How To The Identification Of The Population Affected By Domestic Violence?
There exist various social evils within the society, one such mentionable social evil is domestic violence. It not only impacts the social structure adversely but has major impact on the health status of the section of the community that gets abused by domestic violence.
Thus considering the above discussed aspect, the assignment would highlight on the population impacted by domestic violence, the impact on the population affected by it, the social determinants associated with it and the ways of managing such occurrences with the help of relevant stakeholders.
On analyzing the victims of domestic violence it has been observed that, women are the most prominent section of the society that is highly impacted by domestic violence. In this context it is mentionable here that according to various researches it has been noticed that in Australia, intimate partner violence and domestic violence is one of the prime reason resulting in death, illness, disability, and among Victorian women aged 15 to 44 (Garcia-Moreno et al., 2007). The reason being, in case of this section of the society, when they experience domestic violence the impact is associated with further complication, this makes them further vulnerable towards this health issue.
The chosen health issue i.e. domestic violence, though impacts the health status of the section of the society victim to it, but the concept is primarily socially constructed that has developed with time and demonstrates the exiting power distribution (Popcenter.org, 2017). However, in the process of defining domestic violence the feministic perception is required to be discussed which is formulated on the basis of the lived experiences of the abused women which is supported by research evidence. Such definitions clearly highlight the direct correlation between domestic violence with coercive use of force against the abused women. Thus, the above made discussion clearly states that domestic violence is associated with use of force with the motive of threatening or inflicting harm to individual.
In this context it is mentionable here that the motive of domestic violence is inflicting harm or impacting the victim adversely, wherein it observed that domestic violence impacts women in two ways short term impact and long term impact. The deaths associated with domestic violence are one of the immediate and extreme ways in which domestic violence impacts women which is due homicides, suicides, miscarriages, homelessness and trauma related to the incident. Injuries are another mentionable short term impact on the victim of domestic violence, inflicted to them during such violent acts (Sokoloff, & Dupont, 2007). In terms of adversely impacts women during domestic violence, they are also impacted in long term manner. One of the distinct long term impact on the abused women are gynecological complexities which have major long lasting and persistent impact on the victims of domestic violence. Some of the major risks experienced on their part in this aspect are sexually transmitted disease, vaginal bleeding, and urinary infection (Saili et al., 2014). They are also exposed to the risk of physical and sexual abuse. Other than the above mentioned aspect, the mental impact and trauma associated with such occurrences are some of the mentionable reason of adversely affecting them in a long term manner which includes depression, post-traumatic stress, and suicidal tendency. Thus these are ways in which domestic violence impacts women in short term and long term manner.
On analyzing the aspect of domestic violence against women it has been observed there are various factors or social determinants which are associated with the aspect of domestic violence. One of the major social determinants in this context is socioeconomic status. In this context it is mentionable here that though domestic violence is observed to be prevalent among income brackets, in most of the cases it is seen to be reported from women who belongs from the lower strata of the society who is seen to be dependent on police for the purpose of resolving the dispute (Ellsberg et al., 2007). The surveys conducted on victimization reflect the fact that women having lower income are usually victims of domestic violence as compared to women having wealthier income. It is also required to be mentioned here that along with the women belonging to the lower section of the society who are financially weak, it has also been noticed women receiving government income support payments with the help of governmental aids are seen to be exposed to the risk of physical aggression three times more.
Another mentionable social determinant impacting the occurrence of domestic violence against women includes the age factor. In this context it has been observed that female age group from 16 to 24 are the section which is at the highest risk for domestic violence. Within this age group it has been noticed that undergraduate college group is the major section which is seen to be exposed to the risk of domestic violence by their dating partners who are seen to be physically assaulted.
Race of the victim of domestic violence is a significant social determinant, wherein, in regards to Australia it has been observed that as compared to women from other races, Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal women experience higher rates of domestic violence which are in severe forms (Domesticviolence, 2017). However, it is essential to be stated that, as per the research conducted till date, it is difficult to state the extent of differences of victimization rates on the basis of race is the consequence of willingness to reveal the incidents of victimization.
In case of victims of domestic violence, and in cases of domestic violence it has been noticed that repeated victimization is often the prevalent. It results to another major social determinant which is often overlooked is the aspect of incarceration of offenders (Filocamo et al., 2009). The offenders of domestic violence are observed to have prior convictions which are not always for domestic violence. Such individuals of the society having prior history of conviction history are observed to be associated with domestic violence against their partners.
Pregnancy is seen to be a major aspect to be considered in cases of domestic violence. It has been noticed in this context that as compared to non-pregnant women, pregnant women are no more likely to be victims of domestic violence (Devries et al., 2011). In certain cases it has been observed that during the period of pregnancy some women are let off from violence. In fact, in certain cases it has been observed that the risk experienced on the part of women during their pregnancy is the result of the physical assault experienced on their part before their pregnancy.
In order to minimize the occurrence of domestic violence, there are various stakeholders with whom it is required to be worked in a collaborative manner. In the above made discussion it has been stated that, the victims of domestic violence face such abuse in a repetitive manner. In such cases, it is essential on the part of the victim to immediately report such incidence after it occurs the first time. With the help of working with the police in a coordinated manner, and reporting it immediately the police can immediately take actions against it and further occurrences can be prevented.
In addition to the above mentioned aspect, the victims and the various organizations like the hospital, NGOs and most importantly the society in large are required to be made aware regarding the various national policies and the initiatives taken on the part of the government like The National Plan to Reduce Violence against Women and their Children 2010-2022 with the help of actions can be taken against such events immediately and further occurrences can be prevented due under such policies (Dss.gov.au, 2017).
Another, crucial stakeholders in such cases are hospitals and care providing organizations. The above made discussion stated the fact the in the process of domestic violence the victims are inflicted harm physically, psychologically and even emotionally. In order to manage the impact of such events, the care providing organizations not only plays a crucial role in dealing with the cases with a sensitized manner and provides them with holistic care services, but when such cases arise and it is observed that has not been seen reported on the part of the victims to the responsible authority, they are required to take initiative in reporting that cases (Devries et al., 2013). This would also help in preventing such events in the further.
The NGOs, also plays an integral role in such cases. The reason being working with the above discussed stakeholders and the victims in a coordinated manner, they can curb such incidents within the society (Garcia-Moreno, & Watts, 2011). Other than that, it is the NGOs which can bring in awareness within the society regarding this social evil and the various adverse impacts associated to it and the actions which can be taken on the part of the victim in such cases. Thus, with the help of disseminating information regarding this aspect as well, awareness can be brought within the society which would help in minimizing such events. The various social support groups associated with such events are also an integral stakeholder in such cases which helps in providing the victims with required support to cope up with such events and regain the normalcy of their life.
The government of the nation is an essential stakeholder in minimizing the cases of domestic violence as it is the government of the nation which is responsible for formulating required strategies and policies for preventing such crimes like NSW Strategy to Reduce Violence against Women which helps the community to fight such evils. In addition to it government also helps in delivering justice in such cases (Vernon, 2007). The government with the help of its various campaigns likes Freedom from Free also helps in bringing social awareness and emancipation regarding domestic violence which in turn results in minimizing the occurrence (Gibbons and Paterson, 2007). Hence, all the above discussed stakeholders by working in a collaborative and coordinated manner can reduce the prevalence of domestic violence within the society.
Thus on the basis of the above made discussion, it can be observed that domestic violence is a multi-layered and complex issue which have short term as well as long term impact on its victim which are primarily women of lower strata. Such social evils can be minimized by collaborative and coordinated working of hospitals, NGOs, police, government and victims of such crime.
Devries, K. M., Mak, J. Y., Garcia-Moreno, C., Petzold, M., Child, J. C., Falder, G., ... & Pallitto, C. (2013). The global prevalence of intimate partner violence against women. Science, 340(6140), 1527-1528.
Devries, K., Watts, C., Yoshihama, M., Kiss, L., Schraiber, L. B., Deyessa, N., ... & Berhane, Y. (2011). Violence against women is strongly associated with suicide attempts: evidence from the WHO multi-country study on women’s health and domestic violence against women. Social science & medicine, 73(1), 79-86.
Domesticviolence.com.au. (2017). IMPACT OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE ON WOMEN. [online] Available at: https://www.domesticviolence.com.au/pages/impact-of-domestic-violence-on-women.php [Accessed 13 May 2017].
Dss.gov.au. (2017). The National Plan to Reduce Violence against Women and their Children 2010 – 2022. [online] Available at: https://www.dss.gov.au/women/programs-services/reducing-violence/the-national-plan-to-reduce-violence-against-women-and-their-children-2010-2022 [Accessed 13 May 2017].
Ellsberg, M., Heise, L., Pena, R., Agurto, S., & Winkvist, A. (2007). Researching domestic violence against women: methodological and ethical considerations. Studies in family planning, 32(1), 1-16.
Filocamo, G., Mencacci, C., & Bramante, A. (2009). Domestic violence against women. Quaderni Italiani di Psichiatria, 28(2), 49-58.
Garcia-Moreno, C., & Watts, C. (2011). Violence against women: an urgent public health priority. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 89(1), 2-2.
Garcia-Moreno, C., Heise, L., Jansen, H. A., Ellsberg, M., & Watts, C. (2007). Violence against women. Science, 310(5752), 1282-1283.
Gibbons, L. and Paterson, D. (2007). FREEDOM FROM FEAR CAMPAIGN AGAINST DOMESTIC VIOLENCE: AN INNOVATIVE APPROACH TO REDUCING CRIME. [online] aic.gov.au. Available at: https://www.aic.gov.au/media_library/conferences/criminality/gibbons.pdf [Accessed 13 May 2017].
Popcenter.org. (2017). Factors Contributing to Domestic Violence. [online] Available at: https://www.popcenter.org/problems/domestic_violence/2 [Accessed 13 May 2017].
Saili, J., Mahfoz, N., Labong, E. P., & Putit, Z. (2014). Domestic Violence against Women.
Sokoloff, N. J., & Dupont, I. (2007). Domestic violence at the intersections of race, class, and gender challenges and contributions to understanding violence against marginalized women in diverse communities. Violence against women, 11(1), 38-64.
Vernon, C. (2007). The NSW Strategy To Reduce Violence Against Women. [online] aic.gov.au. Available at: https://www.aic.gov.au/media_library/conferences/partnership/vernon.pdf [Accessed 13 May 2017].
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