Discuss about the Sociology and Social Science for Indigenous People in Australia.
This essay contains ‘the poverty of indigenous people in Australia’ which is based on the socio-economic culture of Australia along with this the essay also discloses ‘the employment discrimination in Australia’ which is based on income inequality system in Australia. The working system is not so developed in Australia and according to the people of Australia poverty is the main reason for this difference. Though housing and training opportunities are mostly available in some region, yet because of poverty and unemployment system people cannot afford these opportunities as the prices and rental status are so high of such opportunities (Mendes 2015). In some region of Australia, shortage of work is also available which causes distribution inequality in the country. Unemployment is one of the biggest problems in the country because some people are indigenous by their financial position. According to Cooper 2014, some indigenous people are not meeting their daily requirement because of the poverty line in Australia (Callander and Schofield 2012).
According to Australian Council of Social Service (ACSS) in 2012, the poverty line in Australia increases every year, and the government tries to solve this issue. This issue is also the political issue of the country because poverty takes place because of the politic system also. In the year 2010, having taken the description of costs of housing, around 2,265,000 people or 12.5% of all citizens in Australia are living in a household below the poverty line which includes 5,75,000 children (around 17.3% of all children in Australia) (Doyle and Mendes 2015).
According to today’s era of 21st century, because of poverty, most of the people in Australia are homeless and living in a household. This issue affects the society of some urban region in Australia. Children are not getting proper education because of poverty and unemployment problem of their family. It is critically found that because of poverty of indigenous people in Australia, they are not meeting their daily needs and their children are also not getting admission in top universities for more study. In today's world poverty is a certain problem which is affecting the people most and causes the country development (Bolle 2016). In some region of Australia, people of the community participate in some social and economic events and programs to make some money for their daily needs. People access some community services which are affordable for them to take part in the social event. This issue caused very much as the poverty line in Australia (Callander and Schofield 2012).
Poverty and Welfare Issues in Australia
In today's world Australia is facing the problem of poverty to a great segment, and because of this issue, people are very unsafe in Australia. Poverty is also an inequality problem, and it is not caused only by individual position. There are various causes of this poverty issue in Australia which are mentioned bellow;
Social Mobility: There are scores of people who are not employed and living without doing any work. These people cannot meet their day-to-day requirement because they are in need of money and employment. In some region of Australia, shortage of work is also available which caused distribution inequality in the country (Edwards 2016).
Education: Education system in Australia is lower which has the link with unemployment. Standard of living is not so developed because of the low education system in Australia. It causes the poverty line which indicates the unemployment problem as well as inequality system in Australia. Some children studied in high school and after that they cannot get admission in top University because of poverty and unemployment in Australia (Western and Haynes 2014).
Housing System: In some major cities of Australia, Only minority people having low income can own their house without any taking loan and mortgage. As well as in some cities housing rent is not affordable by people. Though housing and training opportunities are mostly available in some region, yet because of poverty and unemployment, people cannot afford these opportunities because the prices and rental status are so high of such opportunities. Since last two decades, prices of housing are increasing randomly, but the income of people raises reasonably over the country. This housing issue causes poverty system more in Australia (Sharam and Hulse 2014).
Labor market discrimination: Unemployment is the major problem in Australia. Most of the people are unemployed which leads to the causes of poverty in Australia. People are out of work, and they are in need of work, but according to the employment system of Australia, they are not getting employment. Some children are also doing child labor to support their family because of poverty system in Australia.
Gender Inequality in Australia
There is a difference of gender pay gap between men and women's average earning in a week which shows that men are making more in comparison to women in Australia. Though earning capacity of the people is taking place, the poverty line is not decreasing because of major unemployment system in Australia. According to the ‘Average Bureau of statics,' national earning of gender pay gap is currently running around 16.2% as well as from the past two decades having hovered between 15% and 19% of the earnings in Australia. In some region of Australia standard of living of people are not so developed because of poverty and unemployment system. It has considered that men earn more than women (Lamontagne 2013).
Racial or Ethnic Inequality
Some factors influence the gap between indigenous and non-indigenous which affects the poverty line Australia. These factors are mentioned bellow;
- Men and women are not working in the same industry similarly income is different for both of them.
- Men are working at high integrity, and their job attracted at higher wages and dominated industry. Whereas, women are working at a lower dominated the industry and drew lower wage rate (Phillips and Luke 2016).
- There is a lack of senior position and also the part time and role as a flexible high position of women. Whereas, men work as the full time to make more income, and there is also the availability of the flexible senior position in Australia (Bodkin-Andrews 2014).
- There is a difference of education, work experience and seniority between men and women in Australia (Craven and Yeung 2014).
- There is a direct discrimination of income between indigenous and non-indigenous people in Australia (Arens 2014).
There is a right argument of the poverty line and unemployment between indigenous and non-indigenous people in Australia. To reduce this issue from the region, Australia needs to develop some employment system for the better standard of living of people According to ACSS; some people are indigenous in nature because they are not meeting their daily requirement and facing the issue of poverty and unemployment in Australia. All the above factors indicate the gender gap between men and women's effort in Australia, and because of poverty, women are also working to meet their daily needs (Phillips and Luke 2016).
Measurement and Reduction of the Issue in Australia
There are various methods to measure the issue of the poverty line and unemployment system in Australia. These issues can be reduced from the country if Australian Council of Social Service (ACSS) recommends some measurement to reduce the problem of poverty. ACSS has taken some fundamental analysis to mitigate these issues which are as follows;
- A National Anti-Poverty Plan (NAPP) is going to hold by the ACSS to reduce the problem of poverty and unemployment
- It increases the employment sector and also increases the lower social security payment rates for unemployed people, children, and lone parents in Australia
- Maintaining an efficient minimum wage rate to reduce poverty among the household.
- Trying to give more employment to the needy people and also reduces the cost of some daily elements.
- Children are also getting some education facility at rare little cost to reduce the issue of poverty and unemployment in Australia
Figure 1: Unemployment structure in Australia
According to the era of 21st Century, poverty and unemployment issues increase every year in Australia. Most of the indigenous people are facing the problem of poverty because they cannot meet their daily requirements accordingly. From the above analysis, it has been considered that the number of unemployment increases every year, and ACSS is trying to reduce the problem of poverty and unemployment in Australia. The education system in Australia is lower which has the link with unemployment. Standard of living of people is not so developed because of the low school system in Australia. ACSS is trying to develop the country and providing some less cost education to some indigenous children (Johnson and Robinson 2014).
According to the ‘Average Bureau of Statics,' national gender pay gap earning is currently running around 16.2% as well as from the past two eras having hovered between 15% and 19% of the earnings in Australia. Earning capacity of the people is not so developed in Australia, and there is an earnings comparison between men and women of Australia. Some factors influence the indigenous and non-indigenous people who show the earning gap between them. Men are working at high priority, and their job concerned at higher wages and dominated the industry. Whereas, women are working at a lower dominated industry and attracted lower wage rate. Housing and education problem are the major poverty issue in Australia because most of the children are not getting study because of the high demand of money for admission. ACSS is providing some less cost study and scholarship for Indigenous students in Australia (Yates 2013).
From the above discussion of ‘the poverty of indigenous people in Australia' and ‘the employment discrimination in Australia,' it has been concluded that the country is facing the problem of poverty and unemployment at a large segment. Children and students are not safe because of poverty issue in Australia. Students are not getting higher study because of low wage rate and unemployment system and also not getting admission in top University because of poverty issue in Australia. Australian Council of Social Service (ACSS) is trying to contribute some less cost training and program for the indigenous student of the country. Some people are indigenous because of the poverty line in the country. Due to this issue the country is facing various criticisms. In some region of Australia, if any person is sick he cannot get hospitality and medical because of poverty and unemployment issues. People do not get their daily needed elements because of poverty. It has been considered that issues of poverty and unemployment are widely affecting the country but in coming days these issues might be solved by the help of Australian Council of Social Services (ACSS).
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