Discuss About Roles of Stakeholders of the Antiquities and Monuments Office of Hong Kong?
Different institutions have different definitions for the words monuments and antiquities. According to the Antiquities and Monuments Ordinance 1976 of the Hong Kong Law, Antiquities are defined as the sites, buildings, places or structures erected, formed or built by humans and human agencies before the year 1800 and the remains or ruins of any such structure, site, place or building regardless of the fact that they have been restored, modified or have any additions after the year 1799. This also includes objects that are movable that can be shaped, made, painted, inscribed, carved, manufactured, created, modified or produced by humans before 1800 or the objects that have not been restored, added to or modified after the year 1799. The impressions, remains or fossils of these are also considered as relics according to the ordinance. The archaeological sites in Hong Kong are all considered the property of the Hong Kong government according to the Ordinance. The government of Hong Kong has a list of monuments that are called declared monuments (Hong Kong Tourism Board, 2017). According to the ordinance, these are defined as any structure, artifact, building or feature that is important for the nation due to their paleontological, archaeological or historic significance. There are more than 180 sites all over Hong Kong that are considered sites of specific Archaeological significance. To include a monument into the list of declared monuments, the Antiquities and Monuments board is consulted and the approval of the Chief Executive or the Secretary of Development is required, after which the building, site, structure or place is declared a monument. In order to excavate, plant or cut trees, deposit earth or demolish any monument or proposed monument, a permit is required from the Secretary of Home Affairs failing which the action is forbidden. Some of the historical buildings are declared proposed monuments for temporary statutory protection. The World Monument Fund has defined a monument as any structure that was constructed only for commemorating a person or event that has been of significance to a group of people however the term is loosely used for any structure or building that is of any historical or architectural significance or is a part of the cultural heritage of a place or people (AMO Team, 2014).
This research report is made with an intent to thoroughly study the work, roles and responsibilities, structure, functioning, background, historic records and authority of The Antiquities and Monuments Office (AMO) of Hong Kong. In this research, we have covered how the Antiquities and Monuments Office of Hong Kong defines the Antiquities and Monuments, the history and background of the board from its year of establishment to the current roles and responsibilities, the functions that it fulfills, and its various policies. We have also looked into the stakeholders of the Antiquities and Monuments Office of Hong Kong and how each of them contributes to the functioning of the organization. The stakeholders of the Antiquities and Monuments Office of Hong Kong can be classified into four categories, these are public stakeholders, private stakeholders, the volunteers and the Hong Kong government. The report also covers an in depth study of how the Antiquities and Monuments Office of Hong Kong has impacted the Hong Kong tourism industry (Hong Kong Tourism Board, 2017). The use of historic monuments and their promotion as national heritage is done by the Antiquities and Monuments Office of Hong Kong to attract the tourists from all over the world. These monuments are often located at the heart of the city and occupy all the prime locations. It also works the other way round when the place starts developing due to the attraction that the monuments serve as. Their energy embodied in the structures is radiant and this attracts visitors towards them. Another reason the Hong Kong government takes care of and promotes the historic monuments is that they involve minimal cost as compared to the development of a completely new tourist attraction and have a higher mass appeal. However the development and promotion of historical monuments come with a price and the bodies planning to do so have to face certain challenges. The most dominant of these being the difficulty faced in rebuilding damaged or demolished structures (Fan & Yim, 2011). The material and method used for building these is very different to the ones that are currently used. There are also certain disputes associated with the development of these. The government restricts the institutions from disturbing the ancient monuments and this prevents the authorities sometimes to conduct restoration and rebuilding activities on these monuments. This report therefore concludes with the understanding of all major responsibilities of the Antiquities and Monuments Office of Hong Kong and goes through its working and the activities carried out by them (McNulty & Koff, 2014). The Antiquities and Monuments Office of Hong Kong
Cultural Heritage is a symbol of pride for every nation. It is a part of their history and memories and is of utmost importance to them. The relics, antiquities and monuments of the country provide the citizens of Hong Kong with a sense of continuity and belonging. They let us have a look at all that the nation has been through and the unique past of the fusion of the eastern and western fusion that this country has been through. The Antiquities and Monuments Office (AMO) of Hong Kong and the Antiquities Advisory Board (AAO) were established in the year 1976 as a part of the Leisure and Cultural Services of Hong Kong by the enforcement of The Antiquities and Monuments Ordinance by the government of Hong Kong. This was done to make sure that the popular monuments of Hong Kong are protected appropriately (Rypkema, 2008). The Executive Secretary presides the Antiquities and Monuments Office. The office comprises of well qualified staff, which is organized into five sections. These sections are Archaeology, Historic Buildings, Education and Publicity, Technical and Advisory functions respectively. The secretariat and administrative support is provided to the Antiquities Advisory Board as well as the Antiquities and Monuments Office. The Antiquities and Monuments Office is presently managed by the Leisure and Cultural Services department of the Hong Kong government (Jiang & Homsey, 2008).
The Antiquities and Monuments Office is based in the building that was formerly the Kowloon British School. It is the oldest school building in Hong Kong that is still functional. It started its operations as the Kowloon British School in the year 1902. The architecture type of this building is similar to the Victorian Era architecture and is typical of a number of schools constructed at that time. This building itself is a declared monument by the Antiquities and Monuments Office.
The Antiquities and Monuments Office was established for the protection of the heritage and historical monuments of Hong Kong. Housed in the building that once was the Kowloon British School, this organization is responsible for preservation and safeguarding of the Hong Kong’s historic monuments (Pedersen, 2002). The major tasks that they have to carry out involve the identification, research and record maintenance of the items of historical interest and buildings in Hong Kong. To understand the duties and responsibilities of the Antiquities and Monuments Office, one needs to first understand the purpose for which this institution was formed. The Antiquities and Monuments Office is responsible for maintaining and developing the written and photo archives of the heritage sites of Hong Kong, recording, identifying and researching about the sites and structures that may be of historic significance to the nation. They also conduct and organize surveys, researches and excavations of the buildings and items of historic and archaeological significance. They organize the drives to carry out restoration, maintenance and protection of the monuments. The Antiquities and Monuments Office also evaluate and review the influence of development projects on the monuments and heritage sites and take measures to mitigate the effects. Another responsibility of the Antiquities and Monuments Office is to promote and make people aware of the heritage of Hong Kong and the historic monuments. They carry this out by various programs and activities like exhibitions, tours, lectures, heritage trails, events and workshops. The Antiquities and Monuments Office also provides support to the Antiquities Advisory Board in conservation and protection of the places of historical and archaeological interest in the country (Government, 2015).
The Antiquities and Monuments Office works for the conservation and preservation of the places of historic significance to the country of Hong Kong. The Government of Hong Kong earmarks a fixed amount of money to e used by them to carry out the development, promotion, restoration, excavation, maintenance etc. The government has asked the AMO the details of the work to be done on the monuments including the objectives for the task, timelines for the same and the performance indicators. The policy of the Antiquities and Monuments Office continues to be the promotion, preservation and conservation of the heritage monuments and sites in Hong Kong. Hong Kong as a nation has only gained heritage conservation consciousness in the late 1990s. Since then the Antiquities Advisory board has carried out country wide surveys in which the size of the built heritage of the nation has been recorded to be of about 8800 buildings, structures and sites. The Antiquities and Monuments Ordinance was constituted for this very purpose (Globe Media, 2009). It aims at stopping the destructions and negligence towards the heritage sites and conserve them as they tell the story of the nation’s past and the rich cultural inheritance.
The Antiquities and Monuments Office is an institution formed by the Government has been widely accepted by the public and their efforts are applauded by many. The people are happy with the work that they are doing and are in full support of the organization and their work. The general public of Hong Kong actively participates in the surveys and contributes to the growing database of The Antiquities and Monuments Office (Chan, 2015). The people also actively take part in the workshops and promotional events held at the heritage sites. The number of people visiting the heritage trails developed by The Antiquities and Monuments Office is also increasing day by day with the increase in the awareness and knowledge of the monuments and heritage sites among the public of not just Hong Kong but also all over the planet.
The Antiquities and Monuments Office has got a lot of support both financially and in the form of resources like the required machinery, tools, human resource etc. from the private organizations of Hong Kong. There are a lot of cases in which the AMO carried out the restoration activity of the heritage sites with the help of the private organizations of Hong Kong. The clubs of the AMO like the Young Friends of Heritage have always got mass support and participation from the private organizations (Chai, 2013).
The volunteers are the backbone of an institution like The Antiquities and Monuments Office. There is a huge turn up of the individual volunteers and volunteer groups in the events and activities of the AMO. They provide assistance and have always lent a hand to the AMO in times of need. The volunteers provide their services and stand for the preservation of the monuments and heritage sites (Turner, 2016). They make the events organized by The Antiquities and Monuments Office a success every time and spread the information about the rich cultural heritage of Hong Kong in order to make others aware and discerning towards the history of the monuments, sites and structures that make up our cultural heritage.
A number of government bodies and institutions have supported and stood for The Antiquities and Monuments Office in times of need and in general. The Center of Urban Planning and Environment Management, The Hong Kong Institute of Planners, Architects, Landscape Architects and Surveyors and The Hong Kong Geography Department extend their help and guidance during the planning process for the organization. The Leisure and Cultural Services department of Hong Kong takes care of the functioning of the organizations as per the government directive and the AMO has full monetary and non monetary support of the government in the process of preservation, conservation and promotion of the cultural heritage of Hong Kong (Legislative Council Secretariat, 2015). The other government bodies associated with the working of the Antiquities and Monuments Office of Hong Kong include The Commissioner for Heritage’s Office that was established on 25th April 2008 and which falls under the Development Bureau, The Hong Kong Government’s Central Conservation Section and The Urban Renewal Authority, which is a semi government body that takes care of the urban development in Hong Kong (Schwab, et al., 2015).
The Antiquities and Monuments Office that was set up under the Leisure and Cultural Services Department of Hong Kong is responsible for preserving, protecting and conserving the cultural built heritage and archaeological sites of Hong Kong. As a nation, Hong Kong has come a long way from what it once was. Most of its heritage sites and monuments still stand right in the middle of the skyscrapers and urban life as good as they were years ago (Hong Kong Tourism Board, 2015). The diverse cultural heritage of the country is evident in the historic sites and structures and each of these is a spectacle in itself. Hong Kong tourism is a never ending contrast between the new and the old with the ancient structures standing tall among the urban jungles. Before the enforcement of The Antiquities and Monuments Ordinance in the year 1976, the heritage sites of Hong Kong were neglected, sparsely and independently maintained. The ordinance led to the formation of the Antiquities and Monuments Office, which has now taken over the responsibility of maintaining, preserving and conserving the heritage sites of Hong Kong. This step has made the tourism sector of Hong Kong a little more organized and has given a boost to the culture and its perceived value in front of the world. The tourism industry in Hong Kong has flourished and a triple digit percentage growth has been observed in the visitor percentage since the AMO began promoting the heritage sites as places of tourist attraction. The heritage tours and trails have also observed an increase in participation and the people are more aware and knowledgeable about the country (Jiang & Homsey, 2008). Their perception towards Hong Kong has changed and evolved and it is not just a holiday travel destination anymore, but also a place of rich cultural heritage and historic monuments. Thus the Antiquities and Monuments Office has impacted the tourism industry positively and made it a place of historic relevance and even more popular.
The basic idea behind developing historical buildings as heritage sites and making use of them is the conservation of resources. The redevelopment and restoration of these buildings is not only less time consuming as compared to building or development of new tourist attractions, but this also makes use of the past investment of time and energy made in it, thus preservation and reuse of the existing historic structures is considered a more effective way (McNulty & Koff, 2014). Another major reason for the conservation of heritage sites is that these structures, monuments and sites are of historical and cultural importance to the nation. They represent the history and the story of the past of that place. While some buildings need to be maintained in their exact shape and form, most of the historic buildings can be utilized for activities and public interactions. This makes the place change with the changing times, hence making it even more significant for all of the coming generations as it increases the number of stories that the monument tells to its visitors (Tourism Commission, 2016). The preservation and maintenance of the historic places were considered a luxury previously, but the researchers have proved that this practice is in fact a sustained act that helps in the development of the local economy. Preserving the historic structures and buildings attracts visitors and this creates jobs and generated the capital in large amounts. The act of preservation of historic monuments helps in generating revenue for the country and is an investment that gives off great returns. The heritage sites also attract historians and researchers from all over the world who help in further promotion of not just the monuments or heritage site but also the country as a whole.
The first and foremost challenge that the Antiquities and Monuments Office faces when the decision is taken to use a historic building as a heritage site is that the excavation and restoration work for that place is to be done. This comes with a lot of challenges and difficulties of its own. The construction method and process of these is very ancient and to be able to replicate that is an impossible task. All these monuments are different in built and structure, from the other and the process developed and used for one cannot be reused (School, 2014). The construction materials, hidden details and their construction techniques require a lot of thinking, planning and preparation. There is no documentation done as a proof of the structure and built of the sites and therefore there are surprises that come up at the time of the excavation or restoration. The monuments and buildings are generally constructed in a complex shape and structure and this has to be assessed in the process as well. The historic significance of the structure of the structure has to be maintained without compromising on its safety level. This is another challenge that the AMO faces. Another challenge that comes when promoting the heritage sites as tourist places is that the people generally have a perception that is already in their minds regarding the historical places that they visit. The visitor’s emotional state at the heritage site has to be understood and such sites must be marketed accordingly. The site also has to measure up to the mental image that is built in the minds of the visitors failing which the attractiveness of the site is eventually going to diminish. Some of the historic sites that were discovered on the private properties of the people could not be developed as heritage sites, this led to the depletion of their condition and value. The government of Hong Kong in such a case is unable to promote and develop that site. In order to develop the site as a heritage site, it must be made accessible and easy to reach (Tsui, 2015). This is another challenge for the Antiquities and Monuments Office when the sites that are newly discovered are to be promoted. The historic sites are very important for both the cultural and economic development of Hong Kong, but this comes with a price and the challenges that the AMO has to overcome for their development are also great. The pollution caused by the vehicles and industries also poses a threat to the monuments and their appearance. The pollutants in the air corrode and crumble the monuments, due to which they lose their attractiveness and the actual looks are also lost.
The 1881 heritage site was constructed in the year 1884 and is located at Tsim Sha Tsui in Kowloon, Hong Kong. Serving as the Hong Kong Marine Police Headquarters from the 1880s to the year 1996, it is a place of great historic relevance. The more than 120 year old site is now surrounded by the country’s greatest shopping destination and the Star Ferry Terminal. Other places of relevance around the 1881 Heritage site are the Hong Kong Clock Tower, The Avenue of Stars, Hong Kong Museum of Art and the Harbour City Mall. This site is illuminated everyday at night which transforms it from a heritage sightseeing place to an attractive photography site. Presently the 1881 Heritage site houses the heritage hotel, various luxury shops, bars, restaurants and fine dining places. The site is made up of a main building a block and a signal tower also known as the Round House. The site lost a part of its surrounding ground in the 1970s when the area was leveled to develop the Kowloon Park Drive. The main building was originally two storied structure and the third story did not exist until its construction in the 1920s. The 1881 Heritage site is one of the four oldest buildings of Hong Kong that are still surviving. The entire compound of the site is a declared monument according to the Antiquities and Monuments Office of Hong Kong since the year 1994. The site was named after it earlier use as The Former Marine Police Headquarters Compound. This has officially been renamed as the 1881 Heritage site now (Tsui, 2015).
The Marine Police that once had its headquarters in the compound of the 1881 Heritage site have now merged with the Hong Kong Police Force and serve as a unit in the same. The Old Kowloon Fire Station in the compound of the 1881 Heritage site has been redeveloped into a heritage hotel that houses retail facilities and outlets for food and beverages. It also comprises of an exhibition hall, communicating the transforming journey of the heritage site. The designs of the complex resemble those of the monuments built during that period. It is a combination of the neoclassical and Victorian architecture (School, 2014). The complex also contains the cells where the pirates and smugglers caught by the marine police were imprisoned. The enclosures on the walls of the site were used to keep pigeons who used to carry the messages sent to the ships that were on the harbor to carry out ship to shore communication. The most famous monument in the complex is the Time Ball Tower. This tower was in use from 1885 to 1907 to tell time to the travelling ships. A ball was mounted on a pole in the tower and this was lifted manually every morning and was dropped at 1 pm every day. This allowed the sailors to recalibrate their chronometers to the accuracy of one tenth of a second before departing from the country of Hong Kong for their designated destinations.
This research has been conducted to know and understand the roles and responsibilities of the Antiquities and Monuments Office of Hong Kong. The Antiquities and Monuments Office (AMO) of Hong Kong and the Antiquities Advisory Board (AAO) were established in the year 1976 as a part of the Leisure and Cultural Services of Hong Kong by the enforcement of The Antiquities and Monuments Ordinance by the government of Hong Kong. This was done to make sure that the popular monuments of Hong Kong are protected appropriately. The Antiquities and Monuments Office was established for the protection of the heritage and historical monuments of Hong Kong. Housed in the building that once was the Kowloon British School, this organization is responsible for preservation and safeguarding of the Hong Kong’s historic monuments. Their key responsibilities include identification of the historical monuments, recording their history and significance and researching further about them. They also carry out surveys and excavations in the areas that are of historic and archeological significance. The AMO conducts awareness programs, exhibitions, workshops, tours, lectures etc. regularly to involve the people and the visitors and make them aware of the rich heritage of the Hong Kong culture. The Antiquities Advisory board has carried out country wide surveys in which the size of the built heritage of the nation has been recorded to be of about 8800 buildings, structures and sites. The Antiquities and Monuments Office is an institution formed by the Government has been widely accepted by the public and their efforts are applauded by many. It has also got a lot of support both financially and in the form of resources like the required machinery, tools, human resource etc. from the private organizations of Hong Kong. There is a huge turn up of the individual volunteers and volunteer groups in the events and activities of the AMO. They provide assistance and have always lent a hand to the AMO in times of need. A number of government bodies and institutions have also supported and stood for The Antiquities and Monuments Office in times of need and in general. The Antiquities and Monuments Office has impacted the tourism industry positively and made it a place of historic relevance and even more popular. The tourism industry in Hong Kong has flourished and a triple digit percentage growth has been observed in the visitor percentage since the AMO began promoting the heritage sites as places of tourist attraction. The heritage tours and trails have also observed an increase in participation and the people are more aware and knowledgeable about the country. The basic idea behind developing historical buildings as heritage sites and making use of them is the conservation of resources. Thus the preservation and reuse of the existing historic structures is considered a more effective way. While some buildings need to be maintained in their exact shape and form, most of the historic buildings can be utilized for activities and public interactions. Preserving the historic structures and buildings attracts visitors and this creates jobs and generated the capital in large amounts. The act of preservation of historic monuments helps in generating revenue for the country and is an investment that gives off great returns. The organization, however, also faces a lot of challenges when using the heritage sites as places of tourist attraction. The monuments and buildings are generally constructed in a complex shape and structure and this has to be assessed in the process. The historic significance of the structure of the structure also needs to be maintained without compromising on its safety level. In the second part of the study, we have learnt about the 1881 heritage site, its history, previous and current significance. This report is for academic purposes only and has been conducted to mainly study the working of the Antiquities and Monuments Office of Hong Kong and its significance.
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