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SPRÅK3200 Semantics And Pragmatics

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Answers:

Analysis of the Dialogue in Terms of Speech act Theory

Question 1

According to (Austin, 1962) is a field of pragmatics that deals with the ways in which words are used in the presentation of both information and actions that are being carried out. Speech act theory is known for the consideration of the levels of actions at which utterance are known to be performing. The theory is applicable in several other fields, that include, linguistics, philosophy, legal and literacy linked theory and lastly in the development of the natural or the artificial intelligence. According to (Austin, 1962) this theory considers major three components of utterances: locutionary acts, illocutionary acts, and perlocutionary acts.

 For one to determine the way in which a speech act can be interpreted, they should first determine which of the above-named acts is on performance. According to the dialogue on the subject, we can analyze events of the dialogue basing the analysis on the speech act theory. Considering the macro class we can state the several incidences wherein the dialogue they have been used. To begin with is the locutionary acts.in looking for locutionary we shall consider looking phrases that are relevant to what somebody does or says to mean something else. A good example of this class form the dialogue is when Lata is asked by her mother who the person she was with is, instead of giving the name of that person, she responds to her mother’s question by stating “ just a friend” ( locutionary act).

Considering the illocutionary act, we can state these are words in the dialogue that show stating, asking, promising, denying. Example include when Mrs. Rupa Mehra commands to Lata” be quiet! Don’t answer me back! Another example when the mother asks the daughter, “do you want to be like her?” the last class is the perlocutionary act. These can be termed as the side effects or the consequences of a condition given in illocutionary act. Like for instance, when the mother tells the daughter says, “Be quiet! Don’t answer me back! This is followed by a condition is she is not going to be quite she will be slapped. This is the perlocutionary act. Another sense of this when the girl Lata is restricted going out of the house due to hanging out with her friends. (Nordquist, 2017)

Question 2

Analysis in Terms of the Cooperative Principle

This is a conversation principle proposed by Grice 1975. He stated that in a conversation, the participants have their expectation In that each of the party in the conversation will contribute as required and expected, at the stage at which the conversation occurs and by the accepted purpose or direction of the talk exchange. The principle states that one should do whatever is important in achieving the purpose of the talk and to avoid anything that leads to frustration of the purpose. Considering our case in dialogue the participants of this conversation are a mother and daughter. For instance, the two seem to be contributing as required or giving responses as expected. The mother of the daughter is not happy with Malti. She explains to her daughter the reasons why she feels so and her daughter responds in a way that seems to indicate that she is also not enjoying and appreciating what she has been hearing Malti being associated with.

Moreover, the principle is applicable to this conversation since when one of the parties asks a question, the other party is cooperating by answering the question as expected. An example is when the mother asks about the full name of the boy her daughter was seen holding hands with, she says the first name and the daughter respond willingly by stating the other name that her mother is not sure of. On the other hand, we can state that the principle is not being applied in some instances where we can see one party cutting short the other party speech. An example is when the mother tells the daughter to be quiet, not to answer her back and if she does so she will be slapped. The girl is not cooperative and tries to mummer the friend’s name which is against her mother’s will.

Question 3

The Politeness Theory

This theory states that people within a given culture possess both positive and negative face wants. But many daily interaction behaviors intrinsically threaten face. The degree to which an act is facing threatening is affected by the social factors of power, distance, and rank of imposition. People, therefore, use politeness strategies to reduce face threats. Politeness theory has particular implications for interpersonal communication research: It helps address why people say what they do when performing actions such as making requests or giving advice and it has implications for identity management and personal relationships. (wileys, 2016)

According to this theory, it’s the social circumstances under which a speech act occurs that determine the choice of politeness strategy that we can employ. It depends on two types of faces, the positive face that deals with the reflection of the personal need for their wishes and desires be appreciated and considered in a social context. The other face Is the negative face which deals with individual needs in terms of freedom of action, and that right for one to make own decision. This theory application in this dialogue has widely been assumed. The daughter is not able to make personal decisions in terms of the friends to keep. Moreover, she is not free even to leave home and of more important her mother is not acting politely when addressing her in the cause of the whole conversation. She even threatens to slap her. (class, 2009)

Question 4

Situational, Social and Cultural Context of the Dialogue

The dialogue is happening in the scene where a mother sees her daughter with a boy she is not happy and comfortable with. She rejects the company and compares it with others companies that the daughter is aware of as an example. She is very strict on the matter and seems to be final in terms of the decision. In terms of social context, the dialogue is involving a group of friends who represent the society at large.  In terms of cultural context, the dialogue is figurative on a culture that does not allow boys to hang around with girls holding each other hands. This has raised questions even to the late mother, who wants to bring up socially upright girl.

Works Cited

Austin, J. l. (1962). How to do things with words.

class, u. (2009, 2 14). politeness theory. Retrieved 12 2017, from https://www.universalclass.com/articles/business/communication-studies/politeness-theory.htm

Nordquist, R. (2017, Sep 13). Learn What Speech Acts Are in Linguistics. Retrieved 12 0, 2017, from thoughtco.: https://www.thoughtco.com/speech-act-linguistics-1692119

wileys, J. (2016). politeness theory. Hairong Feng.

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