The idea of spirituality is a wide concept that includes within itself many perspectives. Normally, this concept includes the linking with the bigger things than human beings and incorporates the search for the existence of God. This experience is universal and very extensive (Dennis, 2014).
The notion of scientism provides that science is the only road to the actual world. According to this concept the idea of prime reality provides the existence of cosmos which always had existed or which is generally defined as the God which always exists. On the other hand naturalism states that prime reality is the matter which exists throughout and also is the only thing that exists (Hunt & McMahon, 1993). Scientism endorses the existence of cosmos as the prime reality and removes God from the universe. Accordingly, in this concept matter is only the thing that exists even though its existence may not be in the present form. Further it is said that matter is the one thing that is does not have any creator.
The concept of post modernism is used by sociologists to describe the manner of thinking developing in the Western countries presently (YE, 2008). The concept of scientism considers the surrounding world from an independent perspective which is connected with the elimination of the emotions of experience.
Pluralism states that all human beings live together in a community where they eat, sleep or live or learn in that particular place along with other human beings. However there are some traditions where such a condition is considered to be created by the Almighty (Heelas, 2010).
The concept of post modernism considers death to be a manner which results in physical extinction and also does not believe in immortality. Further it also only believes in the physical world and does not accept the existence of soul.
The idea of scientism considers the world to be the actual and real thing. Nonetheless, they also claim that they do not know the actual reality. For them they know only what they observe. The method in which the world represents itself is what is already known (Haack, 2003).
The notion of post modernism provides that there does not exist anything such as absolute truth. Accordingly, distinct belief is above everything. For them anything that the individual believes in is true otherwise everything else is false. It further states that the existing principles are nothing but preferences. But there are a huge section of feminist scholars who state that this concept comes from the male perspective and so it is very coercive (Kostikova, 2013).
The idea of naturalism can be stated as a linear sequence that does not have any special meaning. It is nothing that extends to giving any supernatural idea and it only believes in the existing things. Hence the things that do not have any existence do not have any position in this concept.
Dennis, P. (2014). Spirituality. Cork: BookBaby.
Haack, S. (2003). Defending science--within reason. Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus Books.
Heelas, P. (2010). Spirituality. London: Routledge.
Hunt, D., & McMahon, T. (1993). The new spirituality. Eugene, Or.: Harvest House Publishers.
Kostikova, A. (2013). Postmodernism: A Feminist Critique. Metaphilosophy, 44(1-2), 24-28. doi:10.1111/meta.12008
YE, H. (2008). Historiography of Psychology: Challenges of Postmodernism. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 40(5), 626-632. doi:10.3724/sp.j.1041.2008.00626
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