1. Concept of illness, behaviour and disability regarding health as well as social care service users?
2. Care needs of individuals with specific needs?
3. List of approaches and interventions that are to be taken to meet the specific needs of the individuals?
4. Different concepts of challenging behaviour?
This particular study describes about the health and disability of human being. It focuses to know about past perception of disability and also can know about how changes have been made over the attitude of the people towards the disabled persons. This study also summarises the intervention strategy that should be implemented for helping the disabled persons. The impacts of social policy, legislation, society on the intervention strategy are also described in this particular study.
Health can be defined as someone’s condition of being well. This defines a disease free condition of someone’s body. It not only defines condition of a human being, it also defines condition of goods. Health defines mental as well as physical condition someone.
Primary disability can be resulted due to the direct effect of fatal alcohol exposure. Cognitive disability is the most common primary disability that is related to thinking and learning. Primary can be measured by general intelligence, capability of reading, writing, doing math (Foote, 2015).
Secondary disability can be defined as the disability that is not occurred from birth. It can be occurred from primary disability. Secondary disability can be prevented with the help of appropriate intervention.
I agree with the secondary definition of disability because it can be prevented with the help of appropriate prevention intervention of health and social care services (Incorvaia and Ridolo, 2015).
The theory of illness and behaviour defines the health related behaviour of a disease free person who wants to maintain his good health. This behaviour helps to reduce the chances of diseases and also reduces the effect of recurring diseases. Secondary prevention of disease has close relation to prevent diseases that a person has (Jonas and Koning, 2015).
Medical model of disability defines that a person’s inability to join society is the result of their impairment and not because of the feature of the society that is possible to change. In this model the policy maker and managers compensates the impaired person for not having normal body (Kasper, Booth and Peris, 2014).
Social model of disability defines the disabled person’s feelings of not getting the enough information about why they are excluded from the mainstream society. The experience that they have is they are excluded from the mainstream society is just because of their impairment and not for the society’s features.
I agree to the medical model of disability because in this there is a positive effect on the disabled person’s mind that they are only excluded from the society because of their impairment and not because the society (Miller and Ghadiali, 2015).
Some prevention measures should be developed to prevent disability-
Primary Prevention: Some actions should be initiated to remove the causes that can create health problem.
Secondary Prevention: Some actions should be initiated to detect the health related problem as early as possible to facilitate cure or preventing the disease from spreading. It also prevents the long term effect of the diseases.
Tertiary prevention: Some actions should be developed to reduce the effect of diseases that are already established.
Health defines the condition of being well. Disability defines a person’s inability to join society because of their impairment. Various model and theory have been developed to protect the disabled person (Orel and Fruhauf, 2015).
In Greece the sick persons were assumed to be inferior. In early Christian doctrine it was introduced that disease is neither dishonour nor a punishment but it is a means of grace. In 16th century Christians indicated that disabled persons are possessed by evil. They were discriminated from normal people. In this way the disabled persons were supposed to be mental by other people. During 19th century disabled person were rejected completely by some cultures. They were oppressed by society. Sometimes they were treated as economic liability of the society and were unwillingly kept alive by their family (Staples, 2015). The handicapped people were assumed to the alleviator of evil spirit, and the society took necessary steps not to hurt them. The children born with anomaly were supposed to be protected by supernatural power. There were many superstitions and fear in the society due to that the disabled persons were isolated, discriminated, ignored by the society. They used to get less attention, less education, less care, less nourishment.
Over the time the society of UK have understood and studied why the people with disabilities are isolated and marginalized. They also tried to remove the negative attitude towards the disabled people. As the attitudes towards the disabled persons were complex so they have implemented programme that is wide ranging. After 16th century they began to tie a close relationship with the disabled persons. Various disabilities Awareness training program has been developed UK. They also assessed the impact of these training programs. Over the time various non discriminatory media culture was initiated to protect the disabled persons from injustice. After 19th century they have implemented various human rights that were related to equality, dignity, social justice (van Houtum et al., 2014).
Act of equality: The disabled people should be protected by equal right act. It would help to reduce discrimination.
Special privileges: The disabled people should be given special privileges in all places. It would help the disabled people to get priority over things.
Equal right in education: The disabled people should get equal right in education sector. Equal right in education develops them in all the area.
Equal right in workplace: The disabled people should be treated equal in workplace, so that get motivated in doing work
More Acts: There should be more and more act that would be helpful in protecting the disabled people. (Vincent and Woodhead, 2015).
Initiatives are taken by social and health care services to take care of good health for disabled persons. Government is always trying to make improvement in the policy. The social policy, culture, and society also have impact on the specific needs available for disabled people. If the disabled persons are excluded from the society it will increase depression of that persons that will badly affect the health condition of them. Cultural factors include discriminating the races. The discrimination between castes, colour affects the disabled persons. Disabled persons often are neglected by the some social and health care providers. Discrimination leads to isolation of disabled persons (Staples, 2015).
Attitudes to disabled persons can be improved by educating the people of the society so that they can understand the actual problem of the disabled persons. Training to the disabled persons would help them to increase the dignity. Various superstitions that exist in the society are against the disabled persons should be removed.
Services towards the disabled persons can be improved by the following ways-
Health care act: Various health care acts should be developed to protect the disabled persons from injustice.
Care trust: Care should be taken to improve the health condition of disabled persons.
Children trust: The act should be developed to provide education to the disabled child and youth (Vincent and Woodhead, 2015).
Specific needs- The specific needs can be defined as some specific and unique requirements for mentally and physically disabled persons in education, hospital and society.
Maslow need hierarchy- The Great psychologist Abraham Maslow invented the human needs theory known as Maslow need hierarchy theory. In this theory he divides the different needs of a human being. This Hierarchy is described as below-
Psychological needs: It is defined as the basic physical needs of human being except that the body of a human being cannot function properly.
Safety needs: After the physical needs has been satisfied the people needs safety in terms of money, home, job.
Loving and belongings: After safety needs have been satisfied a human being needs love and affection of his friends, family members.
Esteemed needs: In this kind of need the human being need to be respected in the society and his workplace. People in this needs want to be recognized.
Actualisation: In this needs people want to get everything possible for him. It is about realisation of full potential (Ä½ubomír Šooš and Malcolm Jones, 2015).
Difference and similarity between special need and specific need-
Special needs can be defined by the requirement made by the individual with physically and mentally disability.
Specific need: It can be defined as a unique and specific cure for the people with peculiar characteristics (diseases).
Baby P’s Specific need- Hospitals who have care for baby peter have implemented various programs that would be helpful to safeguard the issues related to the body of child. The care quality commission should ensure that standard has been set to successfully care the babies who need specific care (Chang et al., 2015).
Local authority: The local authority needs to assess the special needs of disabled people. They should try to reduce discriminations against the disabled persons.
Assessment of special needs: After assessing the special needs the authority should check whether they have the resources to meet the special needs of the disabled persons.
Role of government: The government should need to implement more and more acts to protect the disabled persons from any discrimination.
1. : The disabled persons should be educated in order to develop them. Education is one of the best ways to reduce any discrimination against disabled person (Foote, 2015).
Statutory system- EHCP is a plan that is defined in term of Education, and health care plan. This plan is concerned with special education program, health and care for the disabled people.
Not for profit organization: These organizations operate their business a non profit basis. They provide education, medical care, and social care for the disabled persons.
Self help: This is a group of disabled people who share common desire to overcome from their disability. There are various organizations that support for this self help group.
Formal care: Formal care can be provided to disabled persons by trained staff and nurse. Various health and social care provider also help in formal care. It may constitute personal care at home.
Informal care: Informal care of disabled person can be carried out by the family members, friends, and relative other than any official support (Incorvaia and Ridolo, 2015).
This situation describes the health and social care services of East London, where people with discrimination get lesser attention in the society. Over the time the people in East London have understood the reason of why the disabled people are discriminated. They have involved some professional who are described below-
General practitioner: They are the first people with whom people of UK can contact. It is right of every person to be registered with them.
Primary care trust: It is the responsibility of primary care trust to provide health care to disabled persons (Jonas and Koning, 2015).
NSH centre: There are 66 NSH centres that provide tips on the health problems over the phone.
Because of low social economic status the East London cannot implement some social and health care policy to protect the disabled persons (Orel and Fruhauf, 2015).
Advocacy of the individual: These interventions are specified for the older people. It includes methods as well as approaches to change the practices and policies, behaviours as well as attitudes that are to be considered as obstacles to both discrimination and development against the disabled. It is the right of older people. It involves the working with those person those need support as well as encouragement to apply their rights. Its aims are to increase the older persons control over goods as well services.
Physical interventions: It includes exercise and therapies for joint movement and it helps them to restore lost functions and to maintain physical status so that they will be able to come back to their normal life. It is only be used by those persons who have learning disabilities. They used this intervention as it helps them to learn to behave in non-challenging ways. Its goal is to help cares achieve safe as well as effective control of the challenging behaviours.
Psychological interventions: It focuses on prevention of some of the problems in a person such as depression as well as anxiety. It helps to raise the morale and also helps to build a positive attitude towards the normal life. This intervention is for those people who are experiencing psychosis. It has many different applications as well mostly targets the mental disorder persons. It treats with psychoactive medication. It focuses on the person’s social environment and in interaction with their psychological functioning (Smith, 2015).
The strategies of interventions are important for the people like HL, because HL had learning disabilities. It helps to improve the current condition of an individual. Physical interventions are important to restore the physical strength. It helps to maintain the physical strength of an individual so that they can come back to their normal life. It involves some sort of physical contact and forces to guide or prevent movement. It should be considered in an emergency situation where there is risk of health. Before any decision is to be taken for physical interventions, rapid assessment of risk is to be carried out. This risk assessment includes judgement that if the patient has an acute illness or not, because according to that care will be taken. Psychological intervention is important as it helps to build a positive attitude towards their normal life. It also helps to treat suicidal tendency, anxiety, depression etc. (Moyer, 2013). These interventions have no adverse side effect on the people. It has positive outcomes on the quality of life of the people, functioning of life, lessened the healthcare as well as medication needs. The limitation of this intervention is to it is hard to find therapists in some areas those are skilled in the particular therapy. The amount of effort and motivation required for the patients to make use of psychological treatments sometimes are unsuitable for the individuals.
The emerging developments include both medical as well as technological advances, changes in policies and legislations from international view point. The potential impact of emerging developments includes the following:
Technological advancement: The technology is advanced, the devices that support the body parts of the patients. If the patients have problem in their legs or due to leg weakness, the doctors are advices to use walkers that requires moderate strength in the hand as well as leg. It will be useful at the time the balance is moderate impaired. Motorized scooter is used to walk long distances. It is powered by rechargeable batteries that are a technological advancement used by the patients those are able to sit upright for a long period of time.
Cognitive assistance: The computer as well as electrical devices is used to prevent the brain injury.
Medication dispenses: The person those are facing disabilities such as problem in cooking, dressing etc. The equipment of kitchen is available in large, pillowed grasps to help people those have weakness or arthritis in their hands. Medication dispenses with alarms are used to help people remember to take their medicine in time.
Right to autonomy, health and independent living: It needs to be guaranteed that older individualsare not forced to do anything against their desire like to go to any home care. In the home the older people do not get the care as their family members do not afford to cover expenses of their residential, thatexposes to risk such as abuse that limited the right of autonomy(Loppie and Wein, 2015).
Policies and service dilemmas: It is a large share of economy by improving the health of the people and reducing the disabilities. Across the economy, it promotes services and also improves the quality of life. It also promotes some services to them (Rubitel and Reiss, 2011).
Challenging behaviour means any verbal as well as non-verbal behaviour by an individual and at that time it is difficult to perform task or pose a safety risk.
The challenging behaviours of the individual are self-harming, uncooperative and shows anger on others. The different concepts of the challenging behaviour are the following (Lever, 2014).
Pre scientific theory: It includes ideas about the soul as the driving force in the people, about the influence of the behaviour of the person. The pre scientific approaches are massage, meditation, remedies based on herbals. This theory is applied to the challenging behaviour as possession by spirits or about the behaviour being an inevitable part of the learning disability of the person (Gravestock and Bouras, 2015).
Scientific theory: Scientific theory is basically used for psychiatric disorder such as mood disorder. This theory includes statements that have observational consequences. It gives a clear distinction between the facts that cause mental disorder. This theory based on the scientific principles and which research has severe as well as endure the problems of health relating to mental disorder.
Social construction: It is the theory of information about the sociology that examines the development of jointly constructed understandings of the world. It assumes that significance as well as understanding is developed not separately within the individual, but in coordination with other human beings (Burtoni, 2015).
The impact of challenging behaviour on the health care organizations is that they make some differences to the lives of the patients through information about the challenges and running. The workshops are run to reduce those challenges. The vision of the company for the learning disabilities is to display the challenges to have the same life opportunities as everyone else. Some of the organizations provide opportunities for the carers to connect with other people in a similar situation. The health of the cost is exceeded and it continues to rise. The population ageing as well as the development of new treatments are increased. The participants in the system of health care do not agree on the meaning of costs (Krishnamoorthy and Anderson, 2015).
Training should be given to every care-taker regarding the challenges that the patients face. The programs of training are small due to the increasing cost of proceedings as well as large verdicts. The training is critical as well as investment. The training should consist of all the managers as well as supervisors as well as employees. It should be one time event, but all the employees should have to give training. At the time the economy goes down, the training of the employees is going fast as it is not viewed as investment. It is an expense that should be likely of tough times.
The good qualified employees are to be hired in the organization to face the challenges of the behaviour. The hiring of right person should result in lowering the turnover of the employee as can create a stronger bottom line. In the health care industry, the hiring of employees is fast that can give a direct affect on the patients. The process of recruitment as well as retention is considered to be at the top of the priority level.
The policies and procedures, legislations, code of practices set the responsibility of employer to regulate the social care workers. The code of practices is the key step to introduce the regulation system for social care in the four countries of UK. The people those are working as social care providers should understand their roles and responsibilities towards the patients. The required training is to be given to the care takers to handle vulnerable groups of people. The care givers ensure that their behaviour would not harm the patient’s emotions in any case. They should also ensure that each patient should be treated respectfully as well as individually (
Skills of communication: The people those are facing learning disabilities as well as any mental problems face difficulties in communicating with others. They face problem to express their needs as well as feelings to others. Therefore, they have to teach new methods to communicate.
The study gives details about the relationship between the condition of disabilities and other factors. It contrasts two approaches to analyze the disability and suggest some of the need for care of the old people. It analyzes the effectiveness of strategies regarding interventions of an individual, strategies of interventions are important for the people like HL, because HL had learning disabilities. It helps to improve the current condition of an individual. The challenging behaviours of the individual are self-harming, uncooperative and shows anger on other persons. The people those are suffering from challenging behaviour are isolated from others and they face some difficulties to interact with others. Some policies and procedures set the responsibility of employer to regulate the social care workers. The people those are working as social care providers should understand their roles and responsibilities towards patients
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