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SOY00411 Tourism Theories And Practices

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Question:

Discuss about the SOY00411 Tourism Theories and Practices.
 
 

Answer:

Introduction:

Tourism is one of the lucrative businesses worldwide and there is need to analyze the different aspects of tourism development for better growth. This essay will focus on Maldives as the tourist destination region under assessment in relation to the Leiper’s Whole Tourism System. The theories that will be used in the essay will be butler’s theory while the models that will be used will be the Whole Tourism System Model. The essay will argue that the Leiper’s Whole Tourism System model is applicable in understanding the practical aspects of tourism development, operations and management at Maldives.

Overview of tourism development in Maldives

Tourism in Maldives has been in the global scene since 1970s and the first traveler resort was set up in 1972. Before then, the Maldives was practically obscure to the tourism industry. By the late 197Os, worldwide tourism had turned into an imperative source of funds for the Maldives region. The air travel expansion greatly helped in the expansion of tourism in Maldives. For effective advancement of the business, the government of the Republic of Maldives set up the Department of Tourism which is in charge of supervision, coordination and maintaining tourism standards in the region. Various small, uninhabited island were chosen and rented to resort financial investors to construct resorts. This was known as the resort islands tourist development policy (Carlsen 2006).

As a result of this policy, the Maldives could lessen the social expense of tourism. For instance, prostitution, both male and female, was seen identified with tourism resorts. Moreover, it is guaranteed that the demonstration impacts of the consumption  designs of tourists create new tastes and improves  the local  interest for outside buyer items which is not promptly quantifiable, but a deplete on the remote trade of a developing  nation. In any case, it could be contended that this impact is insignificant on account of the Maldives as 70% of the populace lives outside Male atoll. In any case, it is possible that there will have been some exhibit impacts penetrating to Male. Absence of adequate information counteracts estimation of import spillages because of these demonstration impacts. Moreover, without this detachment, culture stun could have been normal from presenting travelers with various thoughts, propensities, and requirements. Social stun can prompt the crumbling of the social texture in a nation, a breakdown of lawfulness, and conceivable political and monetary fiasco. The strategy of confinement of remote visitors in the Maldives has decreased the danger of such a chain of event.

Factors that make Maldives attractive to visitors

According to Backer and Hing (2016), tourists visit different locations to search for interactions with features of a place, the place characteristics and have leisure experiences. In Maldives, tourists are attracted by the warm and tropical climate of the region. The region has both low daytime and evening temperatures which results to cool evenings and warm daytimes. The sea breezes from the sea further contribute to a relaxing weather sought by most tourists. People also visit Maldives because of the sun since it provides a wide daylight area. Privacy is also another factor that most tourists consider in making the decision to visit a region (Tasur, Lin &Liu 2013). The many allots makes the Maldives an enticing spot to visit since the visitors enjoy a beautiful view of the entire place and can enjoy privacy in the private allots , feel and hear undisturbed nature, alone and without anyone else. The different fish species and other water creatures (more than 1000 species) are an extraordinary fascination and take into account the well-known tourism exercises of swimming, fishing and diving. The Indian Ocean tides during rainstorms have influenced this abundance of fish from minor shrimp beautiful sharks and fish (Shakeela 2016). Maldives is also a peaceful region with no cases of political instability that is also another factor that attracts tourists. This is owing to the fact that most tourists visiting the region are often looking for a place to relax and enjoy nature. Moreover, the economy of the country is quite favorable which makes it affordable for most of the tourists.

 

Main visitor markets

Since Maldives is a travel-generating region, operators who are transnational organize a significant piece of the Maldivian tourist industry, particularly tour operations that are bundled. According to Leiper's model of Whole Tourism System, a travel-generating region is a region that motivates individuals to develop the longing to travel (Backer and Hing 2016). Packaged tour operations by agencies are a focal component in foreign tourism to the Republic of Maldives. The major tour operators have their home office in the developed nations. Maldives, as a less-developed nation (LDC) is subject to these mass traveler operators who have some capacity to guide the stream of tourists to a specific nation or area. Their watchfulness can influence the resort limit usage. Most resorts in the Maldives have specific connections with at least one of these global tour operators. These operators thusly decide the predominant nationalities utilizing a specific resort island.

Asia and the Pacific are the main provider of tourists to the Maldives, representing around 49% of tourists as indicated in Figure 1.0 below. Europe is also a main source of tourists with a percentage of 43%.Tourist entries from America, Africa and Middle East have declined significantly as of late. Asia is, alongside Europe, the most essential wellspring of vacationers for the Maldives. Most of the Asian tourist’s visit Maldives are small businesspeople who come to buy electrical and material things and after that exchanged at a benefit. Such guests do not remain on the resort islands but in Male, with companions or relatives, or in little visitor houses (frequently in unregistered spots to maintain a strategic distance from Maldivian government charges). While they do not bring much foreign exchange to the tourism part, they benefit the trade segment of the Maldives.

Role of resorts in Maldives

Maldives has focused on enabling creative tourism by using their results. According to Chang, Backman & Huang (2014), creative tourism strategy motivates the tourists to keep visiting the region. This is because the tourists visiting Maldives are particularly impressed by the convenience offered by the resorts. These resorts serve as the tourism industries which according to Leiper’s WTS model, are the organizations that influence the activities of tourists. The rooms in every resort are for the most part designed to look like local lodging, with coral for the dividers and palm leaves for the material. Restaurants, bars, and different facilities, built comparably, are in a focal complex in the resort. Facilities are self-contained since each resort has its own generator, water supply, radiophone, a little harbor for mooring, and its own speedboats to transport visitors to Male, to the air terminal, or to different islands (Ahmed 2018). Since the resorts were at first possessed by the government, the funding to support resorts' development came fundamentally from the government’s financial plan. In any case, from 1978 onwards, recently settled private business endeavors began giving working and value money to tourism. Foreign investment is as often as possible requested by local resort owners, but profit settlements by foreign financial investors are uncontrolled. The development of resorts is linked to butler’s theory, which argues that in the involvement stage, there is emergence of tourism facilities that directly affect tourism although they may not be the main tourist attraction aspects (Butler 2015). This may include guesthouses.

Principles of sustainable tourism evident in Maldives

Although Maldives has a long way to go in attaining sustainable tourism, the environmental sustainability principle is evident in the region. The Government of the Maldives has created enactment so as to control resorts development in the region. While setting up a resort, an Environmental Impact Assessment ought to be done with a specific end goal to evaluate the ecological impacts the advancement may have on the indigenous habitat. However, this is frequently directed by the engineers as opposed to a government official, resulting to numerous conceivably harsh resort outlines being endorsed without investigation (Scheyvens 2011). Enactment restricts the most extreme developed zone to 20% of the aggregate land zone and all rooms should face the shoreline, five straight meters of shoreline line must be allocated to every visitor in front of their rooms where just 68 percent of the shoreline length can be allotted to visitor rooms as 20 percent must be apportioned to public use and twelve percent left as public space. This has resulted to the dissatisfaction of the local people since they are made to experience physical changes that they may not approve of. This is in line with butler’s theory of evolution of tourism where he states that such occurrences are bound to happen in the development stage. The local people therefore end up not benefitting which is also linked to butler’s theory (Butler 2015; Muangasame 2014).

Conclusion

Tourism is one of the main sources of income for many countries particularly when foreign tourists are involved. Based on the content discussed in this essay, it is evident that Maldives attracts many foreign tourists with a reduced number of local tourists. Moreover, the natural factors are the major aspects increasing the attractiveness of the region to tourists. This implies that there are no secondary tourism attractions in the region. Tourism in Maldives also lacks social and economic significance since the local people do not benefit from the tourism. There is also an emergence of secondary tourism facilities which are the resorts. The findings also indicate that Maldives is a resource Island. Since the region has focused on building many resorts in the Island to accommodate tourists, the resorts are likely to restrain opportunities for local financial advancement since there is no ample space left to build infrastructure or create small businesses which could directly benefit from tourism in the region. This can also limit the resources of the Islands if the development of resorts is not done in a practical way. The region may also face long term financial loses if the indigenous habitat of the Islands is misused. On account of the Maldives, desalination and bottled water imports have had to substitute the drained crisp water supplies, which can turn out to be highly costly. With this main findings, it is evident that butler’s theory is applicable for Maldives region since the Maldives region exhibits the characteristics of the stages of the tourism evolution as discussed in butler’s theory.

 

References

Ahmed, M 2018. Guesthouses in the Maldives: Towards Community-Based Tourism. International journal of innovation and economic development, 4(1), 44-50.

Backer, E., & Hing, N 2016. Whole tourism systems: an academic portrait of Neil Leiper. Anatolia, 28(2), 320-325. doi:10.1080/13032917.2016.1212300

Butler, R 2015. The evolution of tourism and tourism research. Tourism Recreation Research, 40(1), 16-27. doi:10.1080/02508281.2015.1007632

Carlsen, J 2006. Post-Tsunami Tourism Strategies for the Maldives. Tourism Review International, 10(1), 69-79.

Chang, LL, Backman, KF & Huang, YC 2014, ‘Creative tourism: a preliminary examination of creative tourists’ motivation, experience, perceived value and revisit intention’, International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 401-419.

Muangasame, K 2014, ‘Are Bulter’s tourism are life cycle and Plog’s psychographic model correct?’, Tourismos: An International Multidisciplinary Journal of Tourism, vol. 9, no.1, pp. 207-221.

Scheyvens, R 2011. The challenge of sustainable tourism development in the Maldives: Understanding the social and political dimensions of sustainability. Asia Pacific Viewpoint, 52(2), 148-164.

Shakeela, A 2016. Maldives. Encyclopedia of Tourism, 575-576.

Tsaur, SH, Lin, WR & Liu, JS 2013, ‘Sources of challenge for adventure tourists: Scale development and validation’, Tourism Management, vol. 38, pp. 85-93.

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