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Question:

When and Why do states co-operate?
 
 

Answer:

Introduction

A state is referred to as an established political unit, where power is from a central region, which is under one government. A state comprises of many societies within its boundaries.  A state has the political power to rule the communities that are under it. Thus, all the countries in the world today are referred to as states, as they govern all the communities within their range (Bowman & Kearney 2017).  One single government governs a state. This state government sets up rules that guide the entire state; these regulations outline how activities in that state are carried out. These regulations may be specific powers, responsibilities and more reserved superiority that the national government does not have.

With the institution of sovereignty and statehood, states can co-operate politically, militarily and economically. Each three ways of co-operation provide states with mutual benefits. At the minimum, a state will comply and co-operate to avoid conflict. States will always show cooperation with other states because they need each other at times. States make the decision of cooperating with each other, only if they have interests to achieve from the Cooperation  (Organization for Economic Co-operation and development 2010). For instance, in the World War, the United Kingdom and America partnered in bringing down Germany (Hinds 2016). This cooperation was developed because of their interests in winning the world war and bringing down Germany. States will always cooperate to achieve some various benefits. According to histories, there have been unions formed among states from the cooperation. As mentioned earlier, states cooperate in three ways, which is political co-operation, military co-operation, and economic co-operation. This essay aims at providing reasons as to why states cooperate with each and when they do so. It is a comprehensive analysis of the historical alliances that have been formed so far in the history and the benefit that these states accrued from the cooperation.

 

Political Co-operation

The main reason as to why organizations co-operate politically is to solve international conflicts in a more diplomatic manner. Political cooperation is the union between different government from various states, who collaborate to achieve a shared agenda or objective. This political cooperation is aimed at solving international matters and working together with nations for the advantage of all the states involved (Das 2013). For instance, this partnership involves the formation of mutual relationships within states, where ambassadors in each are allocated to represent their countries. Political cooperation involves the understanding of state cultures, to be able to solve global issues amicably. Political co-operation can occur in different circumstances such as economic issues facing countries, defining boundaries within territories or during terrorist attacks, where military assistance is needed (Quillin 2014). For example, a political co-operation between the United States and African countries has developed, where America offers the third world countries financial assistance to boost their economic status (Vivekanandan 2016).

After the World War II, United Nations (UN) was formed. This major political co-operation has been there since the end of World War II.  The aim of the cooperation was to create a body that would enhance collaboration among states politically. Thus the UN was formed. This organization aims to promote unity in political states (United Nations 2009). This organization aims to enhance political cooperation among all the states in the world. It ensures that states related peacefully among each other. The main reason behind the establishment of this intergovernmental organization was to prevent the third World War from occurring. Political cooperation involves forming treaties that seek to build mutual relationships among each member state. There are other instances of political cooperation in the world.

The second evidence of political cooperation is the formation of the African Union.  Muammar Gaddafi established this Union in Ethiopia on 26 May 2001. This political collaboration was aimed at promoting economic and political status within the African States. This Union replaced Organization of African Union, a treaty that had been formed in 1963. This union had many goals which it aimed to achieve. Among them were to protect the territorial boundaries of African states, to enhance the relationship between member states, to enhance cooperation internationally and to promote stability and peace in member states ( Badejo 2008).among its achievements, the African Union has seen massive growth of cooperation with other countries in the world. 

Another political union that was formed was the organization of American States. This union was formed with the aim of establishing cooperation between the American states. This organization has seen 35 member states join the union. It was formed on April 30, 1948 (Finkelman 2009). The objectives were for political reasons. For instances, this union seeks to enhance the integrity of territorial boundaries within the member states, eradicate poverty and to improve the union between these countries. With the end of the Cold War, in the 1990s, the Organization of American States (OAU). Took a new direction to fit the comeback of democracy in America (Ronald 2008). It established new objectives. These objectives include:

The primary objective was to encourage democracy in member states by giving the government, both national and international more strength. This encouragement would, in turn, help American states to fight against corruption.  Other objectives were enhancing peace and unity, fighting for human rights, establishing free trade in the continent and finally bringing about balanced development in these states.

The Southeast Asian nations also agreed to form a union for political cooperation. The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) was formed with ten member states in 1967.  This association aims to promote economic affairs and promote peace and unity among the member states. This union seeks to help every member state in research of matters that are similar to the states. The association aims to create stability economically of member states to enhance studies in the Southeast Asian region (Asean 2009).

 

Military Co-operation

Military cooperation is formed in agreement among different states to curb security crisis. This collaboration is often established even without a crisis at hand.  These nations in the military alliance collaboration, aim at offering support to member states at any time.  These alliances are loyal to their agreement ant they promise to be there for a state whenever the need arises. Military alliances are formed to secure each other’s interest and to prevent war among the nations. This cooperation ensures that all conflicts between nations are solved peacefully and that a consensus is reached. One of the important military collaboration was during the World War II.  France, American, and Britain supported each other in conquering Nazi Germany (Harris et al. 2015).  These nations supported each other and showed their loyalty during the war. Nations in the world have shown to form a military alliance with each other. After the World War II, there were military alliances that were born with the aim of preventing a third attack. The super power countries led to these military alliances after the war, which is the United States and the Soviet Union

There were two main alliances, that is, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and Warsaw Pact (Heiss 2013).These military alliances had one goal of fighting back if one of the States was attacked. These military alliances were formed from the existence of two super power states. This period was the era of the Cold War.

NATO alliance

This collaboration was formed immediately after the Second World War It consisted of US, European countries in the west and Canada. Its main objective was to stop communism being spread by the Soviet Union (NATO 2015). This military alliance was formed in 1949. The United States wanted to prevent the spread communism in the continent. Other objectives of this alliance were to help European states to rebuild their economies after World War II and to prevent the occurrence of attacks by the Soviet Union.  It aimed at providing for the member states security against the cold war attack and other attacks as well that may come up. This alliance has kept the history of being the biggest peace military alliance.  NATO is still in existence up to date despite the fact that it was formed to counter the Cold War that was developing at that time. Members have insisted on maintaining the alliance for future security reasons.

Warsaw Pact alliance

This cooperation was formed in 1955.This alliance was also a post-World War II collaboration that aimed at fighting against the NATO states. The member states of this Pact were European countries in the east, such as Germany, Soviet Union, and Poland among others (The United States 2009).  The leader of this alliance was the Soviet Union. The main objectives were to provide the Soviet Union a buffer zone of allied states between the Western countries and Russian to discourage a third German invasion in the 20th century. This alliance would ensure no more war operations took place in the state. However, in 1991, this alliance was disintegrated because there was no confrontation between the east and west countries. At this time, Soviet Union had begun falling apart (Pappas and Kramer 2009).

OSCE (Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe)

This military co-operation deals with security issues of the member's states. According to Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (2007), it was formed in 1973 as CSCE but was renamed into OSCE in 1995. It comprises of 57 members in part of America, Asia, and Europe. The primary objectives of this military alliance are conflict management, safeguarding human rights, and fighting for the press freedom. It also promotes post-conflict rehabilitation and management of the major crisis in member states.

Military alliances always combine all the co-operation for the states. These alliances more than often encompass political, security and economic stabilities of nations. Military cooperation creates a peaceful ground for all the other state co-operation to take place within states and internationally. They offer protection to government states against terrorism and other war attacks.

 

Economic Co-operation

These are the partnership of states regarding wealth, resources, and finances.  This is how countries relate to each other when money is involved. This collaboration in economies occurs in the process of trade among the states. After the Soviet Union had gone down, economic trade increased due to the increase in capitalist markets and significantly influenced individuals in the nations. This has led to growth in the economy of each state, and their main goal is to improve their infrastructures and increase the economic influence internationally. Economic alliances in the world have realized a different direction, due to the increase in freedom of economies in states and integration of finances (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 2009). The fact that, countries can overcome barriers to currencies and trade entries, the collaboration of states economically has become much easier.

Through this economic co-operation, states globally have been able to form unions that assist in improving each state's economy. This union forms trade relationships within the member states and ensure that trading within is free and trade barriers are eliminated by the government state. The primary goal of economic co-operation is to take the economy of an individual state a notch higher. Some of the unions formed are:

 European Union

This an excellent example of an economic union in Europe that is made up of 28 states. It was first established in 1958; however, other two treaties were signed after (Woolcock 2016). The main objective of the European Union to established a market internally, for all member states. There was imposed a standards system of regulations in that market. The goal was to establish free trade within that market that was to ensure services, products, and people move freely without restriction in the process of trading. This European Union has managed to create one market for all the member states. After the World War II, Europe economic was completely demolished and by establishing this union, it was a way of healing the scar that had been left behind after the war.  The European Union has managed to bring back the economy of Europe into a stabilized and better position (Nell 2010). In the 21st century, European Union is the largest economy presently in the world. In the latest statistics, end of the fiscal year 2016, the Gross Domestic Product of European Union was at $16 trillion (Anon 2007).

The members of the European Union are placed under a geographical region known as Eurozone.in this economic and geographical region, the euro currency is adopted for use. Globally the euro has been classified as the liquid currency in comparison to others, and thus its development is far ahead.  This currency has gained more preferences in Central Banks, and the rank position in the bank is rising. The presence of Eurozone integrates nations to the regional organization in the entire Europe (Anon 2009). In improving the economy of member states of the Union, the European Central Bank has a role in setting rates that minimize inflation throughout Europe. It also sets rules that states have to follow when carrying out trade in the region. However, due to this rules there a lot of limitation in self-determination by organizations.

 

Commonwealth of Nations

This intergovernmental organization was initial known as British Commonwealth. This organization was first founded in 1926 but was declared in London in1949.  It is made of 52 member states and headed by Queen Elizabeth II. It bases its motivation on equal and free grounds (McIntyre 2009). This organization was established for economic co-operation among the member states. It aims at promoting democracy, free trade, peace and unity, and equality.  The main objectives that this organization seeks to achieve are the fight against diseases, poverty, and ignorance among member states.

Apart from being a political alliance, the African Union is an economic union as well. Its primary objectives regarding the economy are to accelerate the economic factors within the member states. This union seeks to harmonize economic regulations with the member states, to develop a condition that allows member states to carry out trade freely and to cut down the barriers of trade within this states. For instance, this member states have developed a trade relationship with other countries internationally, and have received trade security from the Union (African Union 2007).

Conclusion

This analysis provides the insights into the main reasons as to why States cooperates with others. The report is a complete examination of the three reasons why states corporate and when they do so. There is a full outline, of case examples of unions that portray the collaboration of states with others internationally.  State co-operation is brought out as an important aspect of the economy, political stability and security purposes of an organization. This report brings out the importance of the state cooperation and why every state should collaborate with other states in achieving various benefits as an independent state. This report develops an in-depth exploration of economic co-operation, political co-operation and military alliances in the world. In a nutshell, for a country to relates well with other states internationally, it should build a foundation for collaborating with others through joining states unions.

 

References

(2007). OECD Economic Surveys: European Union. Paris, OECD Publishing. https://dx.doi.org/10.1787/2072506x

Asean. (2009). ASEAN political-security community blueprint. Jakarta, ASEAN Secretariat.

Badejo, D. (2008). The African Union. New York, Chelsea House.

Bowman, A. O., & Kearney, R. C. (2017). State And Local Government.

Das, K. (2013). China And Central Asia political, economic and security co-operation. New Delhi, New Century Publ.

Harris, N., Borrough, S., & Vaughan, J. (2015). World War II. https://public.eblib.com/choice/publicfullrecord.aspx?p=2044112.

Heiss, M. A. (2013). NATO and the Warsaw Pact: Intrabloc Conflicts. Kent State University Press. https://public.eblib.com/choice/publicfullrecord.aspx?p=3120161.

Hinds, M. F. (2016). The US, the UK, and Saudi Arabia in World War II: the Middle East and the origins of a special relationship.

McIntyre, W. D. (2009). The Britannic vision: historians and the making of the British Commonwealth of nations, 1907-48. Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan

NATO. (2015). Defense Strategic Communications: the official journal of the NATO Strategic Communications Centre of Excellence. https://www.bibliothek.uni-regensburg.de/ezeit/?2851359.

Nell, G. L. (2010). Rediscovering fire: basic economic lessons from the Soviet experiment. New York, Algora Pub. https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/concordiaab-ebooks/detail.action?docID=617409.

Organization for Security And Co-Operation In Europe. (2007). OSCE handbook. Vienna, Austria, OSCE Press and Public Information Section. https://www.osce.org/publications/sg/2007/10/22286_1002_en.pdf.

Organisation for Economic Co-Operation And Development. (2010). Better regulation in Europe. Paris, OECD. https://public.eblib.com/choice/publicfullrecord.aspx?p=540173

Pappas, A., & Kramer, M. (2009). Warsaw Pact, 1955-1991: treaty of friendship, cooperation and mutual assistance: Soviet-East European military relations in historical perspective: sources and reassessments. [Washington, DC], [Central Intelligence Agency]. https://purl.fdlp.gov/GPO/gpo15405

Quillin, B. (2014). International financial cooperation: political economics of compliance with the 1988 Basel accord. [Place of publication not identified], Routledge.

United Nations. (2009). United Nations Peace Operations year in review 2008. New York,

United Nations. https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&scope=site&db=nlebk&db=nlabk&AN=450825

United States. (2009). Soviet and Warsaw Pact military journals. [Washington, DC], [Central Intelligence Agency]. https://www.foia.cia.gov/collection/soviet-and-warsaw-pact-military-journals.

Vivekanandan, B. (2016). Global Visions of Olof Palme, Bruno Kreisky, and Willy Brandt: International Peace and Security, Co-operation, and Development. Cham, Springer International Publishing. https://public.eblib.com/choice/publicfullrecord.aspx?p=4699874.

Woolcock, S. (2016). European Union Economic Diplomacy: The Role of the EU in External EconomicRelations.https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&scope=site&db=nlebk&db=nlabk&AN=1288618.

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