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STRM059 Business Research Project

tag 0 Download 0 Pages / 0 Words tag 18-06-2022
  • Course Code: STRM059
  • University: University Of Northampton
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  • Country: United Kingdom

Answer:

Introduction

In the modern era, there have been establishment of various companies and organizations that concentrate on various manufacturing and service sectors and provide various products and commodities to the consumers who are surviving globally (Armstrong and Taylor 2014). The organizations that are operating in the global market has the main motive of gaining profit from the market and establish themselves in the market with the help of competitive advantage. There are various factors that are dependent on a company gaining profit and making a name for them in the market (Kehoe and Wright 2013). One of them has been the employees who have been working in the company as they are the backbone of an organization. Hence, every organization looks to establish an effective human resource department which only concentrates on the development and the wellbeing of the employees. The employees can give their best only when they are satisfied. Hence, the human resource department makes use of effective plans like the human resource practices that can be useful for keeping the employees satisfied and happy (Chelladurai and Kerwin 2017). It is the duty of the human resource department to frequently analyse the practices that have been implemented so that the any faults and improvements can be rectified and introduced within the organization.

Human resource practices have been one of the most influential factors for the development of an organization and hence it is seen that organizations that are functioning in Mauritius have their unique human resource practice plans that they can implement so that employee satisfaction can be maintained(Jackson, Schuler and Jiang 2014). This paper has specifically concentrated on the organization named Intermart that functions in Mauritius and has tried to analyse their human resource practices and how they have been successful in bringing employee satisfaction with the help of their practices.

Background of the Study

Mauritius is a developing country, which is a part of the African continent and is located at the south of Asia. Mauritius is a country that has a developing economy and therefore various organizations have been operating their market in order to increase the extent of revenue and to maintain the competitive edge and the increase their customer base. The attainment of the same is possible with the help of effective human resource practices that would be useful for maintaining effective operational activities. The current research paper concentrates on the human resource practices in that is influential in the employee satisfaction in Intermart. Intermart is a Mauritius based supermarket chain that operates in the country and sells various lines of products that is useful for the consumers. The company has a large set of employees as there are a variety of departments where employees are required. It is seen that human resource department of the firm is an important department and it is seen that this company has a unique human resource practices policies that aids the management in retaining their employees in an effective manner (Liu et al. 2017). It is seen that there are various employee retention is one of the important aspects of any firm and increase in employee turnover would have an effect on the operations of the firm.

The examination serves to highlight contrasts portraying the neighbouring urban communities of Mauritius. The cost of supplanting specialists is frequently belittled in spite of the fact that there are many hidden expenditure and furthermore, outcome of work turnover (Schaufeli and Taris 2014). Gatewood, Feild and Barrick(2015) depict how large amounts of turnover have more than a money related cost: they additionally influence the inspiration and work environment spirit of the representatives who remain. Likewise, retraining new representatives affects efficiency levels. With a specific end goal to maintain a strategic distance from these unenthusiastic outcomes of worker attrition, it is essential to concentrate on main drivers and execute superlative practice HRMpractices in Intermart.

As research demonstrates that organizational commitment and job satisfaction are critical to maintenance in the workforce Karatepe(2013), this examination will take a gander at the association of these factors in Intermart as specific variables influencing representative maintenance.

In the present business condition, representatives have all the earmarks of being less dedicated to their particular associations (Boxall and Macky 2014). Moreover, the absence of soundness in the business showcase has made disparities in the work and wage levels accessible in Mauritius. However, this paper has been constructed in order to find out whether Intermart has a better human resource practices than the normal practices within the country.

Research Objectives and Aims

The construction of the aim and objectives of the paper is important so that a better research can be undertaken and the research paper can be completed effectively and in anappropriate manner. The aims and the objectives of the research paper are discussed below:

  • To discover to what degree the Human Resource Management practices and the job involvement in Intermart may have an effect on the employee satisfaction
  • To explore the effect of training and development in Intermart with respect to employee satisfaction
  • To examine the effect remuneration having an impact on employee satisfaction in Intermart
  • To examine the relationship between reward and recognition and remuneration on the effect of employee satisfaction.

Research Hypothesis

Human Resource Management and organizational culture does not have an impact on employee satisfaction of Intermart

Human Resource Management and organizational culture does have an impact on employee satisfaction of Intermart

Training and development does not helps in improving the level of employee satisfaction in IntermartTraining and development help in improving the level of employee satisfaction in Intermart

Improvement is employee satisfaction does not has an impact on job involvement

Improvement is employee satisfaction have an impact on job involvement

Reward and recognition does not lead to improvement in the employee satisfaction in Intermart

Reward and recognition leads to improvement in the employee satisfaction in Intermart

Research Problem

The research problem is the reason why the researcher has undertaken the research paper with respect to this topic. It has been viewed that employee satisfaction is a significant factor for any firm and it is seen that every organization undertakes their own initiatives to retain their employees so that their competitive edge and profit level increases. It has been observed that the HR practices in the organizations operating in Mauritius has been poorsignificantly as the country is still is a developing nation and it is seen that this research will therefore try to discover out the effectiveness of the human resource practices that have been implemented by Intermart so that the leveljob satisfaction of the employees working in the company can be improved.

Review of the literature

The next part of the thesis constitutes of the review of literature that would explain the various aspects and the suggestions that have been given by previous experts with respect to comparable topics. It has been observed that the literature review will be dominant for the establishment of the research in a precise manner.

Literature Review

Focus

The literature review has been established in order to cover the latest studies and researches that have been undertaken with respect to the employee satisfaction and how it is directly or inversely associated with the various human resource practices like job involvement, training and development and remuneration and rewards that are given out to the employees by the organization. The literature review provides previous suggestions and explanations that have been given out the researchers who have undertaken similar researches (Zopiatis, Constanti and Theocharous 2014). The human resource management plays a vital role in the development of any organization as employee satisfaction would mean that the organization would is growing and developing in a precise manner.

The effect of liberalisation and globalisation has played a key role in the development of the organizations and it has been observed that operational activities of Intermart will be investigated in accordance to the global business factors (Alfes et al. 2013). The association between human resource practices that is commonly used in Mauritius and practices that are exploited by Intermart would be compared and the differences that are available within the practices in Intermart would be re-examined with the help of the human resource practices and the HR engineering with the assistance of distinct considerations with respect to the ineffective human resource activities that is having an impact on the employee satisfaction of Intermart.   

Introduction

In the operational function of Intermart there has been a variation in the operations of the business and the operational environment of the organization. As there are a large number of employees who are functioning in numerous departments it is seen that effective pay rates, suitable working conditions and stability in the employee satisfaction would be influential for the development of the operational activities of Intermart. By looking at the past researches, it is seen that human resource practices that have been functioning in Mauritius have been precisely insignificant and hence it has been observed that degree of unemployment and employee attrition has been higher (Arcade et al. 2015). Conversely, it is seen human resource management in Intermart has been precisely better than the general level of human resource practices that have been existent in Mauritius. This has been mainly due to the fact that regulations and the policies that have been framed by Intermart has been effective and therefore has led to development of the firm. The review of literature would therefore depict the numerous policies and the structure that has been suggested by several researchers so that a comparison can be undertaken with respect to the policies that have been incorporated by Intermart and these aspects can be understood in the data analysis segment of the thesis thereby recognising the issues and establishing plans in order to enhance the scenario that is under consideration. 

Principles behind HR practices

Human resource management has developed from the nature of being task oriented of managing the personnel administration and towards a strategy concentrated development of the company. The transformation towards a strategic partnership function aids in the development of the efficient management system (Vaioleti 2016). The process of human resource management moves forwards with the help of numerous principles of business specifically the “Four C” gathering of the HR management principles that has been constructed by the human resource management researchers.

Overview

The core factor to the human resource management and the Four C framework has been four major principles of guidance which has been explained as the Harvard Map. These principles have been significantly been supportive for the human resource experts in order to explain how the strategic management aspects of human resource has an impact on the three distinct stakeholders, which has been the individual employees, the society and the company which the firm serves (Bakker and Demerouti 2014). The various principles have been discussed as follows:

Commitment

Job security recognizes the internal requirement that the employees have to reveal their commitment towards the company and their job responsibilities. The HR management accomplishes the requirement with the help ascertain that the level of staffing is stable according to the requirements of the business and that the employees can significantly expect that they can be long term employees for the organization (Stone and Deadrick 2015). The company explains their commitment towards the staffs and therefore invests in their accomplishments by giving out opportunities of training, evaluation of the performance and goal establishing activities. The community and the surrounding society is the one that benefits from the employment of the employers in providing opportunities for employment that sustains in the economy (Aryee et al. 2016). 

Competence

Competence is a principle that aids in the development of a business. Furthermore, it has been a factor in fulfilment of the activities of the representatives and how the business organization has an influence on the society. A developed company is dependent on the efficient employees who comprehend desires of the management of the company where they work. The HR management of an organization maintains competency of the workforce with the help of preparation and incorporation to redesign and enhance the abilities and occupation information of the organizations (Twigg and McCullough 2014). The impact that competency has on society is the creation of dependable and secured management of the human resource policies. Without the help of increased capability, the companies open itself to probable lawful actions against the products and the services it offers or the management it renders (Bakker and Demerouti 2014).

Cost Effectiveness

The plan and the policies of human resource management and practices has been to assist all the significant HR exercises, specifically in the regions, for instance preparing, selecting, and development along with employee relationship. HR department is not an income producing division, which is one reason why the expense plans for the HR departments may be the fundamental aspect (Bauer 2014). HR services are normally given a higher standard for outlining the rate of return for its actions. It has been the principle function of the human resource management to make use of cost effective and suitable strategies that would enhance the operational activities of a business with the help of satisfied employees and appointment of competent employees (Rayton and Yalabik 2014). The HR department analyses the various plans and policies that are available in the economy and assesses the one that would be ideal for the organization. The policies are framed by taking suggestions from the employees and the management in order to customise the plan effectively.  

Congruence

Congruence management of the workforce requires having the objectives that must be consistent with the general aim of the firm. The objectives, for instance, have been turning into an industry leader that requires the HR department to concentrate on appointing competent individuals who are suitable for imaginative innovative functioning of organizational actions (Rao 2014). This kind of "Harmoniousness" framework is constructed ideally for the individual employees and the company as a whole. Its impact on the society is an action that provides profession opportunities to the encompassing working environment and effective products and services to their consumers (Blumberg, Cooper and Schindler 2014).

There are various human resource principles that needs to be undertaken by the HR department has been scientific selection, development of the employee, cooperation of the employee management, principle of free flow of the communication, looking into the effective and fair remuneration and the principles of effective incentive to the employees (Neuman 2014).  The HR principles even involves maintaining the dignity of the employees, motivating the employees to participate in the workings and the decision making abilities of the business and development of team spirit so that there remains a sense of brotherhood among the employees functioning in the same environment.  

The acquisition of competent employees who would boost up the business of the organization, development of the plans and policies that would be useful for the organization to fulfil their objectives, construction of policies and reward mechanism that would motivate the employees and maintenance of the plans and policies with the assistance of frequent supervision and examination so that every issues can be handled effectively (Budhwar and Debrah 2013). 

HR Functions

The Human Resource Management of any company has the idea of understanding the aims and objectives of the business and establishing plans that would be effective enough for the development of the business. The HR functions require being competent in order to understand the needs of the organization and implement the plans that would be best suited for them. It has been due to this fact that most of the organizations look to implement the basic HR functions that are seen in the economy (Appelbaum 2013).The development of the proper recruitment process in order to appoint competent employees in the operational environment has been a significant factor. It is even the job of the human resource management to look into the safety of the employees and the operational activities that are undertaken by the company. Boella and Goss-Turner (2013) has cited that safeguarding the intentions of the employees and the satisfying them has been an influential factor in order to enhance the operational function of the organization. Paillé et al.(2014) has explained that one of the significant functions of the human resource department has been to develop improved employee relations so that each and every employee understand the emotions and the feelings of each other so that a sense of brotherhood can be established which in turn would improve the operations of the company. The compensations along with the training and development are significant human resource functions that the organizations take into account in order to complete the activities of the business (Carlson et al. 2014). The HR department even looks at the compliance of with respect to the laws and the regulations that has been set forth by the government where the company operates.

However, in accordance to the statement of the problem that has been put forth by in this thesis, it is observed that job involvement, training and development and remunerations and rewards that are given out by the organizations to their employees play a key part for the development of the companies in accordance to the objectives that has been set forth by the companies (Cooke, Saini and Wang 2014). Hence, these three functions would be discussed explicitly in this paper in order to find out the significance of the same. 

Job Involvement

Job involvement alludes to how individuals see their occupations in connection to the working condition, the employment itself, and how their work and life are coordinated. Likewise, job involvement can be seen as a mental situation wherein a worker is intellectually engrossed with, occupied with, and worried about one's available employment. One of the finest meanings of Job involvement was proposed by (Epstein and Buhovac 2014) who characterized work inclusion as the level to which a representative is distinguished mentally with his employment or the significance of occupation in his add up to mental self view. There is a general agreement among researchers that workers with an abnormal state of employment contribution would put their occupations at the focal point of their general interests. Then again, representatives with low levels of job involvement focus on different interests as opposed to their occupations, and will be less imaginative and creative. Moreover, (AlBattat and Som 2013) contended that workers with high occupation association are more free and fearless—they not just direct their work as per the employment obligations required by the organization but on the other hand will probably do their work as per the representatives' observation of their own execution.

Workers with large amounts of job involvement tend to see their employments as focal to their own character and concentrate the vast majority of their consideration on their occupations (Cummings and Worley 2014). Job involvement is exceedingly affected by the workplace as it influences one to accept that one's work is important, offers control over how work is refined, keeps up a reasonable arrangement of behavioural standards, makes criticism concerning finished work accessible, and furnishes steady relations with administrators what's more, associates. In spite of the fact that indicated the comparability of the develops of work contribution and authoritative duty as both are related with labourer’s relationship with the occupation encounter; be that as it may, the two builds vary (Deery and Jago 2015). Job involvement is more connected with recognizable proof with labourer’s prompt work exercises while hierarchical duty is more connected with labourer’s connection to the association

Employee Training and Development

According to Morgeson et al.(2013), 38% of the professionals associated with the HR functions have considered that training and developing the employees has been one of the main issues for any organization. It is therefore seen that the organizations that have been able to manage their training and developing have been able to satisfy their employees and have been able to enhance their operational functions.

The employees appreciate the opportunity to establish new talents and skills and enhance their job performance and in a manner develop themselves towards more risky and complex roles (Den Hartog et al. 2013). It is essential to note that the education that is ongoing is appreciated by the employees from every age group as it plays a key role in staying up in the job market.

More significantly, it is seen that assisting and giving out training opportunities that have been ongoing reveals the commitment of the organization towards the enhancement of their employees. The employees then understand their importance and values and therefore look to give out their best (Lu and Gursoy 2016).

It is seen that the existing opportunities of training can be published as it is a significant aspect in the compensation program of a company. Conversely, and unlike the other benefits, the ongoing training can be reasonable.

From the point of view of the HR department, developing the talent is the optimum way to enhance the functions of the employees. It is seen that it is always economical to source the skills internally (Downey et al. 2015). The hiring of personnel at a junior position leads to lower costs of recruiting and therefore appointing a large of number of employees in the junior position automatically lowers the total cost of recruiting for the post, even after keeping place for the replacement of the junior posts (Leary 2016).

It is generally faster and easier to undertake an internal hire up in order to enhance the activities of an organization as the new person already has knowledge about everything that is required to be known about the organization (Fossum 2014). There are no real statistics on the subject but the skills and the idea that internally grown managers and executives perform much better on an aggregate than the ones appointed externally. It is seen that promoting intrinsic mobility with the assistance of training leads to a more effective and trustworthy employee force (Hohenstein, Feisel and Hartmann 2014).

As a whole, it is seen that enhancing the talent to hire the ever transforming requirements of the company is a holistic mechanism and hence a lot of researches have been undertaken in the process of employee training and its effectiveness (Knowles, Holton III and Swanson 2014). The incorporation of the learning benefits with the assistance of a digital working environment will increase the value of all the training programs that are undertaken by a firm.  

One of the effective ways of training and development has been gaining knowledge from their colleagues and seniors. However, this process is even a difficult mechanism of learning as it is seen that establishing this mechanism within the entire company becomes difficult (Kehoe and Wright 2013). Conversely, it is sufficient to appoint a training consultant in order to provide certain off-courses. One of the instances includes the mechanism of day to day learning.

The type of culture where the management looks to enhance their team members and are appreciated for that process and where all the employees are motivates to gain knowledge about new skills and even share them (Karatepe 2013).

An effective mechanism of communicating has been a precise process that would be beneficial for the development of the training and development programs as effective communication would suggest convey of training faster and in a way motivate the employees to understand and get trained faster and thereby giving the result out in the practical field of job. 

Employee Remuneration and Incentive

The role of the HR department in ascertaining the degree of benefits and salary for an employee or for a position is a key factor in the engagement, attraction, retention and motivation of an employee (Hoque 2013). There exists a specialised role for the process of remuneration and rewards but focus is always given on the reward, engagement, motivation and remuneration in addition to the salary a company provides to an employee in order to enhance their motivation and engagement towards the performance of the organization (Jackson, Schuler and Jiang 2014).

The process of remuneration involves awarding the employees financially with the help of extra allowance and restricting of the salary packages of an employee, which would enhance the operational activities of the organization. The deliverance of remuneration would motivate the employees to function effectively and this would attract new and potential employees to join the organization (Hülsheger et al. 2013).

The rewards and the benefits comprises of the non-financial rewards and the benefits that can be given to the employees in order to identify the contribution and the performance that has been delivered by the employees (Glesne 2015). The rewards and the recognitions consists of the tangible benefits like the technology, vehicles and bonuses and the intangible benefits that consists of the climate, optimistic culture and the flexible working mechanisms. These aspects are helpful for the development of the motivation of the employees that leads to the reduction in the level of attrition within the company (Jabbour and de Sousa Jabbour 2016). The rewards and the incentive programs that are undertaken by the companies are framed while constructing the business plan and they have been implemented annually or semi-annually by assessing the performance delivered by the employees (Humphries 2017). This process recognises the actions of the employees and in a manner motivates the other employees to perform out of their skin so that they could receive the same acceptance and recognition within the company. The process of motivation and engagement in the process looks into the components that are outside of the salary and the other advantages that are essential to the employees and aids to steer their engagement with the company and their motivation to perform effectively in the role that has been assigned to them. 

Critical Explanation

The assessment of the literature review states that the HR practices have a key role to play in the effective functioning and development of any organization. There are various aspects that are associated with the human resource practices which have been explained in the literature review. However, after the explanation of all the variables that are related to the human resource practices, there has been an observation that employee incentive and remuneration is one of the key variables that enhances the human resource practices and improves the work effectiveness of an organization. Training and development even has a key role to play but rise in the motivation and confidence of the employees indirectly has an influence on the prospective employees who would be joining the firm as they would feel that giving out the best results for the firm would be rewarded with the help of cashless and cash rewards. It is known that entities become employees for a firm in order to earn their living that can enhance their livelihood and therefore rewards and incentives play a key role in the rise in the level of motivation and confidence among the employees. It is even observed that the existing employees even bring in new employees through their reference as they feel that the company is ideal for new recruitments. Training and development given to the new and existing employees even uplifts their performance level and therefore it is the role of the human resource management to give equivalent focus on all the aspects so that the operations of the firm can function in an effective manner.         

Conclusion

The general theme in the concerned review of literature is that the factors of human resource management have an influence on the employee retention. It looks into the relationship with respect to a wider extent of identified variables and employee turnover and recognises the Human Resource practices that have an impact on the level of job satisfaction and the commitment of the firm, which in turn have an impact on the employee’s desire to stay in the firm.

Research Methodology

Introduction

This segment of the paper tries to analyse the various tools and mechanisms that are exploited in the paper so that extensive and authentic data can be collected that will be fundamental for the process of data analysis and discussion. This paper provides a path that would be followed by the researcher so that every step can be undertaken in an effective manner. The methodology has been framed with respect to the aims and objectives that have been discussed earlier.  Mackey and Gass (2015) have explained that a precise research can be attained by framing a process that would be systematic in nature. Taylor, Bogdan and DeVault (2015) explained that a proper paper is experiential of the real condition. By keeping these determinants behind, an effective research to be in such a way that the end result becomes similar to the objectives discussed earlier in this research.

There exists several restrictions in relation to the collection of the data and the time of the research and these factors have had an impact on the framing of the paper. Thus, an evaluation that is in-depth in nature has been hindered. The methodology has been constructed by taking help of the research onion within which the framework of the methodology has been explained (Glesne 2015).

The assessment of the paper has been constructed by evaluating the human resource practices that have been implemented by Intermart and understand the level of employee satisfaction that is seen within the employees of the company. The structure of research methodology comprises of the research design, method of outline, research philosophy, research approach, data collection and sampling process (Mukhopadhyay and Gupta 2014).

Research Onion

The research onion has a vital role to play so that authentic and new mechanisms can be utilised for every case. Furthermore, the use of the research onion provides effective end-result to the expert (Bakker et al. 2015). The research onion takes the assistance of the various layers and helps the researcher in gaining the answers that are significant.

Research Philosophy

There are three kinds of philosophies namely interpretism, realism and positivism. It has been observed that every one of them philosophies has their special features that make them unique (Savin-Baden and Major 2013). The use of the philosophies depends upon the topic that has been selected for analysis and selection of the precise philosophy leads to the attainment of the effective results (Brinkmann 2014). In accordance with this paper, it has been observed that the researcher has made use of the positivism philosophy leaving behind the other kinds as this philosophy would be useful for attaining the accurate and authentic results with regards to this topic.

Research Approach

The approach of the research refers to the method and the path that will be utilised for the completion of the paper. There exist two kinds of approaches namely deductive and inductive approach (McGivern 2013). With regards to this paper, it has been discovered that deductive approach has been undertaken so that as this approach helps undertakes the explanation of the data that have been collected providing a clear idea to the researcher about the research topic that has been taken into consideration (Silverman 2016). This approach would provide the results that are best appropriate for the completion of the paper.

Research Method

In the current research thesis, the researcher has utilised the primary data as it is seen that in order to understand the ways to improve the level of employee satisfaction in Intermart (Baedeker et al. 2014). The secondary data with respect to this topic can be attained but the data that would be gathered would be not be applicable for understanding the ways to improve the level of employee satisfaction in Intermart. In order to understand the ways that could motivate the employees it is essential to undertake surveys in order to gain knowledge of the fact that what the employees of Intermart desire from their organization.

Research Design

The research design refers to the style that has been implanted for the collection of the data with respect to this topic. There are generally three kinds of designs that are available to the researcher and they are descriptive research design, exploratory research design and explanatory research design. Like research philosophies and research approach, the design that would be implemented depends on the topic that has been undertaken by the expert (Vaioleti 2016). It has been observed that descriptive research design has been used in this paper as this is paper undertakes an in-depth analysis of the problem and the data that have been obtained (Farrokhyar et al. 2014). This research design aligns with the objectives of the research and the review of literature that have been discussed earlier in this paper.

Data Collection Method

It is essential to determine the method that have been utilised by the researcher with respect to the research problems and the research questions that have been explained earlier so that it aids the reader to understand the research paper in a precise manner. In this paper, primary data have been collected by taking help of the feedback that is received from the present employees who have worked or have been working in the organization (Sahu 2013). It has been observed that questionnaires have been framed in accordance to the research problems and the objectives of the research (Smith 2015). The questions that have been framed are close ended questions so that it would aid the respondents to give out their feedback precisely without any difficulty. The researcher has even undertaken various actions in order to maintain the secrecy of the personal information of the respondents and thereby motivating the respondents to answer independently.

The respondents have been forwarded the questionnaire in their personal email ids and have been asked to submit the questionnaire by answering the questions within one week from the date of receiving the mail. The data that have been gathered are evaluated with the electronic software thereby obtaining the percentage of the answers that have been obtained. This data that have been collected would aid the researcher to complete the research on time and gain the precise result (Gast and Ledford 2014). This paper in order to evaluate the data has taken help of SPSS software that would aid the researcher to gain various statistics and charts. In this paper, the researcher has chosen 162 respondents so that effective results can be attained. The researcher has chosen the respondents with the help of simple probability random sampling as this would randomly choose the respondents from the overall pool of employees who have been working or have worked in the firm. This paper with the help of these mechanisms would be able to gain the precise results that are essential to understand the process that could be implemented by Intermart in order to improve the level of employee satisfaction within the firm (King and Mackey 2016). This paper has made use of the positivism philosophy along with a deductive research approach and a descriptive research design as it would be deemed suitable for this paper.

Limitations of the data collection method

The researcher has observed that there are several limitations in accordance to the method of gathering of the primary data that has been exploited in this paper as the respondents in certain cases do not answer the actual answer that is related to the research topic. Additionally, the research has not taken help of the secondary data as the information that would be collected would not be adequate to give out the precise result. The limitation of time is another factor as the research has a deadline within which it has to be completed (van Hees et al. 2016). It is even seen that the feedback that has been provided by the respondents may not be accurate as they may hide certain values and answers that would be essential for this paper.

Ethical Consideration

The expert with respect to this paper has made use of the ethical components that are not replicable. The expert has tried to achieve an ethical research by focusing on the reliability, validity and the practicality of the obtained data by taking the assistance of data collection process (Žiki? 2016). The expert has ensured that the authenticity of the research is maintained and this paper remains plagiarised free. The ethical consideration even includes the binding of the potential benefits and reducing the potential threats and challenges that appears from the research (Neuman and Robson 2014). These considerations are managed by the researcher as they evaluate the data collected in a precise manner and tries to exploit the data in a suitable way so that the organizational sentiments and the source from which the data has been obtained has been maintained.

Data Analysis and Discussion

Introduction

This segment of the paper has been constructed by taking help of the data gathered from the respondents and then putting that data within the SPSS software in order to collect the in-depth analysis of the results that has been obtained from the analysis of the overall data. It is seen that various tests have been undertaken and the data has gone through numerous analysis in order to gain the final answer which is important for the completion of the paper in a precise manner. The various tests that have been undertaken is given below:

Reliability Testing

The reliability scale has been constructed in SPSS in a precise manner in order to construct the outcome of the questionnaire. This is done to understand its effectiveness of the questions made in relation to the responses achieved.

Reliability Statistics

Cronbach's Alpha

N of Items

.925

24

The reliability statistics is undertaken in order has an idea about the authenticity of the answers that has been provided by the respondents with the help of the questionnaire. The reliability test is done with the help of Cronbach’s Alpha score, which is helpful in determining the extent of consistency of the questions made for the dataset. The Cronbach Alpha is above 0.5, as it is comes around 0.925 explaining that if the test is repeated with same number of responses, the results achieved would be the same. As a result, the responses have not been biased. The consistency of measure is well defined as the internal consistencies between the items are correlated. Also, the results would be “acceptable” in most social science research situations.

Scale Statistics

Mean

Variance

Std. Deviation

N of Items

93.80247

168.482

12.980080

24

On the other hand, as per the scale statistics, the standard deviation of 24 items is 12.9 units which is comparatively less deviating from the mean as 93.8024 units. Hence, the results have been favourable and the questions have internal correlations being more than 0.45 which is equivalent to 0.5 and has positive correlation between inter related items (Appendix 2.1: Reliability Testing).

Normality Testing

This type of testing is performed with descriptive values, standard errors and also with mean and statistics. The test that is best suitable for this kind of testing is Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilk tests with basic independent variables as four independent variables as organizational culture, job involvement, training and development and also with rewards and recognitions. Here, box plots for independent variables are given below. The normal and de-trended normal plots have been given for all (Appendix 2.2: Normality Testing).

 

 

 

 

 

 

The normality for all the variables given and calculated using normal and de-trended plots have been aligned with the independent variables. The organizational culture on different categories of responses shows a common mean as 3. However, the same cannot be said for the responses achieved on category 5 of strongly agree. As per the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilk test, the result is not normally distributed across the sample.

The job involvement variable on different categories of responses shows a common mean as 3 to 3.5. However, the same cannot be said for the responses achieved on category 5 of strongly agree. As per the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilk test, the result is not normally distributed across the sample as per the response on category 2 has been omitted.

The categories of responses on training and development variable of responses shows a common mean as ranging from 3.5 to 4.3. As per the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilk test, the result is normally distributed across the sample omitting the category 1.

The rewards and recognitions show a common mean ranging from 2.3 to 4.7. However, the same cannot be said for the responses achieved on category 1 of strongly disagree. As per the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilk test, the result is normally distributed across the sample while omitting category 1.

Frequency Testing

The frequency table has been constructed for the questions that are in nature demographic and analysis of these questions with the help of pie charts would determine the over true gender, income, residential status etc. There are a total of 10 demographic questions that have been asked to the respondents and each and every one of them would be discussed individually in order to have a precise idea about the results obtained.

Gender

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Male

78

48.1

48.1

48.1

Female

84

51.9

51.9

100.0

Total

162

100.0

100.0

 

This question asks about the gender of the respondents who have been asked for the collection of the data for Intermart. It is seen that 51.9% of the respondents are female and on the other hand 48.1% are male. This represents that most of the respondents are female in this paper.

Age Group

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

18-24 years

72

44.4

44.4

44.4

25-34 years

54

33.3

33.3

77.8

35-44 years

22

13.6

13.6

91.4

24-54 years

8

4.9

4.9

96.3

55 years and above

6

3.7

3.7

100.0

Total

162

100.0

100.0

 

This question asks about the age group of the respondents and it is seen that 44.4% are within the age group of 18-24 years, while 33.3% are within the age group of 25-34 years. It is even seen that 13.6% of the respondents are within the age group of 35-44 tears. 4.9% of the respondents are within the age group of 44-54 tears and the rest of the respondents are of the age group of 55 years and above and the percentage amounts to 3.7%. this indicates that most of the respondents are young and teenagers and therefore the results that would be gathered would be precise in a manner.

Educational Status

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Below Secondary

31

19.1

19.1

19.1

Secondary

111

68.5

68.5

87.7

Bachelor's Degree

16

9.9

9.9

97.5

Master's Degree

3

1.9

1.9

99.4

Doctorate

1

.6

.6

100.0

Total

162

100.0

100.0

 

The next question in line discusses about the educational status of the respondents and by looking at the answers received it can be said that 68.5% of the respondents have secondary degree. 19.1% of the respondents are below the secondary level and 9.9% of them are Bachelor’s degree. Only a handful of 1.9% have Master’s Degree educational status,  and the rest of 0.6% are doctorates, which reveals that most of the employees who are associated with the firm are base level of educated and therefore the decisions with respect to the operations of the firm will be precise. 

Position in this Organization

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Management

16

9.9

9.9

9.9

Middle Level Staff

42

25.9

25.9

35.8

Junior Level Staff

104

64.2

64.2

100.0

Total

162

100.0

100.0

 

This question asks about the position which the respondents hold within the firm. It has been observed that 64.2% of the respondents are juniper level employees whereas 25.9% of the respondents are the middle level staff. It has even been observed that only a handful of 9.9% are employees working in the management level. This answer ensures that as large group of the respondents are from the junior level and hence their grievances and complains can be put forward in this paper effectively that would help the researcher to find out the answers that are essential for improving the human resource practices in Intermart.

Working in this Organization

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

1-2 years

77

47.5

47.5

47.5

3-4 years

44

27.2

27.2

74.7

5-6 years

26

16.0

16.0

90.7

7-8 years

5

3.1

3.1

93.8

8 years and above

10

6.2

6.2

100.0

Total

162

100.0

100.0

 

This question is related to the duration of time the respondents have been associated with the organization. The feedback that has been attained reveals that 47.5% of the respondents have been working in the firm for 1-2 years. It has been observed that 27.2% of the respondents have been working in the firm for 3-4 years. It is seen that 16% of the participants have been functioning in the firm for 5-6 years and only 6.2% of the respondents are functioning for 8 years and above. Only a handful of 3.1% of the respondents have been working in the firm for 7-8 years. Thus, it can be said that as large number of respondents have been working in firm for a short period of time and the answers they would provide would determine the primary requirements of the employees. The responses of the other responses would give out experienced answers that would be influential for the completion of the paper.

Are you a Citizen of Mauritius

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

No

3

1.9

1.9

1.9

Yes

159

98.1

98.1

100.0

Total

162

100.0

100.0

 

This question asks the respondents about whether they are the citizens or the non-citizens of Mauritius and it is seen that 98.1% are citizens of Mauritius and the rest of the respondents comprising of 1.9% are non-citizens of Mauritius.

Annual Income

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

MUR 5000- MUR 10,000

48

29.6

29.6

29.6

MUR 10,000- MUR 15,000

46

28.4

28.4

58.0

MUR 15,000- MUR 20,000

25

15.4

15.4

73.5

MUR 20,000 and above

43

26.5

26.5

100.0

Total

162

100.0

100.0

 

This question asks about the annual income of the respondents who have been considered for the survey. It is seen that 29.6% are within the income group of MUR 5000-MUR 10,000. It is seen that 28.4% of the respondents are within the income group of MUR 10,000-15,000. 26.5% of the respondents are within the income group of MUR 20,000 and above, the rest of the participants are within the income group of MUR 15,000-20,000 and the value comprises of 15.4%.  This reveals that the respondents are equivalently distributed among all the income groups.

Marital Status

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Single, never married

101

62.3

62.3

62.3

Married

45

27.8

27.8

90.1

Widowed

3

1.9

1.9

92.0

Divorced

13

8.0

8.0

100.0

Total

162

100.0

100.0

 

This question asks about the marital status of the respondents and it is seen that 62.3% of the respondents are single and are never married. It is seen that 27.8% of the respondents are married. 8% of the respondents are divorced and the rest of 1.9% is widowed. This reveals that most of the respondents are single and therefore they have less family pressure.

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