Generally, this research paper is divided into four major parts or questions in order to fulfill the aims and objectives of the study. For case, the first part is about research plan for the research that describes and analyzes various concepts and principles and applications of research that could be used in the accounting. Moreover, the second part of the study would address and analyze the key differences among the Quantitative and Qualitative Research Designs and their used. The next part of the study is suggests that how the Explanatory Sequential Mixed Methods are different as compare to Exploratory Sequential Mixed Methods in the research. Finally, this research paper analyzes and evaluates the major factors or forces that may affect the successful implementation of management accounting systems in small and medium enterprises (SMEs).
The Objective of the Research: Based on the given scenario, it is analyzed that, the main objective/purpose of conducting the research is “to find and access the views and opinion of the company staff about the use of new system within the company.” Moreover, to provide specific suggestions and recommendation in order to bring improvement within the current new system to overcome future challenges and issues is also the key aim of the research (Punch, 2013).
Use of Qualitative Approach: Generally, a qualitative research approach would be used in this research in order to effectively and properly address the research questions and solve the research problems in an effective and proper manner. In addition to this, qualitative research approach would be used because it is most appropriate technique to collect qualitative information about the research topic, research questions and attain the research outcomes. For example, qualitative research will also offer in depth information about the research problem and help in addressing the research questions properly (Ng, Lingard, and Kennedy, 2013). In the same way, by using qualitative research method, information and data can be collected easily that is essential to address the research questions. Qualitative research method is also allows the researcher to collect subjective information and explore new area of research. For case, with the help of qualitative research approach, the researcher can address and solve the complex research questions that can only be possible with qualitative research. On the other hand, in this study, the researcher would use qualitative research in order to collect detailed information about the opinion and attitude of staff regarding the use of new system (Taylor, Bogdan, and DeVault, 2015).
The population & Participants: In the study, the staff of the accounting firm and business partners are the population in the study which the employee or staff would be the main participant in this research because they are using new system in the company. Participants would play a lot of significant role in the overall success of the research because they will help in solving the research question and addressing the research problem effectively (Gerrish, and Lacey, 2010).
Determination of Sample Size: In this research study, sample size would be determined by considering a number of observations and replicates. Moreover, the researcher would use and determine sample size in this study on the basis of data collection. At the same time, it is also important to know that, in this research study, the researcher would adopt various specific and scientific methods to determine the sample size from the study. For example, the researcher can use own experience and targeting the population of the study to determine the sample size in effective and proper manner (Mertens, 2014).
How the sample of participants will be selected from the population: In this study, the researcher would adopt and use various techniques and method of sampling in order to select the sample of participants from the population. For example, simple random sampling, Systematic sampling, stratified sampling, clustered sampling, convenience sampling, Quota sampling etc are the most common and valuable sampling techniques that can be used as per the nature of study in order to select the sample from the population. This sampling method is more valuable in the research that allows the researchers to infer important data and information about a population. As this research is qualitative research, so the research would use simple random sampling method to select the sample (O'Leary, 2013).
Data Collection from Participants: In this research study, data would be collected by using qualitative method of data collection. In addition to this, to collect the information from the participants of the study, the researcher would prepare and send a set of open and close ended questionnaire to the participants to gather the data and information about the research study. On the other hand, Surveys, and Interviews are other significant methods of collecting qualitative information from the participants. Hence, the research can conduct interviews and survey to gather the qualitative information to solve the research questions and address the research problem effectively (Mackey, and Gass, 2015).
Example of the Questions: The following are the key questions that will be posed to participants:
Steps to analyze the collected Data: The following are the major steps that would be used to analyze the collected data such as:
Limitations: This research has not wider scope for the further research because lack of appropriate research methods and techniques. Moreover, the research does not have clear research objectives, questions, and methods that is main limitation of this study. There is also no link among the research questions and research problem that is other limitations of this study (Baskerville, and Wood-Harper, A2016).
The questions used in interviews are constructed differently in quantitative compared to qualitative research designs. For example, in the quantitative research design, interview questions are design to generate numerical data or information that is transferred into tables, charts and statics. But, in the Qualitative research design, interview questions are design to understand the motivation, reasons, and understanding. Moreover, when a research uses quantitative method to create interview questions, he or she use measurable data to formulate facts and uncover patterns in research (Smyth, 2016). But, Qualitative method is used to collect the quality data from the interview. Along with this, it is also important to know that, in the qualitative method, interview questions are develop by using various methods & techniques such as: individual interviews, focus groups, participation/observations etc. In contrast, when interview questions are developed as per the quantitative method, the researcher uses different methods including face-to-face interviews, online polls, paper surveys, kiosk surveys, longitudinal studies, telephone interviews, online polls, website interceptors etc. Hence, it can be said that, questions used in interviews are constructed differently in quantitative compared to qualitative research designs (Guercini, 2014).
There are several differences can be found among the Explanatory Sequential and Exploratory Sequential mixed method techniques of research. For example, Explanatory Sequential Mixed Methods is use to analyze and collect the quantitative data with the help of qualitative analysis. But, Exploratory Sequential Mixed Methods mainly is utilized by the researcher to collect the qualitative data (Thomas, Nelson and Silverman, 2011). On the other hand, Explanatory Sequential method firstly focuses on gathering quantitative information then it collects qualitative in order to investigate the quantitative results. In the same way, it generates quantitative results effectively. In contrast, in using of Exploratory Sequential method, the researcher first gather qualitative information and then collect quantitative data. So, it produces quantitative information for the researcher (Vaishnavi, and Kuechler, 2015).
In addition to this, it should also be noted down that, each types of research mixed methods design are used in the research to conduct the research. Both are appropriate for the research but use for the different purpose. For example, Explanatory Sequential Mixed Methods is most appropriate when the researcher wants to collect qualitative results to explain and interpreting the finding of a quantitative study. At the same time, Exploratory Sequential mixed method is appropriate when the researcher try to develop and test a new instrument in the research study (Tran, 2016).
It is analyzed that, Simples Solution is a consulting company that helps its client organizations in improving internal communications. Moreover, it is decided by the management of the company that, Simples Solution would adopt computerized information processing system in run the business operations and functions accurately, smoothly and effectively. The new system would provide a lot of benefits to the employees and organizations. For case, the new system would allow the accountants to conduct various accounting functions and transactions more innovatively and effectively (Whitbeck, 2011). On the other hand, the functions of the new system would not be limited because it would also help the organizational people to collect significant and meaningful information to make most appropriate decision. In the same way, the new computerized information processing system would improve decision making abilities of the employees in developing client record keeping system. But, there are several factors or forces that may contribute or hinder the successful implementation of management accounting systems in small and medium enterprises (SMEs). As an assistant accountant at Simples Solution, I am responsible to make a report on the factors that may affect the success of the new system (Veiga, and Eloff, 2007).
It is found that, there would be several types of technological factors that would affect the success of new systems. For example, service quality, system quality and information quality are the major technological factors that may affect the acceptance of new computerized information processing system and increase the performance of the new system within the small and medium company. On the other hand, if the new system would be easy to use, flexible, easy to learning, and responsible, it would improve the organizational productivity, and profitability. In contrast, if the new system would not be flexible and easy, it may affect the success and growth of the company. At the same time, it is analyzed that, computer self-efficacy and user experience are the people oriented factors that may affect the success of new system in the company (Duggan, Johnson, and Grawemeyer, 2012).
Apart from this, there may be various organizational factors that would have a direct impact on the successfully implementation of new system. For case, top management support, and end-user training are considered two major factors that could affect the implementation process. It is because the successfully implantations of new system would require proper and specific support from the top management to attain the key objectives. If there would be no support from the higher management of the company, the new system could not be successfully implemented at the company. On the other hand, after the support from top management, a small and medium company would have to provide and conduct the training programs on the new system so that the employees can effectively understand the benefits and advantages of using new systems (Jansen, and Grance, 2011).
The cost and time are others factors that may also affect the success of new system. For instance, when the company implements the new system at the workplace, it would require recruiting special and technical staff to effectively execute the new system. So, in recruiting of new staff, the company has to pay them for their services that may increase the costs of the company and affect the profitability of the company. Moreover, Availability of Resources can also create a lot of challenges and affect the success of new systems. For case, if there would be lack of available resources, the company could not successfully execute the new system at the workplace. (Bidgoli, 2006).
In addition to this, involvement of the stakeholders, proper training, leadership and management support, available resources, financial support from company, and support from the community etc are the fundamental forces that may affect the successfully implementation of new technology or system at the workplace. For example, all the stakeholders such as: customers, employees, management, investors, community should participate in the new system and provide their suggestion to make it more successful. If there would be no proper support, the company could not be able to implement a new system effectively at the company. It may also affect the results and outcomes in the future. On the other hand, it is also important for a company to provide sufficient resources to their staff, technical teams, and employee so that they could effectively and properly adopt new system at the workplace. In contrast, if a company does not provide required resources, the staff would not be able to adopt new system at the workplace. Hence, there should be proper and sufficient resources in order to execute the new system successfully (Veiga, and Eloff, 2007).
Apart from this, it should also be noted down that, in order to make new system more successful, a company should also provide financial assistance to their staff so that can utilize available resource to attain the objectives of new systems. At the same time, it is also important to the company to promote the needs and wants for the new system at the workplace to make technology more successful. In addition to this, it is also found that, for the use and execution of new computerized information processing system, a company would also need to develop innovative, dynamic and specific strategies in order to fulfill the aims and objectives associated with the new technology and systems. Moreover, the employee’s motivational level should be increased to successfully use the new system at the workplace. Furthermore, a company should also analyze both internal as well as external business environment before implementing any new system. It is because without analyzing the external and internal factors, the company could not be success in executing new system in the company. Hence, it can be said that, all these factors would affect the success of new computerized information processing system (Guercini, 2014).
Overall, it can be concluded that, the concepts, principles, applications of the research plays significant role in the accounting setting and such concepts could improve the accounting and financial performance of the companies. Moreover, it can be said that, both Between Explanatory Sequential Mixed Methods and Exploratory Sequential Mixed Methods are not similar. Quantitative and Qualitative Research Designs are major different methods used in research to attain the research objectives and various differences could be found among these two. Finally, it can be concluded that, organizational, technical and people oriented factors affect the success of new system in a company.
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