Discuss about the Study Notes for Nutrition and Exercise.
Animal housing is important (Young, 2013) and should meet all the qualifications that encourage behaviors such as:
Two important factors that determine how animals housing is designed include the environmental enrichment and size of the housing.
An ideal housing for rabbits is hutch. It should be large enough to provide running area. The hatch should also be raised from the ground to enhance aeration and prevent surface water absorption to the floor. The hutch should be located in a shady area and have a waterproof roof.
Guinea pig cage must not be higher since they do not climb or jump. However, the floor must be solid, soft, slip-free and free of dust to enhance proper sleeping. Towels, grass hay or torn papers are good materials for sleeping on. The raised caged should be in good condition to prevent the pigs from falling or their nails and feet from being caught between metal rungs.
Rats & Mice
Rats and mice housing requirements are similar. A wire cage is always recommended. Glass cages are discouraged due to poor ventilation. Wire cages promote exercise activities like climbing. Since mice and rats like playing, it is important to have a spacious cage that can accommodate wheels, ladder, lamps, and other toys. Also included is the sleeping and hiding places. Beddings can include aspen shavings or shredded papers.
Ferrets require bid space. A large outdoor and well ventilated cage is recommended plus a comfortable indoor sleeping area. Strong wire should also be used to construct the cage because ferrets can chew fine mesh wires. The cage’s floor can be made with concrete or wood to prevent digging.
psittacine birds are good at climbing. Therefore, they should be contained in a box type of a cage. The dimensions of the cage, however, should be large enough to allow maximum movement. Singing and perching tools can also be installed. The cage should also be kept clean to prevent excess dust, feathers and other dirt.
Some substrates can be used for some reptiles while others cannot. However, depending on the type of reptile, one can select the best type from the following: bark chips, bioactive substrates, beach wood, jungle substrates, hemp, soil, straw, sand, aspen shavings, clay, carpets and mats, and drainage substrates among others.
Fish - Tank Requirements
- A fish tank should primarily be sizeable to accommodate a certain number of fish.
- The tank should also have strong stands that support the weight of the tank.
- It should also have an operational filtration system.
- Plants and decorations to enhance aesthetic.
Pathogens are disease causing micro-organisms. Pathogens can be fungus, bacterium or virus.
Portals of Entry
Animals’ related portals of entry according to (Delahaye et al. 2016) include;
Personal hygiene is important in preventing zoonoses. Caring for the animals is the first step of preventing zoonoses. Personal hygiene includes wearing protective gear, vaccination, and handling animals and equipments with care.
?Antiseptics & Disinfectants
These are anti-infective and non-selective. They are either used for sanitization or sterilization. They are usually applied on surfaces/tissues to prevent or repress infections (Adel et.2015).
Principles of Disinfection
The following principles of disinfection should be observed (Rutala & Weber, 2013).
- the target microorganism
- ease of use
- safety uses
- environmental safety and services
- characteristics of a disinfectant
Disinfection is the process through which micro-organisms are destroyed. However, no all micro-organisms are killed because the process entails reduction of the micro-organism to levels which are not harmful.
Antiseptics are applied on the animal’s skin or tissue to prevent infection or sepsis.
There are a wide variety of cleaning equipments. Among the common ones are;
- sprayer kit
- poop scoop
- floor squeegees
- cleaning gloves
- cleaning brushes
- hose reel
- moose scoop
Maintenance of Cleaning Equipment
Cleaning equipments should always be sterilized, free from moisture, lubrication of equipment with movable parts, tightening of loose nuts and bolts, cleaning, emptying, dusting, and ensuring proper storage.
How to Groom Cats & Dogs
The grooming of Cats and dogs entail three vital activities (Jones, 2015). These are:
Brushing helps in removing dirt and removing the tangled hair. A metal, rubber or bristle comb is good for removing dead, loose or tangled hair. Bathing is necessary to prevent or deal with irritation. Mild shampoos can be used for bathing. Nail clipping also improves the animals’ hygiene.
Using Brushes and Combs
Brushes and combs are used to perform the same task. Essentially, they are mainly as deshedding tools. However, different types of brushes and combs are used on an animal depending on the type of coat.
Cleaning & Maintaining Clipping Equipment
High quality cut nail scissors are better for nail clipping. The scissors must however be kept sharp, sharp, clean, and disinfect before and after use.
Types of Shampoos (Bacon, 2016)
- no-rinse shampoos
- dry shampoos
- medicated shampoos
- deodorizing shampoos
Maintaining Brushes & Combs
It is always good to:
- Remove hairs in the brushes and combs
- Dry to prevent rust and
- Keep in safe places.
Adel, E. G., Mohamed, E. B., Mahmoud, A. E. H., Fatma, E. G., & Mona, M. E. D. (2015). In
vitro evaluation of commonly used disinfectants and antiseptics in veterinary practice against Brucella abortus. Annals of Veterinary and Animal Science, 2(4), 77-85.
Bacon, C. J. (2016). Cat Care: Nutrition, Exercise, Grooming, and More. Capstone.
Delahaye, F., M’Hammedi, A., Guerpillon, B., de Gevigney, G., Boibieux, A., Dauwalder, O. &
Vandenesch, F. (2016). Systematic search for present and potential portals of entry for infective endocarditis. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 67(2), 151-158.
Jones, D. T. (2015). U.S. Patent Application No. 14/961,746.
Rutala, W. A., & Weber, D. J. (2013). Current principles and practices; new research; and new
technologies in disinfection, sterilization, and antisepsis. American journal of infection control, 41(5), S1.
Young, R. J. (2013). Environmental enrichment for captive animals. John Wiley & Sons.