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Describe about the Critical Evaluation of Sociotechnical and SSM methodology as an analysis and design strategy for the Modern Information System?




The system which is composed of both the people and the computers and also processes and interprets the information is known as the information systems. The information system is basically the academic study of both the software and the hardware which used to run the computerized databases. Now a day the development of the modern information systems is becomes one of the demanding tasks because of the design, implementation and the presentation of the new technologies. The basic realization of the modern information system with the availability of the implementation of the characteristics and the functionalities in some of the specific areas of the interest is depicted as the modern information system. Through the modern information system it introduces some of the new and the innovative functions which assist in capturing of the new tendencies of the development of the information system.

In this assignment it is critically evaluated of both the Sociotechnical and the SSM methodology as the analysis and the designed strategy of the Modern Information system. In the critical evaluation it discussed about the considerable evaluation and the critique of the methods which are used for doing the proper doing and the analyzing of the information system.

Analysis of Some of the Methods Which Are Used in Designing and analysing the Modern Information System

There are some of the methods which are available for designing and analyzing of the modern information systems which are listed below:

Data warehouse methodology

Enterprise resource planning methodology

Expert system methodology

Enterprise system methodology

Socio technical and SSM methodology

Data warehouse methodology- data warehouse methodology is mainly used for doing the data analysis and also the reporting. It generally acts as central repositories for storing the integrated data which are collected from the numbers of the separate sources. The data which are stored in the warehouse is mainly uploaded from the various operational sources which include sales, marketing, operation etc. this methodology also consists of some of the different systems which are describes below (Hindle, 2007):

Data mart- it is actually a simple form of the data warehouse which mainly focused on any of the single subjects. Data mart is mainly built and controlled by any of the particular department of the organization. The sources of the data of the data warehouse are external data, internal operational sources, central data warehouses etc.

Online analytical processing- this processing is mainly characterized by some of the low value of the transactions. Queries which are used in the online analytical processing is often in very complex in nature. This type of the database mainly stores some of the historical and the aggregated data which are basically used in the multi-dimensional schemas (Golfarelli and Rizzi, 2011).

Online transaction processing- in this processing it mainly characterized by some of the online transaction which are basically short in nature. This system mainly highlights on the very fast processing of the queries and also needs to maintain the data integrity in the multi dimensional environment. This processing database mainly contains the detailed and the current data.

Some of the benefits of the data warehouse which provides some of the opportunities are given below (Wing Lam and Shankararaman, 2004):

It helps to assemble some of the data from the multiple sources in to the single data base so that it becomes easy to search some important data by using the single query engine. It also helps to improve the quality of the data by offering some of the consistent codes and the description. It also helps in doing the restructure of the data so that it becomes very easy for using this data by the business users. The restructuring of the data also helps in delivering the excellent query. It also makes it easy to do the decision support queries which also very easy to write and also very easy to understand (Di, Lefons and Tangorra, 2015).

Enterprise resource planning methodology- this is actually the software which are used in doing the business management. It is mainly used in collecting, storing and also managing the data from the various sources. The erp system is mainly consists of the different components which are transaction database, management portal, work flow management, document management etc. the whole erp system is mainly grouped in to the erp modules like as financial accounting, management accounting, human resource, order processing, supply chain management etc. the implementation of the erp system is mainly depends on the customization, business size, number of modules, the scope of changes etc. some of the benefits of the erp system are listed below:

Erp helps to improve the efficiency and the quality of the businesses. It also can leads to some of the better out puts which may causes to some of the benefits of the company so that the business can run more smoothly.

Erp also provides some of the increased opportunities for doing the collaboration. It also may take various forms of the enterprise into the account. In it a collaborative platform is available which helps the employees in doing the collaboration of the contents in some of the various formats of the distributed system (Tsai et al., 2012).

With the development of the erp system it also increases the security of the data which also allows the organization to do the easier ensured of the company’s data. The implementation of the erp system makes the organization more flexible and the less rigid structure so that it can operate the components more easily which enhance the business (Sitompul and Noah, 2006).

Expert system methodology- In the context of the artificial intelligence, the expert system is basically the computer system which emulates the capability of the decision making. The expert system methodology is mainly based on the knowledge based system. The expert system methodology is mainly consists of the two sub systems which includes the inference engine and the knowledge base (Soja and Weistroffer, 2014). The inference engine is mainly the automated reasoning scheme in which it does the proper evaluation of the existing state, applies some of the relevant rules. It also includes some of the capabilities of the explanation. The inference engine primarily has the two modes which are forward chaining and the backward chaining. The knowledge base is mainly used in doing the proper representation of the various facts of the world. It also develops some of the commercial shells by utilizing the concepts of the object oriented programming. Through the expert system methodology it gives the advantages of the availability of the expert systems all the time. It also helps to make some of the rational decisions. The availability of the interface of the natural language it makes the expert system more users friendly. It also helps in reducing the dependencies, elimination of the errors and the inconsistencies of the data. It is basically one of the good platforms of doing the knowledge sharing. The basic goal of the expert system is to specify the materials of the subjects in such a way so that it becomes easy to understand and reviewed by the other experts. To do the basic design of the expert system it needs an individuals who does the complete study on the process how the human expert makes any of the decision and also do the translation some of the rules in to the basic terms which the computer can understand (Di Tria, Lefons and Tangorra, 2012).


Enterprise system methodology- the large scale of the application software which basically support the business processes, reporting of the information flows etc in the complex nature of the organization. The whole enterprise system includes some of the different systems which are: enterprise resource planning system, enterprise planning system and the customer relationship management software. Some of the advantages which includes in the enterprise system methodology are given below (Markham and Webb, 2012):

Advanced data entry- the integration of the all the system in the organization may results in the little or the no entry of the redundant data and the other processes throughout the whole processes.

Flow of the information- the flow of the information includes the proper sharing of the information across all the departments of the organization which leads to the improved communication and also the better performance of the employees.

Advanced customer satisfaction- the employees who have the crucial essence of the information, improves the workflows, which results in the on-time delivery of the goods. With this improved quality and the reduction of the delivery time helps in doing the development of the customer satisfaction (Das, Sarkar and Ray, 2012).

Integration of the organizational system- The enterprise system directs to maximum development of the whole integrated system in the organization. It also helps in doing the streamlining of the workflows and the organizational processes and also resulting in the improved quality of the efficiency (Sensuse, Silalahi and Budi, 2014).

Socio Technical and SSM methodology- Some of the methods are the approaches which are used in the doing the design by considering the social, human and the organizational factors and also includes the technical factors in doing the design of the organizational systems. These approaches are known as Socio-Technical Systems Design (STSD). This socio technical process takes both the social and the technical factors into the account which also influence both the functionality and the usage of the computer based systems. The basis for doing the adoption of the socio-technical approaches in the system design is the failure so that it can increase some of the risks which the system does not make in their expected goals and the requirements of the organization. The source of the socio technical problem is most the techno centric approaches to the system design consider the people, system which supports the processes and also some of the complex relationships of the organization (Simiński, 2013). The socio technical approach is mainly focused on the group interactions work more than the individual basis performance. In the context of the high uncertainty, the basis of the socio technical approach underlines mainly on the redundancies of the functions. Some of the examples of this perspective include quality circles and the independent work groups etc. In the context of the organizational development, the phrase socio technical systems explains the approach of the complex work design which basically recognize the interaction between the technology and the peoples of the organization. This term also refers to the interface between the human behavior and the complex infrastructure (Atkinson, 2000).


The SSM is the methodology which deals with the problems which generally involves the social, cultural and the psychological elements. The SSM methodology does not have the capability to do the differentiation between the hard and the soft problems. Through the SSM methodology it provides the different ways to deal with the perceived situations as problematic. This methodology distinguishes itself from the approaches of the hard systems so that it can deals with the system. The SSM methodology includes the seven stages approach which is used because of the availability of the step wise nature of the approach. The seven stages of the model are discussed below (Clegg, 2000):

Stage 1 & 2- definition of the system- In the first step it needs to do the acknowledgment, exploration and the definition of the situation in the some other ways. In this stage it is actually needs to explore the problem. In this stage it does not required to define the problems and doing the assessment of the general areas which is basic of the interest. The basic activity of this association is increasing and the supporting of the methods. In this stage the data mainly is either the qualitative or the quantitative in nature and the methods which are used in collecting the data are the observations, surveys and the measurement (Sensuse, Silalahi and Budi, 2014).

In the second stage the issues are needs to express in some other ways. Checkland needs to call it a rich picture due to the availability of the two reasons. Firstly, the situation needs to evaluate with the availability of all the richness. Checkland needs to provide some of the guidelines which include: processes, climate, structures, peoples, conflicts; issues articulated by the people etc. secondly, the checkland needs to suggest the best possible way which is used in doing this articulated work in the picture form (Daclin, Chen and Vallespir, 2014).

Stage 3- root definition of the relevant systems- in this stage it needs to move out the real world in to the systems world. In this stage, the first step is the needed to understand the perception of the different viewpoint through which it is possible to draw some of the rich picture. Checkland used to call them holons which is the significant perspectives which can describe all the activities of the real world. This is the basic reason for the evaluative nature of the SSM. Each separate holons provides the detach value base through which it evaluate the whole situations (Miller, 2013).

The foundation of the SSM is the trying of the address by concerning all the perspectives which is more complex in nature. The clarity of the work is gained by concentrating all the key perspectives in the separate basis and also the understanding of the implications by using all the understanding to integrate all the perspectives to get the evaluative conclusions and the suggestions for taking the future action. Checkland needs to develop to CATWOE which needs to help others. The initial point of this is the transformation. Once the transformation is identified it needs to proceed to do the identification of the other elements which acts as key in the system. In doing the proper construction of the CATWOE it is basically important to flow everything from the basis of the transformation. Some of the factors which influence the construction of the CATWOE include transformation, customers, actors, owners, environment etc (Koschmider, 2014).


Stage 4- development of the model- using the root definition model it becomes easy to draw the conceptual model by using the systems gathering. It also has the required capabilities which helps in achieving a single purpose and the also to solve the particular problem for which the whole conceptual model is designed. It also needs to check the model whether it demonstrates the following properties:

The ongoing purpose

The means which is used for assessing the performance

The whole process of decision taking

The components which interacts


Continuity (Rallapalli, 2012)

Stage5- comparing the models and the real world- in this stage it needs to do the comparison of the conceptual system models on the basis of what is needed to explain and also to achieve the particular purpose and also to solve any of the particular problem on the basis of the actually happening of the real world. The one of the most common mistake which occurs in this stage is the basic confusion in the reality of the model. So the basic purpose of this stage is needs to develop the insights which change the program and also by reducing the patch protection which was not the unambiguous aspects of the program (Minatti Ferreira et al., 2009).

Stage 6- development of the desirable and the feasible interventions- in this stage of the whole methodology it tends to stop being chronological and also starts in alternation of the back and forth throughout all the seven stages of this methodology so that it becomes easy to gain some of the greatest things. On the context of the analysis the some of the possible intervention are explored. So by assessing all the feasibilities of the interventions which becomes the important features of this methodology and the checkland suggests some of the ways which are listed below:

  • It runs in the models by using the different perspectives, different CATWOE and the different scales.
  • It undertakes some of the different systems which are based on the analysis.
  • It includes the social system analysis.
  • It also includes the political analysis of the system.

Stage 7- improvement of the situation- this is the last stage where the whole cycle gets completed and then it starts another new cycle where it is needed by considering all the basic availabilities and the errors (Rallapalli, 2012).

By comparing with the ISD methodology, the SSM methodology is more difficult and less tangible in doing the use. This predictability limit of the opportunity is adopted in this methodology. The supporters of the SSM methodology often object by applying the some of the explicit, measurable evaluation of the criteria so that it becomes easy to assess the success of the SSM methodology. Checkland represents the views on the attempts of the evaluation of the success of the SSM methodology (Olson and Staley, 2012).


By concluding the whole above study it tells about the illustrative analysis of all the possible methods which are used for designing and also the analyzing o the modern information systems. It also provides the considerable evaluation and the critical analysis of the methods which are used for doing the proper analyzing and the designing of the information system. In the above it also tells about the whole critical analysis of both the socio-technical and the SSM methodology and also describes how it create the impacts in the context of the modern information system (Rodriguez-Ulloa and Paucar-Caceres, 2005).



Atkinson, C. (2000). Socio-Technical and Soft Approaches to Information Requirements Elicitation in the Post-Methodology Era. Requirements Engineering, 5(2), pp.67-73.

Clegg, C. (2000). Sociotechnical principles for system design. Applied Ergonomics, 31(5), pp.463-477.

Daclin, N., Chen, D. and Vallespir, B. (2014). Developing enterprise collaboration: a methodology to implement and improve interoperability. Enterprise Information Systems, pp.1-38.

Das, M., Sarkar, B. and Ray, S. (2012). A framework to measure relative performance of Indian technical institutions using integrated fuzzy AHP and COPRAS methodology. Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, 46(3), pp.230-241.

Di Tria, F., Lefons, E. and Tangorra, F. (2012). Hybrid methodology for data warehouse conceptual design by UML schemas. Information and Software Technology, 54(4), pp.360-379.

Di, T., Lefons, E. and Tangorra, F. (2015). Academic data warehouse design using a hybrid methodology. COMPUT SCI INFORM SY, 12(1), pp.135-160.

Di, T., Lefons, E. and Tangorra, F. (2015). Academic data warehouse design using a hybrid methodology. COMPUT SCI INFORM SY, 12(1), pp.135-160.

Golfarelli, M. and Rizzi, S. (2011). Data warehouse testing: A prototype-based methodology. Information and Software Technology, 53(11), pp.1183-1198.

Hindle, G. (2007). Developing a systemic textual analysis methodology based on the human activity system modelling language of soft systems methodology (SSM). Syst. Res., 24(6), pp.599-612.

Koschmider, A. (2014). Developing sociotechnical systems with special focus on quality. it - Information Technology, 56(5).

Markham, S. and Webb, J. (2012). User Adoption of Enterprise Resource Planning Systems. ITNOW, 54(1), pp.40-40.

Miller, K. (2013). A Secret Sociotechnical System. IT Prof., 15(4), pp.57-59.

Minatti Ferreira, D., Rosa da Silva, A., Cristina Santos Rebello, T. and dos Santos, N. (2009). SOFT SYSTEMS METHODOLOGY (SSM) NO CONTEXTO DA EDUCAÇÃO TECNOLÓGICA: CONTRIBUIÇÕES AOS PROCESSOS DE GESTÃO DO CONHECIMENTO (GC). Revista Gestão Industrial, 5(3 s.1).

Olson, D. and Staley, J. (2012). Case study of open-source enterprise resource planning implementation in a small business. Enterprise Information Systems, 6(1), pp.79-94.

Rallapalli, M. (2012). Privacy Negotiation in Socio-Technical Systems. Technology and Investment, 03(01), pp.13-17.

Rallapalli, M. (2012). Privacy Policies Considerations in Socio-Technical Systems. Technology and Investment, 03(02), pp.63-67.

Rodriguez-Ulloa, R. and Paucar-Caceres, A. (2005). Soft System Dynamics Methodology (SSDM): Combining Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) and System Dynamics (SD). Syst Pract Act Res, 18(3), pp.303-334.

Sensuse, D., Silalahi, M. and Budi, I. (2014). Towards a Socio-technical Ontology Engineering Methodology. International Journal of Computer Science and Application, 3(3), p.111.

Sensuse, D., Silalahi, M. and Budi, I. (2014). Towards a Socio-technical Ontology Engineering Methodology. International Journal of Computer Science and Application, 3(3), p.111.

Simiński, K. (2013). Neuro-fuzzy system with weighted attributes. Soft Comput, 18(2), pp.285-297.

Sitompul, O. and Noah, S. (2006). A Transformation-oriented Methodology to Knowledge-based Conceptual Data Warehouse Design. J. of Computer Science, 2(5), pp.460-465.

Soja, P. and Weistroffer, H. (2014). Motivations for enterprise system adoption in transition economies: insights from Poland. Enterprise Information Systems, pp.1-18.

Tsai, W., Lee, K., Liu, J., Lin, S. and Chou, Y. (2012). The influence of enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems' performance on earnings management. Enterprise Information Systems, 6(4), pp.491-517.

Wing Lam, and Shankararaman, V. (2004). Enterprise integration - An enterprise integration methodology. IT Prof., 6(2), pp.40-48.

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