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# SPH696-Attributable Risks For Bladder Cancer

• Course Code: SPH696
• University: University Of Alberta

## Questions:

1. D’Avanzo et al. indicate that in their study, odds ratios were calculated “as estimators of [not or: this is a typo] relative risks” (page 428, paragraph 2 of “Data Analysis”). The authors could actually have been more specific and have used the term “incidence rate ratio”.

a) Explain why the incidence rate ratio would be of interest in a study such as this one?

b) Indicate the type of case-control study that was conducted.

c) Which key design characteristic must be present to allow the estimation of the incidence rate ratio in a case-control study such as this one?

2.Explain why the distribution of the variables presented in Table 1 was similar between cases and controls?

3. The title of the paper refers to the estimation of attributable risks; the “Data Analysis” section (paragraph 3) mentions attributable risks and also population attributable risks; tables 3 and 4 show attributable risks percent.

a) What specific parameter was actually estimated?

b) Give the formula (do not carry out any calculations) defining this parameter:

(i) in the context of cohort studies, and
(ii) in the context of case-control studies.

4. Using odds ratio estimates given in table 2:

a) estimate the attributable risk percent (etiologic fraction) of bladder cancer, in relationship to history of cystitis

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