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Space And Form In Modern Sculpture

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Sculpture is one of the most interesting parts of art as compared to other forms such as music and dancing. Sculpture refers to the marriage between form and space. This implies that when the form and the space are made in such a manner that they co-join together, it forms a sculpture. Depending on the capacity and the magnitude of the sculptor, the appeal to the eyes of the viewers will be realized. A sculptor is a person who makes sculptures. Space in the world of sculpture refers to the negative area surrounding the positive side of the form. On the other hand, form refers to the model made by the artist portraying a certain dimension. Artists make sculptures as a way of passing certain information to the viewers[1].


Factors to Consider when Sculpting

For any form of art to come out in an outstanding and unique way, there are some basics in which the sculptor ought to consider to meet the threshold required by the viewers. One of this is the material choice of making a statue. It should be one which appeals to the public and do not have a scary reflection[2]. This is because it is meant to sell itself to the potential subscribers. Moreover, appealing monuments makes other people feel the urge to join the industry. Secondly, one ought to consider the texture or the language of the space. People are more enticed by products with smooth texture. This is because it gives them a sense of peace especially when going through tough times in life[3]. Thirdly, the sculptor should consider the location between the form and the space. This is due to the fact that good moldings should have a nice blending of the two.

Modern day statues are unique as compared to the past forms. This is attributed to the type of make it is used in the current generation. Most of them are thick in nature due to the type of the material used in its production. As the world revolutionized, people became so aggressive and wanted to change taste in all the natures of the world. This also was felt in the monumental world. The present day sculptures are very charismatic and thus appeal to the eyes of the people at first sight. The materials used are very beautiful and most of these figures are erected to pass a specified message. Most of them are being made for environmental conservation intentions, cultural respect and educational purposes. Some figurines in this generation are produced in form of videos. For instance, the Bad Dream House produced by Vito Aconni in the year 1988[4].

Visual Art

Post-minimalist art is designed to employ minimalism either as a conceptual or aesthetic reference point. Minimalism is known to be more of artistic tendency and not just a particular movement. Post-minimalist artworks refer to the day to day simple materials and objects that assume a pure and formalist aesthetic. The fact that post-minimalism comprises of disparate and diverse groupings of artists, it is hard sometimes to attempt to enumerate every possible similarities and continuities between them. Some of the minimalist procedures such as subtractive and additive process are common in post-minimalism (only that sometimes are evident in disguised forms)[5].


Post-Minimalism Composition and Approach

This refers to a period whereby inclination of the body parts, aspects of conceptual art, process of art and performance developed into cognitive manner. It began its operations in the early 1960s. During this era, many artists emerged who wanted to produce monuments that do not have any close or whatsoever sort of relationship with the traditional sculptures. They reacted to this theoretically and practically by producing in the styles, which endured styles of the last generation. They shared minimalist interest by rejecting the use of industrial materials but solely dependent on the natural resources such as minerals. Most preferred the use of gold and diamonds as they view them as being beautiful and fascinating[6]. However, they failed in ethical concerns since most concentrated on producing statues, which show sexuality of the human beings. This was faced with a lot of criticism especially from religious perspectives. Moreover, the community was displeased and thus led to uprising for change[7].

 Additionally, this generation produced figures, which were anti-allusion. This means that most of the materials used were solely the choice of the artist but not in accordance to the norms or the choices of the society. To add on this, products of the post-minimalism generation had a relationship between the site and the sculpture itself. Most were statured in the place where the functionalism of the so statue was based. For example, the status in Rio Brazil, were placed in the sites where the religious practices used to take place. They are still maintained to date due to its great significance to the subsequent generations. Some of the carvings were eccentric and obstructive in nature. Most were produced to scare away people or give them negative view about certain things in nature[8]. Furthermore, some were produced to represent human figures with artistic features of sculpture. This was used to ride it and prove that tradition was very complex and a difficult task in the human race. Despite their great reshuffle in the art industry, they do not represent the cognitive society. This is because the tradition of the human race should be preserved since it is the bond, which keeps us going. Besides, if conservation should be emphasized simply for the reason that is where all this artists received the knowledge of beginning their work of art[9].


Eva Hesse’s Contribution to Art

Eva Hesse is acknowledged as one of the most well-known artists to suffice following the immediate aftermath of the expressionists. Hesse schooled in American abstract commercial design and painting practices. As an expressionist painter, Hesse’s practice propelled her to increasingly experiment with various industrial materials including fiber glass, rubber, wire, string, and rope. In the spirit of minimalism, Hesse is said to have explored how to suggest a multi varied psychological moods and organic associations as well as proto-feminist concept. Hesse is hailed to be among the first artists of the 1950s to attempt an experiment with the contours of the organic world of nature, and she is also remembered for championing the simplest artistic gestures[10].


Styles, Attempts and Objectives of Art

A balanced structure should be the focus of these people. In case of juxtaposing of materials, the monument becomes confusing and therefore makes the concept off track. This will eventually pull down the market of the product. The artiste should ensure that the material are made up of elements such as wooden nails, glue, and a nut in order to bring interlocking together in an inclusive manner[11]. The language of the surface should speak for itself in order to avoid confusing of the viewers. To add on that, the monument builders should also ensure that the tension of the source is in line with their works of art. This helps in countering problems such as fall and the cracking of the erected objects. This will definitely help reduce fatalities as some of these objects are very heavy and made of deadly materials. Hessefor states that the creation of the figures gives the humanity an opportunity to think in a wider range both macro and micro way. This is due to different concepts such process art and body art used by the artistic family in passing out information. Illustratively, the art produced by Anconni in the 1970 by burning of chest hair was a very dangerous expression and confrontation[12].    


The paper has explored various facets that define and form sculpture. Being an interesting subject, various art writers and creative artists have undertook a careful analysis of the same whereby they have written extensively on what comprises the best art sculpture. According to Smithson, the choice of a painter reflects that of the photographer as taking photo whereas the larger luggage of beautification lies squarely on the sculptor. This is because the responsibility of choosing the materials to make the work to inhibit the expectations of the viewers is theirs. Likewise, they are expected to deliver a certain concept and thus wrong choice will subject them to be viewed at a strayed position during their daily routine.



ARTE France, and Films Media Group. 2015. The Guggenheim Museum of Bilbao.

Baler, Pablo. 2013. The next thing: art in the twenty-first century.

Barron, Stephanie, Lisa Gabrielle Mark, and Alexander Calder. 2013. Calder and abstraction: from avant-garde to iconic.

Chilvers, Ian and Glaves-Smith, John, A Dictionary of Modern and Contemporary Art, second edition (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2009), p. 569. ISBN 0199239665.

Curtis, Penelope, and Keith Wilson. 2011. Modern British sculpture. London: Royal Academy of Arts.

Duby, Georges, and Jean Luc Daval. 2010. Sculpture. Köln: Taschen.

Ebbinghaus, Susanne. 2011. "Superficial? Approaches to painted sculpture". Source. 30 (3).

Eva Hesse. 1976 New York; New York University Press / 1992 Da Capo Press, Inc. Lucy R. Lippard. illus. Trade Paper. 251p.

Hamill, Sarah. 2015. David Smith in two dimensions: photography and the matter of sculpture.

Hassan, Oskar Hasdinor, Shahriman Zainal Abidin, Rafeah Legino, Rusmadiah Anwar, and Muhamad Fairus Kamaruzaman. 2015. International Colloquium of Art and Design Education Research (i-CADER 2014).

Lange-Berndt, Petra. 2015. Materiality.

Wood, Jon, David Hulks, and Alex Potts. 2012. Modern sculpture reader. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum.

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