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Stages Of System Development Add in library

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Task 1

There are a number of systems lifecycle models, research Waterfall and Prototyping model, and evaluate them.  For each model you must provide the following:

•    Brief description
•    Stages involved
•    What deliverable is produced at the end of each stage
•    Who is involved at each stage.

Task 2

Discuss the importance of following a procedural/staged lifecycle in a systems investigation.



The system development, trade includes many unique processes, for instance, analysis, development, maintenance and publication of system development. This trade conjointly includes computer code services, like coaching, documentation, and consulting. So, thanks to different kinds of project that has completely different necessities. Therefore, it should be needed to decide on the SDLC phases in keeping with the precise desires of the project.



The waterfall model may be typical, linear, ancient water software package life cycle model. It's a consecutive development approach, within which development is seen as flowing steadily downwardly through the phases of necessities analysis, design, implementation, testing, integration, and maintenance. (Agarwal and Tanniru, 1990)

Iterative Waterfall Model

The problems with the water Model created a requirement for a brand new technique of developing systems that might offer quicker results, needless up-front info and supply larger flexibility. Repetitious model, the project is split into tiny elements. This permits the event team to demonstrate results earlier on within the method and procure valuable feedback from system users. Every iteration is truly a mini-Waterfall method with the feedback from one section providing very important info for the planning of ensuing section. (Aparcana and Salhofer, 2013)

Prototyping Model

Software prototyping is that the development approach of activities throughout the software package development, the creation of prototypes, i.e., incomplete versions of the software package program being developed. Not a standalone, complete development methodology, however, rather AN approach to handling chosen components of a bigger, additional ancient development methodology. (COLLETTE, 2011)

Stages of System Development

  • Demand gathering and analysis: Business necessities are gathered during this section. This section is that the main focus of the project managers and stakeholders. Conferences with managers, stakeholders and users are commanding so as to work out the wants like; United Nations agency goes to use the system? However can they use the system? What knowledge ought to be input into the system? (Notkin, 1989)

  • Design: during this section the system and computer code style is ready from the necessity specifications that were studied within the initial section. System style helps in specifying hardware and system necessities and additionally helps in shaping overall system design. The system style specifications function input for consequent section of the model.

  • Implementation: On receiver style documents, the work is split in modules/units and actual cryptography is started. Since, during this section the code is made thus it's the most focus for the developer. This can be the longest section of the computer code development life cycle.

  • Testing: when the code is developed it's tested against the wants to create positive that the merchandise is really determined the requirements addressed and gathered throughout the wants section. (Ruparelia, 2010)

  • Maintenance: Once the purchaser’s starts victimization the developed system, then the particular issues come up and wish to be solved from time to time.

Deliverables and involvement

Feasibility Study

The practicable study is that the main part won’t to verify whether or not the code request ought to be approved for development. The practicable study additionally determines the trail that ought to be taken once approaching the event of letter of invitation. Once evaluating different approaches it ought to be noted that development prices will be provided in terms of various estimates primarily based upon the event approach taken. (Sahraoui, 2013)

Functional Specification

A practical specification entails the analysis of business necessities to provide a preliminary style concerning the planned system. The practical specification is from the user’s perspective. The technical deliverables needed for the computer user aren't developed at this stage of the project.

Systems style Specification

The systems style specification could be a deliverable that's developed throughout the planning section of the SDLC. It describes, however the system is intended supported distinguishing the practical parts. The System style Specifications are developed by the appliance development cluster.

Program Specification

The program specification is employed to explain the program logic and process necessities that are want to meet the necessities of the code request. The program specification could be a deliverable that's developed as a part of the development section before the commencement of programming. (Weinberg, 1991)
System checks arrange

The system check is that the stage of development wherever all program development for the code request is completed and also the computer user performs the specified testing to confirm that each one practicality works as needed.

Acceptance check arrange

The acceptance check is that the stage of development wherever the code developed is tested during a controlled setting wherever no changes will be created. The check is performed by the user UN agency is most conversant in determinative whether or not the code meets the necessities of the business. (Notkin, 1989)

Conversion arranges

Conversion plans are unit solely needed whenever the code request changes the way during which information is bestowed. Enhancements that need further files in several cases wouldn't require any information to be born-again. The conversion of knowledge is that the prelude to the parallel check arrange.


Task 2

Importance of staged Lifecycle in a systematic investigation & Lifecycle stage in Models

Analysis System is a component of the event life cycle of a system. It involves the method of investigation existing or new systems, analysing and understanding the wants of users.
System style takes place when the investigation and analysis of the system has been done. System style involves designing the new system that's, however, it ought to be done.

The Significance of System Analysis and style

System Analysis and style could be a terribly vital and crucial a part of system life cycle as a result of it deals with the investigation of a system through to the analysis of the system, structural style of the system, the implementation of the system and therefore the maintenance of a system. Any errors, mistakes or unresolved or unidentified issues within the analysis stage can lead to complications which can result in system failures.

Stages within the System Development Life Cycle

The system life cycle is also checked out as a seven phase- drawback finding procedure.
These stages are:
1. Initiation
2. Preliminary Investigation
3. System Analysis
4. System style
5. System Development
6. System Implementation
7. System Maintenance

Example  Lifecycle Stages

ATT is that the Mobile Service supplier, and don't produce or turn out their own web site, thus they're going in search of corporations WHO will produce their needed application (website, paying bills online, online chat)here the ATT Company is termed to the consumer and therefore the Company WHO takes the project is termed to SERVICE based mostly COMPANY. During this example, we will take H2K as Service based mostly Company.

Now the consumer wants an on-line a web an internet application wherever they have their customers to pay their bills online through numerous modes, read their decision outline and does account management.

Requirements: during this part H2K’s BA team confer with ATT’s BA team and gathers needs from ATT. ATT says they have {an on-line |a web| an internet} application wherever they have their customers to pay their bills online through numerous modes, read their decision outline and do account management. (McDowall, 1991)

H2K BA discuss in an exceedingly meeting to form clear concerning the wants and document the wants in an exceedingly document referred to as BRD containing info like

• what is the entire browser they have this website to be opened
• what are the modes of payment
• If the client must read what quite user id and positive identification etc.

Design: during this style part the gathered needs can regenerate into HLD and honorary degree. Use-cases, style Specifications, Technical specs, flowcharts are designed.

HLD: Has the data concerning the structure of login application, screen navigation method. It contains the flow-graph data, use cases of ATT web site, however login goes to look.


After analysis of all models through the varied factors, it's been found that the first waterfall model is employed by numerous massive corporations for his or her internal Project. Since the event team is acquainted with the surroundings and it's possible to specify all needs of operating surroundings. Unvarying waterfall model overcomes the downside of the original body of water model. It permits feedback to continuing stage. Example model accustomed develop online systems for the group action process. (COLLETTE, 2011)



Agarwal, R. and Tanniru, M. (1990). Systems development life-cycle for expert systems. Knowledge-Based Systems, 3(3), pp.170-180.

Aparcana, S. and Salhofer, S. (2013). Development of a social impact assessment methodology for recycling systems in low-income countries. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 18(5), pp.1106-1115.

COLLETTE, M. (2011). Hull Structures as a System: Supporting Lifecycle Analysis. Naval Engineers Journal, 123(3), pp.45-55.

Goncalves, R., Agostinho, C., Malo, P. and Garcao, A. (2007). Harmonising technologies in conceptual models representation. IJPLM, 2(2), p.187.

McDowall, R. (1991). The systems development life cycle. Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems, 13(2), pp.121-133.

Moore, W. and Whitehall, P. (2005). THE TOURISM AREA LIFECYCLE AND REGIME SWITCHING MODELS. Annals of Tourism Research, 32(1), pp.112-126.

Notkin, D. (1989). Applying software process models to the full lifecycle is premature. SIGSOFT Softw. Eng. Notes, 14(4), pp.116-117.

Ruparelia, N. (2010). Software development lifecycle models. SIGSOFT Softw. Eng. Notes, 35(3), p.8.

Sahraoui, A. (2013). The rationale paradigm in system development lifecycle. IJSSE, 4(1), p.44.

Weinberg, R. (1991). Prototyping and the Systems Development Life Cycle. Journal of Information Systems Management, 8(2), pp.47-53.

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