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SRR782 Research Methodology

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  • Course Code: SRR782
  • University: Deakin Business School
  • Country: Australia

Question:

Write Research methodology related to construction topic.

Section 1: Annotated Bibliography

Three Or More Seminal Books Or Journal Articles

Section 2: Diagram the ‘Scope of Research’

Diagram your field of research explaining how or where you find your topic of interest in it. This should attempt to clarify where you see the GAP in the research and help identify your contribution

It is expected that you are relatively new to your topic. You have an interest in it and you are beginning to understand and search for its relevance in architecture, planning, building, etc. Several questions to be addressed in your ‘scope of research’ pathway diagram are:

  • Where does your research topic come from?
  • What is the field of research around it?
  • Where is your research placed in and among this scope of research?
  • What topics will it address?

Section 3: Literature review/Aim & Objectives

Literature Review which locates a gap in knowledge or NEW research opportunities within your field of research.

 

Answer:

Title: Reduction Of Construction Wastes During Construction Work Of Large Scale Projects In Developing Countries

Section 1: Annotated Bibliography

Miquel Casals, Núria Forcada, Marcel Macarulla, Analysis of the implementation of effective waste management practices in construction projects and sites, December 2014, Volume 93, 38

“Current waste generation rates are still below predicted levels, and the infrastructure was designed for five times more waste generation. Even so, the percentage of reused and recycled waste currently amounts to 43%. Survey respondents highlighted various instruments and measures that would make the management of construction and demolition waste more sustainable. Most of the opportunities identified by construction firms are within the scope of government and related to a combined system of bonus and penalties and the establishment of environmental awareness and training programs for all the stakeholders”

· The journal has been cited over 38 times an indication of how useful numerous scholars in the same field of research have found it to be.

· The number of references to which this journal has been made is very important in this research as it provides insights to how much the article has proved of help to other scholars studying or conducting research in related field.

· The article is about analyzing how effective the management practices aimed at reducing wastes on construction projects and site have been. It thus provides an insight into the various effective waste management practices and hence analyzes the impact of those practices. This leaves the journal of most relevance as it illustrates the various practices that could be adopted in a bid to reduce the level of construction wastages in construction projects and sites.

· The journal identifies a gap in the research knowledge by establishing or finding out the impacts of the various effective waste management techniques for construction projects and sites. Through thus article, it is evident that there are effective waste management strategies or practices that are already in place and only require an investigation into to what extent they achieve the intended objectives.

 

href="#!" Jiayuan Wang, Zhengdao Li, Vivian W.Y. Tam, Critical factors in effective construction waste minimization at the design stage: A Shenzhen case study, China, January 2014, Volume 82, Cited 61

 

 

“These critical factors not only provide designers and project managers with a useful set of criteria for effective design strategies to reduce construction waste, but also serve as valuable references for the government to formulate related construction waste minimization regulations.”

· The journal is said to be a seminal journal following the number of times it has been cited which is 61 an illustration of the high level of relevance and importance it has to the field of research.

· The number of references to which this journal has been made is very important in this research as it provides insights to how much the article has proved of help to other scholars studying or conducting research in related field.

· The article analyzes the factors perceived to be most critical when it comes to the minimization of wastes in construction especially at the design stage. It achieves this by doing a case study in china, a country that experiences significantly high rate of economic development hence a lot of construction expected to be ongoing (Jiayuan, 2014, p. 58). The design stage is the beginning off a construction project and hence construction waste reduction should begin from this point, making the journal of tremendous relevance. As per the critical factors analyzed in the journal, more light is shed on how construction wastes can effectively be reduced and the design stage. The article addresses a research gap through the presentation of a number of critical factors that elaborate and improve the practice of minimization of wastes at the design stage, more specifically in the case of Shenzhen, China.

· The gap of research identified by the journal is the critical factors that can be used in the facilitation of construction wastes at the design stages (Jiayuan, 2014, p. 69). These factors ensure that as soon as a construction project is begun, construction waste production is put under constant check.

 

href="#!" Hongping Yuan, Key indicators for assessing the effectiveness of waste management in construction projects, January 2013, Volume 24, Cited 62 times

 

“The assessment framework not only deepens understanding of effectiveness of construction and demolition waste management, but also provides a concrete base for future research in assessing the effectiveness of construction and demolition waste management quantitatively.”

· The journal is said to be a seminal journal following the number of times it has been cited which is 62 an illustration of the high level of relevance and importance it has to the field of research.

· The number of references to which this journal has been made is very important in this research as it provides insights to how much the article has proved of help to other scholars studying or conducting research in related field.

· Hongping Yuan brings to the attention of scholars and other researcher the gap by informing and elaborating on the key indicators that are used in the evaluation of how effective waste management is in construction projects. The journal explores the numerous key indicators that affect the overall effectiveness of construction and demolition waste management from a general point of view and goes ahead to establish an assessment framework through integrating the identified key indicators.

 
 

Section 2: Diagram the ‘Scope of Research’

In this section of the research, the width and breadth of the research question is studied in terms and the study is broken down in terms of questions among them:

Why the study is important? This question addresses the significance of a research study in the reduction of construction wastes during construction work of large scale projects in developing countries. It addresses the benefits that are accrued to a country that involves herself in or adopt strategies which are aimed at minimizing the levels of construction wastes on construction sites.

 


What topics will it address? The topic will address the concern of the ever increasing amount of construction wastes on construction sites during construction (Hongping, 2013, p. 66). Construction wastes start accumulating as soon as the design stage of construction of a construction project and an upsurge is experienced as the process of construction continues to the various phases. This raises an alarm on a need to establish strategies and methods that can be used in ensuring that a construction project does not prove harmful both to human life and the natural environment. All the stages of construction are important and thus none of them can be eliminated.

Where does your research topic come from? The research topic is derived from the construction industry, more specifically sustainable buildings and construction works (Hongping, 2013, p. 78). Sustainability has become one of the greatest concerns in the construction industry with even stakeholder tasked and obliged to ensure that the structure set up meet the sustainable development goals and missions. Through reduction of the amount of construction wastes, a significant contribution is made towards the attainment of the sustainable development goals.

What is the field of research around it? The field of research revolves around sustainability. Sustainability encompasses working with the social, economic and environmental resources in such a conservative way that promotes better living for the current generation and the generation to come. In the context of this research topic, conservation on the environmental and the economic aspects of sustainability is given priority and discussed in depth (Facility, 2010, p.266).

 

Section 3: Literature Review/ Aims and Objectives

Literature Review

There is a clear recognition of the relationship between construction activities and the environment and the impact on the environment due to construction waste product is significant (Webster, 2017, p.458). A good amount of wastes are produced by buildings as well as the construction industries in most of the countries, especially the developing countries, India among them. A significant portion of pollution from harmful and destructive emission and wastes are contributed but the construction industry and its products. In as much as the level of awareness among the stakeholders in the construction industry on the importance of minimization of wastes has increased, the level achieved is not yet to standards and a lot has not been done to combat the situation especially in developing countries (Betio, 2015, p.328). This thus calls for the maximizations of the values of sustainable environment by reducing and minimizing to the lowest levels possible construction wastes.

The levels of wastage of labor and materials on most of the sites of construction have undoubtedly gone beyond the acceptable limits and hence constructions firms are directly linked to the liabilities of reducing the levels of construction wastes. It is fundamental for each and every construction firm to have knowledge on the various types of construction wastes and how they occur before they can be able to adopt strategies on reducing the wastes on site (Liu, 2010, p.389). It is reported that construction waste reduction is increasing becoming attractive to the management of various construction projects as it offers an opportunity for attaining costs savings and at the same time minimizing degradation of the environment. Still, numerous construction firms are weighing options of the benefits that accrue as a result of adoption of techniques for proper waste management.

Reduction of construction wastes is one of the surest ways of achieving sustainability in construction. Sustainability which revolved around ensuring a better life quality of life to every person now and for the future generations is defined in terms of the social, economic and environmental states that a construction project attains (Miquel, et. Al, 2014, p. 55). With focus currently on sustainable construction, significant consideration needs to be given to minimization of waste production in the construction industry as this serves to be beneficial both to the construction firms and the environment (Fewings, 2013, p.369). A conclusion can thus be drawn that a considerable reduction in the levels of construction wastes will guarantee a significant reduction in the overall waste stream.

India is among the fastest developing countries of the world. Construction is the second largest economic activity after agriculture, accounting for 11% of the total GDP of the country (Karagiannidis, 2012, p.178). Construction creates employment opportunities for millions of people in the country, but for last two decades, this industry had to live with acute problems, mainly wastes resulting from construction, which has facilitated even more sophisticated and dynamic challenges among them cost and time overruns, low quality and poor security etc. with the increase in the amount of construction wastes, there is a growing public concern on what this growth would have on the lives of the people (Jacob, 2016, p.311). this calls for a speedy action and adoption of strategies that could see the construction wastes challenged brought under conctro according to survey done in 2017 to investigate the causes of wastes in India. Construction wastes are grouped in three main categories including design management wastes, management and construction planning wastes as well as mal-administration wastes. Lack of knowledge among the stakeholders has been found to be the dominating factor for the increase in the amount of all these three categories of wastes. Another research still found out that a significant number of contractors in India do not meet the set out standards for appointment culminating into run out f time and cash clashes as well as poor quality services. Still, lack of knowledge forms the basis of the challenge is findings of this report. (Jiayuan, et.al, 2014, p. 74).

It can thus be concluded undoubtedly that lack of knowledge among the stakeholders in the construction industry is the research gap of this research. A technique or tool is required especially in cases where substantial development is the aim of the construction project. The tool acts a guide for the workers pointing to them what is expected from them. Creating awareness among all the stakeholders of the existence of a tool would play a fundamental role in ensuring that the tool achieves the set out objectives (Betio, 2015, p.277). It is thus recommended that workshops be organized to be used as forums for passing of the knowledge on the availability of various techniques and tools.

 

Research Aim and Objectives 

This research aims at:

  • Lowering the level of construction wastes especially in large scale construction projects as well as enhancing effectiveness and quality in construction industry in developing countries like India

Objectives

The objectives of this research include:

  • Establishing the impacts of construction wastes on large scale projects, examining the quantity and the nature of construction wastes in the construction industry of India
  • Justification of the negative impacts of wastage on large-scale construction project by doing self-observation on sites(Anderson, 2013, p.445).
  • Coming up with a list of proposals and recommendations on the modalities of reducing construction wastes
  • Listing the barriers to reduction of construction wastes in order of priority
  • Establishing a framework based on the preceding proposals on the best remedies and strategies to reducing if not completing eliminating the construction wastes menace on large scale construction projects (Miquel, et. al, 2014, p. 55).
 

References

Anderson, M.G., 2013. Community-Based Landslide Risk Reduction: Managing Disasters in Small Steps. 3rd ed. New York: World Bank Publications.

Betio, L.S., 2015. Sustainable procurement: The power of public and private consumption for an inclusive green economy. 6th ed. Kansas: Public Administration and Citizenship Program.

Facility, G.E., 2010. Implementing the Poznan Strategic Program on Technology Transfer. 4th ed. Washington: Global Environment Facility.

Fewings, P., 2013. Construction Project Management: An Integrated Approach. 2nd ed. Oxford: Routledge.

Hongping Yuan, Key indicators for assessing the effectiveness of waste management in construction projects, January 2013, Volume 24

Jacob, D., 2016. Estimating in Heavy Construction: Roads, Bridges, Tunnels, Foundations. 3rd ed. London: John Wiley & Sons.

Jiayuan Wang, Zhengdao Li, Vivian W.Y. Tam, Critical factors in effective construction waste minimization at the design stage: A Shenzhen case study, China, January 2014, Volume 82.

Karagiannidis, A., 2012. Waste to Energy: Opportunities and Challenges for Developing and Transition Economies. 5th ed. Chicago: Springer Science & Business Media.

Levy, S.M., 2012. Japanese Construction: An American Perspective. 5th ed. London: Springer Science & Business Media.

Liu, F., 2010. Mainstreaming Building Energy Efficiency Codes in Developing Countries: Global Experiences and Lessons from Early Adopters. 3rd ed. New Delhi: World Bank Publications.

Miquel Casals, Núria Forcada, Marcel Macarulla, Analysis of the implementation of effective waste management practices in construction projects and sites, December 2014, Volume 93.

Webster, C., 2017. Proceedings of the 21st International Symposium on Advancement of Construction Management and Real Estate. 7th ed. Beijing: Springer.

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