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Question:

Write an essay on The Human Body must include: Digestive System, Muscular System (include parts of the heart), Skeletal system, and Excretory System?

 

Answer:

Structural Units of Human Body

In unicellular organisms, all crucial processes take place in single cell. But in case human body systems, a particular cluster of cells are involved in a same work process. Different organ systems perform different types of function for e.g. cardiovascular system is involved in blood and nutrient transportation, respiratory systems involved in gas exchange, excretory systems execute waste product removal and msculo-skeletal system is involved in support system along with the locomotion etc (Ganong and Barrett, 2005).

Digestive System

Te gastrointestinal system is one of the vital body system by which food particles are digested as well as absorbed it e bloodstream.  Food particles like carbohydrates, proteins and fats are degraded by the activity of digestive enzymes ad absorbed into bloodstream by the activity of gastrointestinal system. The activity of digestive enzymes is influenced by bile secretion ad gastric acid secretion.

Muscular System

Muscle is generally classified into three types, skeletal, cardiac, and smooth. Skeletal muscles generally are voluntary in nature and also constitute the somato-motor activities in human body.

Cardiac muscles are quite different from skeletal muscles as it is involuntary in nature. It has cross-striations and also having auto-rhythmicity. Smooth muscles found in eyes and in other locations are not always active and it is involuntary in nature (Sembulingam and Sembulingam, 2012).

Cardiac muscle is innervated by autonomic nervous system (involuntary), which adjust force generation and frequency of heartbeat. Cardiomyocytes often branch are connected to each other by specialized cell junctions called intercalated discs.

Cardiovascular system is primarily regulated by pumping  activity of heart.  Cardiovascular system of human body consists of a muscular pump, the heart, and a system of tubes that carry blood to and from the heart. Cardiac muscles are innervated by autonomic nervous system (involuntary), which adjust force generation and frequency of heartbeat.

Cardiac muscles generate action potentials in a particular interval of time. It is generated by pacemaker cells.

 

Excretory System

Excretory system mainly comprising of two kidneys and its function generally is to remove waste particles from blood through the urine.

Kidney Functions

Blood vole is crucially controlled by kidney

Blood osmolarity ad electrolyte balance is regulated b kidneys.

Acid-base balance in bodyfluids are controlled by the kidney function

Purification of bloodad waste product removal is principal regulated by exctretory system

Skeletal System

Skeletal systems comprising of structural skeleton which are consist of different types of bones and cartilages (Stansfield and Cano, 2011). It supports the structural formation of the body. Individual bones or bone formations serve as levers that are moved by appropriately situated muscles. Contractions of specific muscles bring about movement of limbs or body parts. In conjunction with the muscular system, the skeletal system allows body movement. Skeletal system is partially involved in blood cell production and it is mediated by soft tissues lying within the bone and it is called bone marrow (Hall and Guyton, 2011).

 

Reference List

Ganong, W. F., and Barrett, K. E. (2005). Review of medical physiology (Vol. 21). ^ eNew York New York: McGraw-Hill Medical.

Sembulingam, K., and Sembulingam, P. (2012). Essentials of medical physiology. JP Medical Ltd

Stansfield, W. D., and Cano, R. (2011). SCHAUM'S EASY OUTLINES MOLECULAR AND CELL BIOLOGY. McGraw-Hill.

Hall, J. E., and Guyton, A. C. (2011). Textbook of medical physiology (pp. 924-937). London: Saunders

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