the model in the scenario is based on the understanding of the issues that are faced by the students.  

The next step that might be taken by the teacher is to assess the understanding levels of the students through the designing of different assignments. The creation of the assignments helps in identifying the deficiencies of understanding of the students on the topics and thereby brings in changes in the systems and the functioning of the curriculum to suit the purpose of the students.   On the other hand, the teacher might also create visual presentations to facilitate to the needs of the students (SCSA., 2018). The proper enumeration of the ethics that are asserted by the SCSA standards will be helping the teachers to bring in changes as per the understanding of the students. The different factors of the change that might be undertaken by the teachers are based on the identification of the cognitive abilities and the intellect of the same through proper assessments.  The identification of the needs of the students and thereby delineating the same is identified the issues that are faced by the teachers while creating the curriculum to suit the purposes of the students.

References:

Ahsan, M. T., Sharma, U., & Deppeler, J. M. (2012). Exploring Pre-Service Teachers' Perceived Teaching-Efficacy, Attitudes and Concerns about Inclusive Education in Bangladesh. International Journal of whole schooling, 8(2), 1-20.

Calvert, M., & Sheen, Y. (2015). Task-based language learning and teaching: An action-research study. Language Teaching Research, 19(2), 226-244.

Gardner, R. C. (2014). Attitudes and motivation in second language learning. In Bilingualism, multiculturalism, and second language learning (pp. 63-84). Psychology Press.

Hafner, C. A. (2014). Embedding digital literacies in English language teaching: Students' digital video projects as multimodal ensembles. Tesol Quarterly, 48(4), 655-685.

Henderson, M., Selwyn, N., & Aston, R. (2017). What works and why? Student perceptions of ‘useful’digital technology in university teaching and learning. Studies in Higher Education, 42(8), 1567-1579.

Khalid, M. M., Ashraf, M., & Rehman, C. A. (2012). Exploring the link between Kirkpatrick (KP) and context, input, process and product (CIPP) training evaluation models, and its effect on training evaluation in public organizations of Pakistan.

Luke, A. (2018). The social construction of literacy in the primary school. In Critical Literacy, Schooling, and Social Justice (pp. 28-74). Routledge.

Majdalawieh, M., & Marks, A. (2018). A Holistic Conceptual Measurement Framework for Assessing the Effectiveness and Viability of an Academic Program. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, International Journal of Educational and Pedagogical Sciences, 5(8).

SCSA (2018). [online] K10outline.scsa.wa.edu.au. Available at: https://k10outline.scsa.wa.edu.au/home/teaching/curriculum-browser/english-v8/overview/EALD-English-Pre-primary-to-Year-10.pdf [Accessed 8 May 2018].

The CIPP evaluation model. (2018). Retrieved from https://www.cglrc.cgiar.org/icraf/toolkit/The_CIPP_evaluation_model.htm

Usmani, M. A. W., Khatoon, S., Shammot, M. M., & Zamil, A. M. (2012). Meta evaluation of a teachers’ evaluation programme using CIPP model. Archives Des Sciences, 65(7), 230-252.

Vähäsantanen, K. (2015). Professional agency in the stream of change: Understanding educational change and teachers' professional identities. Teaching and teacher education, 47, 1-12.

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